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This group of dusky children of the captivity is copied out of a little sketch-book which I carried in many a roundabout journcy, and will point a moral as well as any other sketch in the volume. Yonder drawing was made in a country where there was such hospitality, friendship, kindness shown to the humble designer, that his eyes do not care to look out for faults, or his pen to note them. How they sang ; how they laughed and grinned; how they scraped, bowed, and complimented you and each other, those negroes of the cities of the Southern parts of the then United States ! My business kept me in the towns; I was but in one negro-plantation village, and there were only women and little children, the men being out a-field. But there was plenty of cheerfulness in the huts, under the great treesI speak of what I saw—and amidst the dusky bondsmen of the cities. I witnessed a curious gayety ; heard amongst the black folk endless singing, shouting, and laughter; and saw on holidays black gentlemen and ladies arrayed in such splendor and comfort as freeborn workmen in our towns seldom exhibit. What a grin and bow that dark gentleman performed, who was the porter at the colonel's, when he said, “You write your name, mas’r, else I will forgot.” I am not going into the slavery question, I am not an advocate for “the institution,” as I know, madam, by that angry toss of your head, you are about to declare me to be. For domestic purposes, my dear lady, it seemed to me about the dearest institution that can be devised. In a house in a Southern city you will find fifteen negroes doing the work which John, the cook, the housemaid, and the help, do perfectly in your own comfortable London house. And these friteen negroes are the pick of a family of some eighty or ninety. Twenty are too sick, or too old for work, let us say ; twenty too clumsy ; twenty are too young, and have to be nursed and watched by ten more.
And master has to maintain the immense crew to do the work of half a dozen willing hands. No, no; let Mitchell, the exile from poor dear enslaved Ireland, wish for a gang of “fat niggers ;" I would as soon you should make me a present of a score of Bengal elephants, when I need but a single stout horse to pull my brougham.
How hospitable they were, those Southern men! In the North itself the welcome was not kinder, as I, who have eaten Northern and Southern salt, can testify. As for New Orleans, in spring-time,-just when the orchards were flushing over with peach-blossoms, and the sweet herbs came to flavor the juleps -it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least. At Bordeaux itself, claret is not better to drink than at New Orleans. It was all goodbelieve an expert Robert-from the half-dollar Médoc of the public hotel table, to the private gentleman's choicest wine. Claret is, somehow, good in that gifted place at dinner, at supper, and at breakfast in the morning. It is good : it is superabundant--and there is nothing to pay. Find me speaking ill of such a country! When I do, pone me pigris campis: smother me in a desert, or let Mississippi or Garonne drown me! At that comfortable tavern on Pontchartrain we had a bouillabaisse than which a better was never eaten at Marseilles ; and not the least headache in the morning, I give you my word ; on the contrary, you only wake with a sweet refreshing thirst for claret and water. They say there is fever there in the autumn: but
* This was an account given by a gentleman at Richmond of his establishment. European servants would have kept his house and stables well. “ His farm," he said, "barely sufficed to maintain the negroes residing on it.”
not in the spring-time, when the peach-blossoms blush over the orchards, and the sweet herbs come to flavor the juleps.
