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nest, and directs all of the same species to work after the same model?
4. It cannot be imitation; for though you hatch a crow under a hen, and never let it see any of the works of its own kind, the nest it makes will be the same, to the laying of a stick, with all the nests of the same species. It cannot be reason; for were* animals endued with it to as great a degree as man, their buildings would be as different as ours, as their conveniences might require.
5. It is not remarkable that the same temperature of weather, which raises this general warmth in animals, should cover the trees with leaves and the fields with grass for their security and concealment, and produce such infinite swarms of such creatures as are† the support and sustenance of others.
6. But, notwithstanding that natural love in brutes is much more violent than in rational creatures, providence has taken care, that it should be no longer troublesome to the parents than it is useful to the young; for, so soon as the wants of the latter cease, the mother withdraws her fondness, and leaves them to provide for themselves.
7. And, what is a very remarkable circumstance, we find that the love of the parent may be lengthened out beyond its usual time, if the preservation of the species requires it; as we may see in birds, who drive away their young as soon as they are able to get their livelihood, but continue to feed them if they are tied to the nest, or confined within a cage.
8. This natural love is not observed in animals to ascend
from the young to the parent, which is not at all necessary for the continuance of the species. Take a brute out of his instinct, and you find him wholly deprived of understanding. We will give an instance which comes under the observation of every one, and will show the distinction between reason and instinct.
9. With what caution does the hen provide herself a nest in places free from noise and disturbance! When she has laid her eggs in such a manner that she can cover them, what care does she take in turning them frequently, that all parts may partake of the vital warmth!
10. When she leaves them, to provide for her necessary sustenance, how punctually does she return before they' have time to cool, and become incapable of producing an animal! In the summer, you see her giving herself greater freedoms, and quitting her care for above two hours together; but in winter, when the cold would chill the principle of life, she is more constant in her attendance, and stays away but half the time.
11. When the birth approaches, with how much nicety and attention does she help the chick to break its prison! How does she cover it from the weather, provide it proper nourishment, and teach it to help itself, not to mention her forsaking the nest, if, after the usual time of sitting, the young one does not make its appearance!
12. But, at the same time, the hen, with all this seeming ingenuity, is, considered in other respects, without the least glimmerings of thought or common sense. She mistakes a piece of chalk for an egg, and sits upon it in the same manner; and she is insensible of any increase or diminution in the number of those she lays. `
13. She even does not distinguish between her own and those of another species; and, when the birth of ever so different a bird appears, she will cherish it as her own. In all these circumstances, which do not carry an immediate regard to the subsistence of herself or her species, she is a very idiot.
14. There is not, in my opinion, any thing more mysterious in nature than this instinct in animals, which thus rises above reason, and falls very far short of it. It cannot be accounted for by any properties in matter, and, at the same time, works after so odd a manner, that one cannot think it the faculty of an intellectual being.
15. For my own part, I look upon it as upon the principle of gravitation in bodies, which is not to be explained by any known qualities inherent in the bodies themselves, nor by any laws of mechanism, but, according to the best notions of the greatest philosophers, is an immediate impression from the first Mover, and the divine energy acting in the
INGENIOUS VILLANY FINALLY PUNISHED.
A STRANGER, well mounted, and attended by a servant in rich livery, entered a market town in Somersetshire, where the court was then sitting, and, having put up at one of the principal inns, inquired of the landlord as to the curiosities and amusements of the place.
2. The landlord, who was extremely well qualified to answer these inquiries, answered, with a low bow, that there was no want of entertainment, as the players were in town, and the court sitting, accompanying his remarks with a recommendation that the gentleman should by all means go to hear the trial that morning, as a highwayman was to be brought up.
3. The stranger made some objection to this invitation, upon the ground of his being unknown, and the little chance he stood of being properly accommodated. This difficulty was, however, removed by the landlord's assuring him that a gentleman of his appearance would be readily admitted.
