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trable thatch ; split into narrow strips it gives him the material for weaving his floor-mats, and other articles of domestic convenience; its fibre furnishes him with twine, and its leaves provide him with paper, when he becomes sensible of the utility of such a material. Would he commit himself to the waves, the stems form the hull of his boat, which by a few skins stretched over it is rendered watertight; they also give him masts, and then slips of wood become cordage, or are woven into sails.” Even in more civilized countries, such as China, India, and Japan, they are applied to a great number of useful purposes. Water-pipes are often made of them; and they are used in the construction of fences, in building houses and boats, and in the manufacture of various articles of furniture. Short sections of the stems, cut so as to include the nodal partition, are employed for a great variety of useful purposes; the small ones serve as cups; and the large ones (which are sometimes more than a foot in diameter) for tubs and boxes.

741. The following table exhibits, in a simple form, the characters by which the foregoing orders may be distinguished from each other, and from other tribes of Endogens which have not been here noticed.

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I. FLOWERS COMPLETE. A. Ovary inferior. a, Veins of leaves diverging from the midrib. a, Anthers 2-celled. Stamens 3

.. .. .. Scitamineve
Stamens 6 .. .. .. Musacere
B, Anthers 1-celled .. .. .. Marantacece
b, Veins of leaves parallel with the midrib.

a, Flowers gynandrous .. .. Orchidece
B, Flowers not gynandrous.

Anthers turned outwards.. Iridacoe
Anthers turned inwards.

Stamens 6 .. .. .. Amaryllidece

Stamens more than 6 .. Hydrocharacece B. Ovary superior. a, Sepals resembling petals.

a, Flowers on a Spadix .. .. Palmacece
B, Flowers not on a Spadix.

Anthers turned inwards .. Liliacece

Anthers turned outwards .. Colchicacece
b, Sepals green or scaly.

a, Carpels separate . . . . . Alismaceve
B, Carpels consolidated .. .. Juncaceve

II. FLOWERS INCOMPLETE.
A. Flowers glumaceous.
a, Stems hollow

.. .. Graminece b, Stems solid

.. .. .. .. Cyperaceae B. Flowers naked, or with a few verticillate

scales.
a, Flowers on a Spadix.

a, Anthers on weak filaments .. Typhacece

B, Anthers sessile .. .. .. Araceae b, Flowers not on a Spadix.

a, Ovules pendulous .. .. .. Naiadece B, Ovules erect .. .. .. Lemnacece

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

Introductory Chapter.-General Principles of Classification.

Principles of Natural and Artificial Arrangements.-Linnæan
System.-De Candolle's System .. .. .. .. .. ..

296

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341

Order Ranunculaceæ, or Crow-foot Tribe,--Anemony, Hellebore,
Monkshood, &c. .. .. .. .. ..

331

.. .. - Magnoliaceæ, or Magnolia Tribe .. .. .. .. .. 338 - Anonaceæ, or Custard-Apple Tribe .. .. .. .. 340 Menispermaceæ, or Cocculus Tribe

340 Berberideæ, or Berberry Tribe .. ..

341 Nymphaceæ, or Water-Lily Tribe,–Victoria regalis, &c. .. Fumariaceæ, or Fumitory Tribe .. .. .. .. .. 343 Papaveraceæ, or Poppy Tribe,-Celandine, &c.—Opium .. 346 Cruciferæ, or Turnip Tribe,—Cabbage, Mustard, Stock,

Scurvy-grass, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 350 Cistaceæ, or Rock-Rose Tribe .. .

354 Violacex, or Violet Tribe — Pansy, &c. .. .. .. .. 356 Droseraceæ, or Sun-dew Tribe .. .. ..

357 Caryophylleæ, or Chick-weed Tribe, - Pink, Carnation,

Ragged-Robin, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Linaceæ, or Flax Tribe .. .. .. .. .. 360 -- Malvaceæ, or Mallow Tribe Cotton .. .. .. .. 364 Bombaceæ, or Silk-Cotton Tribe, --Baobab

368

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CONTENTS.

PAGE,

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Order Bromaceæ, or Cacao Tribe .. .. .. .. .. .. 370

- Tiliaceae, or Linden Tribe,-Lime .. .. .. .. 372
- Dipterocarpeæ, or Camphor-tree Tribe .. .. .. .. 374

Camelliaceæ, or Camellia Tribe,—Tea .. ..
Aurantiaceæ, or Orange Tribe, Lemon, Shaddock, &c. '..
Ampelideæ, or Grape Tribe, -Virginian Creeper, Zante

Currant, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...
Geraniaceæ, or Geranium Tribe, -Cranesbill, Herb-Robert 387

Tropæoleæ, or Sturtion Tribe ..
- Balsaminexe, or Balsam Tribe .. .. .. .. .. 391
Oxalideæ, or Wood-Sorrel Tribe . .

392
- Rutaceæ, or Rue Tribe,-Fraxinella .. .. .. .. 393
Analytical Table .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 396

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Sub-Class II. CALICIFLOR.E.

403

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Order Celastrineæ, or Holly Tribe - Brazilian Tea, Spindle-tree 398

Rhamneæ, or Buckthorn Tribe, Jujube, Lotus .. .. 399
Terebintaceæ, or Terebinth Tribe, Cashew-nut, Mango,

Gum Mastic .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Leguminose, or Pea Tribe, -Beans, Clover, Senna, Tama-

rind, Mimosa, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Rosacee, or Rose Tribe, - Apple, Strawberry, Raspberry,

Almond, Medlar, &c. .. .. .. .. .. ..
- Rhizophorex, or Mangrove Tribe .. .. .. .. ..

Onagrariacee, or Evening-Primrose Tribe,–Willow-Herb,

Fuchsia, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 413
Myrtaceæ, or Myrtle Tribe, -Clove, Pomegranate, &c .. 414
Cucurbitacee, or Goxrd Tribe, -Melon, Cucumber, Cala-

bash, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 416
Passiflorex, or Passion-flower Tribe,-Grenadilla, &c. .. .418
Crassulaceæ, or Houseleek Tribe, Sedum, &c. .. .. 421
Cacteze, or Prickly-Pear Tribe,- Indian Fig, Night-flowering

Cereus, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... 422
Grossulariæ, or Gooseberry Tribe,-Currant, &c. .. ...
Saxifragez, or Sarifrage Tribe, -London Pride, Hydran-

ges, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Umbelliferæ, or Umbelliferous Plants-Carrot, Parsnep,

Celery, Hemlock, Parsley, &e. .. .. .. .. ..
- Loranthacez, or Musselive Tribe .. .. .. .. ..

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