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shall be obtained'; we must fight'! I repeat it', sir, WE MUST FIGHT!! An appeal to arms and the God of Hosts', is all that is left' us.

6. They tell us, sir', that we are weak'; unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week', or the next year'? Will it be, when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by lying supinely on our backs', and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot'? Sir', we are not weak, if we make a proper use of those means', which the God of nature hath placed in our power.

7. Three millions of people', armed in the holy cause of liberty', and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, we shall not fight our battles-alone'. There is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations'; and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone; it is to the vigilant-the active-the brave'. Besides, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire' it, it is now too late to retire from the contest'. There is no' retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged'. Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston'! The war is inevitable; and let it come!! I repeat it, LET IT COME!!!!

8. It is in vain to extenuate the matter'. Gentlemen may cry peace', peace'; but there is no peace. The war is actually begun. The next gale that sweeps from the north', will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren' are already in the field! Why stand we-here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish'? What would they have? Is life so dear', or peace so sweet', as to be purchased at the price of chains' and slavery'? Forbid it Almighty God! I know not what course others' may take; but as for me'; give me liberty', or GIVE ME DEATH'.


REMARK. In the above extract, may be found an illustration of most of the principles of emphasis.

The most important emphatic words and pauses only are marked. On this point there is always room for difference of opinion. Scarcely any two persons would pronounce a sentence with precisely the same emphasis. Observe, in the above lesson the all-controlling power of emphasis in determining to the falling inflection. The words "see," "hear," and "my," in the first paragraph, the word "that" in the second, and "spurned" and "contempt" in the fourth paragraph, are examples of this. Let the reader remember that a high degree of emphasis is sometimes expressed by a whisper.



IN Broadstreet building, (on a winter night),
Snug by his parlor-fire, a gouty wight
Sat all alone, with one hand rubbing

His feet, rolled up in fleecy hose,
With t'other he'd beneath his nose

The Public Ledger, in whose columns grubbing,
He noted all the sales of hops`,

Ships, shops', and slops`;

Gum, galls', and groceries; ginger, gin,
Tar, tallow, turmeric, turpentine', and tin`;
When lo! a decent personage in black,
Entered and most politely said—

"Your footman, sir, has gone his nightly track
To the King's Head,

And left your door ajar, which I
Observed in passing by`;

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And thought it neighborly to give you notice."
Ten thousand thanks; how very few do get,

In time of danger,

Such kind attentions from a stranger!
Assuredly, that fellow's throat is

Doomed to a final drop at Newgate:

He knows, too, (the unconscionable elf),

That there's no soul at home except myself."
"Indeed," replied the stranger (looking grave),
"Then he's a double knave;

He knows that rogues and thieves by scores
Nightly beset unguarded doors`:
And see, how easily might one

Of these domestic foes,

Even beneath your very nose`,

Perform his knavish tricks;

Enter your room, as I have done,

Blow out your candles—thus—and thus,
Pocket your silver candlesticks`,

And-walk off ̈`—thus`”—

So said', so done; he made no more remark,
Nor waited for replies,

But marched off with his prize,

Leaving the gouty merchant in the dark.




1. I was unwilling to interrupt the course of this debate, while it was carried on with calmness and decency, by men who do not suffer the ardor of opposition to cloud their reason, or transport them to such expressions as the dignity of this assembly does not admit.

2. I have hitherto deferred answering the gentleman, who declaimed against the bill with such fluency and rhetoric, and such vehemence of gesture; who charged the advocates for the expedients now proposed, with having no regard to any interests but their own', and with making laws only to consume paper', and threatened them with the defection of their adherents, and the loss of their influence, upon this new discovery of their folly and ignorance. Nor, do I now answer him for any other purpose, than to remind him how little the clamor of rage' and petulancy of invective, contribute to the end for which this assembly is called together'; how little the discovery of truth is promoted, and the security of the nation established, by pompous diction and theatrical emotion.

3. Formidable sounds and furious declamation, confident assertions' and lofty periods', may affect the young and inexperienced'; and perhaps the gentleman may have contracted his habits of oratory, by conversing more with those of his own age, than with such as have more opportunities of acquiring knowledge, and more successful methods of communicating their sentiments. If the heat of temper would permit him to attend to those, whose age and long acquaintance with business give them an indisputable right to deference and superiority, he would learn in time to reason', rather than declaim'; and to prefer justness of argument and an accurate knowledge of facts', to sounding epithets and splendid superlatives, which may disturb the imagination for a moment, but leave no lasting impression upon the mind. He would learn, that to accuse' and prove' are very different'; and that reproaches, unsupported by evidence', affect only the character of

him that utters' them.