4. Indeed, to make it more certain, he attended him to the court-house, and represented him in such a way to his friends, the constables, that he obtained a seat at a little distance from the judge. The appearance of the stranger, who was of elegant person and polished manners, arrested for a moment the attention of the court.
5. The witnesses were not numerous, and the evidence was only circumstantial; but, although no person saw the atrocious murder and robbery committed, yet the circumstances which fixed the guilt upon the prisoner were very numerous, and his being unable to give any satisfactory account of himself increased the suspicion. The judge, then, for the last time, asked the prisoner if he had any thing to say in his defence.
6. The poor culprit assured the judge that he was not guilty of the robbery, and there were people, if he had time to find them, who could prove that, at the time it was committed, he was in another part of the country. At this
moment, the poor wretch happened to catch sight of the stranger, and fell backwards on the floor.
7. He was, however, with some difficulty recovered, when the judge humanely inquired into the cause of his extravagant behaviour. The poor wretch exclaimed, with tears in his eyes, O my lord, how providential! for that gentleman, on your left hand, can prove I was not present when the robbery was done.
8. Pray, sir, said the judge, addressing the stranger, do you know any thing of this man? Upon this, the traveller surveyed the criminal with the most scrupulous attention, and then said, I am very sorry to assure your lordship that I do not know the prisoner. I thought as much, replied the judge; it is mere trifling with justice.
9. The prisoner, however, still insisted that the stranger knew him, and the stranger again as positively denied the assertion, till the judge, displeased at the criminal's presumption, was about to receive the verdict of the jury. The poor culprit on his knees entreated permission to say one word.
10. Indeed, my lord, cried he, the gentleman does know me, although he may have forgotten my person. Only give me leave to ask him three questions, and it will save my life. The judge humanely consented, and the curiosity of all the spectators was strongly excited.
11. Pray, sir, said the prisoner, addressing the stranger, did not you land at Dover about three months since? I believe I might, replied the gentleman. And pray, sir, do you not recollect that a man, in a sailor's jacket, carried your trunk from the beach to the tavern? I cannot say that I remember it, returned the stranger, but it might possibly
12. At these words, the prisoner, not disheartened at the difficulties he had met with, pulled off his wig, and again interrogated the stranger. Do you not remember, sir, that the man who carried your trunk on that day showed you a scar he had got on his head, in fighting for his king and country? This is the same scar; look at it.
13. The stranger was astonished. I do, indeed, perfectly remember the circumstance, said he, and have every reason to believe this to be the man, although I had forgot
ten his face; but, my lord, added the stranger, I can determine the question to a certainty, for I have a memorandum of the day I arrived at Dover from Calais.
14. The date was compared with the day mentioned in the indictment, and found to be the same. The whole court felt the impression, and joy was visible in every face; when, after swearing and examining the gentleman as to his name and place of abode, the foreman of the jury pronounced the verdict of not guilty.
15. A few evenings only had elapsed, when the prisoner, the stranger, and his livery servant, were all taken up on the road, in their original capacities of experienced highwaymen; and, the circumstances of the above imposition being recollected, they were easily convicted, and all three executed together.
THE CHILD Trained up for THE GALLOWS.
Is any father so unnatural as to wish to have his son hanged, let him bring him up in idleness, and without puting him to any trade. Let him particularly inure him to spend the Lord's day in play and diversion, instead of attending on public worship; and, instead of instructing him, on that day, in the principles of the Christian religion, let him rob a neighbouring hen-roost, while the proprietor of it is gone to divine service.
2. Astonishing it is to see so many of our young people growing up without being apprenticed to any business for procuring their future livelihood! The Jews had a proverb, "That whoever was not bred to a trade, was bred for the gallows." Every Mussulman is commanded by the Koran to learn some handicraft or other; and to this precept even the family of the Grand Seignior so far conform, as to learn so much about the mech'anism of a watch, as to be able to take it in pieces, and to put it together again.
3. Are Christians the only people in the world who are to live in idleness, when one of the injunctions of the decalogue is, to labour six days in the week? and an inspired