4. Excursions of fancy and flights of oratory', are indeed pardonable in young' men, but in no other'; and it would surely contribute more, even to the purpose for which some gentlemen appear to speak, (that of depreciating the conduct of the administration'), to prove the inconveniences and injustice of this bill', than barely to assert them, with whatever magnificence of language', or appear ance of zeal, honesty', or compassion'.




(Observe in this, examples of antithesis and relative emphasis.)

1. THE atrocious crime of being a young man, which the honorable gentleman has, with such spirit and decency, charged upon me, I shall neither attempt to palliate nor deny'; but content myself with hoping, that I may be one of those whose follies cease with their youth', and not of that number, who are ignorant in spite of experience. Whether youth' can be imputed to a man as a reproach', I will not assume the province of determining'; but surely age may become justly contemptible, if the opportunities which it brings have passed away without improvement, and vice' appears to prevail', when the passions' have subsided. The wretch', who, after having seen the consequences of a thousand errors, continues still to blunder', and whose age has only added obstinacy' to stupidity', is surely the object either of abhorrence or contempt, and deserves not that his gray hairs should secure him from insult. Much more is he' to be abhorred, who, as he has advanced'—in age', has receded—from virtue', and become more wicked — with less temptation; who prostitutes himself for money' which he can not enjoy', and spends the remains of his life, in the ruin of his country'.

2. But youth is not my only' crime; I am accused of acting a theatrical part. A theatrical part may either imply some peculiarity of gesture, or a dissimulation of my real sentiments', and an adoption of the opinions and language of another' man. In the first sense, the charge is too trifling to be confuted'; and deserves only to be mentioned, that it may be despised'. I'am at liberty, like every other' man, to use my own language; and though, perhaps, I may have some ambition to please this gentleman, I shall not lay myself under any restraint, nor very solicitously copy his diction' or his mien', however matured by age', or modeled by experience'.

3. But, if any man shall, by charging me with theatrical behavior, imply, that I utter any sentiments but my own', I shall treat him as a calumniator' and a villain'; nor shall any protection' shelter him from the treatment he deserves. I shall, on such an occasion, without scruple, trample' upon all those forms with which wealth and dignity intrench themselves, nor shall any thing but age' restrain my resentment'; age,-which always brings one' privilege, that of being insolent and supercilious', without punishment'.

4. But, with regard to those whom I have offended, I am of opinion, that if I had acted a borrowed part', I should have avoided' their censure: the heat that offended' them, was the ardor of conviction', and that zeal for the service of my country' which neither hope' nor fear shall influence me to suppress'. I will not sit unconcerned' while my liberty is invaded', nor look in silence' upon public robbery'. I will exert my endeavors, at whatever hazard', to repel the aggressor, and drag the thief to justice', whoever may protect him in his villanies, and whoever may partake of his plunder'.




1. THE secretary stood alone. Modern degeneracy had not reached' him. Original and unaccommodating', the features of his character had the hardihood of antiquity. His august mind' overawed majesty itself. No state chicanery', no narrow system of vicious politics', no idle contest for ministerial victories', sunk him to the vulgar level of the great'; but overbearing', persuasive', and impracticable', his object was England', his ambition was fame'.

2. Without dividing', he destroyed' party; without corrupting', he made a venal age unanimous. France sunk beneath him. With one hand he smote the house of Bourbon, and wielded in the other' the democracy of England. The sight of his mind was infinite'; and his schemes were to affect, not England', not the present' age only, but Europe' and posterity. Wonderful were the means by which these schemes were accomplished'; always seasonable, always adequate, the suggestions of an understanding animated by ardor', and enlightened by prophecy.

3. The ordinary feelings which make life amiable and indolent' were unknown' to him. No domestic difficulties, no domestic weakness' reached him; but aloof from the sordid occurrences of life, and unsullied by its intercourse, he came occasionally into our system, to counsel and decide. A character so exalted', so strenuous', so various', so authoritative', astonished' a corrupt age, and the treasury trembled at the name of Pitt, through all classes of venality. Corruption imagined, indeed, that she had found defects' in this statesman, and talked much of the inconsistency of his glory', and much of the ruin of his victories'; but the history of his country, and the calamities of the enemy, answered and refuted her.

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