I was bound from New Orleans to Saint Louis ; and our walk was constantly on the Levee, whence we could see hundred of those huge white Mississippi steamers at their moorings in the river : “Look," said my friend Lochlomond to me, as we stood one day on the quay—“look at that post! Look at that coffee-house behind it! Sir, last year a steamer blew up in the river yonder, just where you see those men pulling off in the boat. By that post where you are standing a mule was cut in two by a fragment of the burst machinery, and a bit of the chimney-stove in that first-floor window of the coffee-house, killed a negro who was cleaning knives in the top-room !” I looked at the post, at the coffee-house window, at the steamer in which I was going to embark, at my friend, with a pleasing interest not divested of melancholy. Yesterday, it was the mule, thinks I, who was cut in two : it may be cras mihi. Why, in the same little sketchbook, there is a drawing of an Alabama river steamer which blew up on the very next voyage after that in which your humble servant was on board ! Had I but waited another week, I might have. * * * These incidents give a queer zest to the voyage down the life-stream in America. When our huge, tall, white, pasteboard castle of a steamer began to work up stream, every limb in her creaked, and groaned, and quivered, so that you might fancy she would burst right off. Would she hold together, or would she split into ten million of shivers ? O my home and children! Would your humble servant's body be cut in two across yonder chain on the Levee, or be precipitated into yonder first floor, so as to damage the chest of a black man cleaning boots at the window? The black man is safe for me, thank goodness. But you see the little accident might have happened. It has happened, and if to a mule, why not to a more docile animal? On our journey up the Mississippi, I give you my honor we were on fire three times, and burned our cook-room down. The deck at night was a great firework—the chimney spouted myriads of stars which fell blackening on our garments, sparkling on the deck, or gleaming into the mighty stream through which we labored —the mighty yellow stream with all its snags.
How I kept up my courage through these dangers shall now be narrated. The excellent landlord of the “ Saint Charles Hotel,” when I was going away, begged me to accept two bottles of the very finest Cognac, with his compliments; and I found them in my state-room with my luggage. Lochlomond
came to see me off, and as he squeezed my hand at parting. • Roundabout,” says he, the wine mayn't be very good on board, so I have brought a dozen-case of the Médoc which you liked : " and we grasped together the hands of friendship and farewell. Whose boat is this pulling up to the ship? It is our friend Glenlivat, who gave us the dinner on Lake Pontchartrain. Roundabout,” says he, we have tried to do what we could for you, my boy ; and it has been done de bon cæur” (I detect a kind tremulousness in the good fellow's voice as he speaks). “ I say—hem!—the a—the wine isn't too good on board, so I've brought you a dozen of Médoc for your voyage, you know. And God bless you ; and when I come to London in May I shall come and see you. Hallo ! here's Johnson come to see you off, too !”
As I am a miserable sinner, when Johnson grasped my hand, he said, “ Mr. Roundabout, you can't be sure of the wine on board these steamers, so I thought I would bring you a little case of that light claret which you liked at my house." Et de trois ! No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me! Where are you, honest friends, who gave me of your kindness and
your cheer? May I be considerably boiled, blown up, and snagged, if I speak hard words of you. May claret turn sour ere I do!
Mounting the stream it chanced that we had very few passengers. How far the famous city of Memphis from New Orleans? I do not mean the Egyptian Memphis, but the American Memphis, from which to the American Cairo we slowly toiled up the river—to the American Cairo at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. And at Cairo we parted company from the boat, and from some famous and gifted fellow-passengers who joined us at Memphis, and whose pictures we had seen in many cities of the South. I do not give the names of these remarkable people, unless, by some wondrous chance, inventing a name I should light upon that real one which some of them bore; but if you please I will say that our fellow-1
passengers whom we took in at Memphis were no less personages than the Vermont Giant and the famous Bearded Lady of Kentucky and her son. Their pictures I had seen in many cities through which I travelled with my own little performance. I think the Vermont Giant was a trifle taller in his pictures than he was in life (being represented in the former as, at least, some two storeys high): but the lady's prodigious beard received no more than justice at the hands of the painter ; that portion of it which I saw being really most
black, rich, and curly-I say the portion of beard, for this modest or prudent woman kept I don't know how much of the beard covered up with a red handkerchief, from which I suppose it only emerged when she went to bed, or when she exhibited it professionally.
The Giant, I must think, was an overrated giant. I have known gentlemen, not in the profession, better mage, and I should say taller, than the Vermont gentleman. A strange feeling I used to have at meals ; when, on looking round our little society, I saw the Giant, the Bearded Lady of Kentucky, the little Bearded Boy of three years old, the Captain, (this I think; but at this distance of time I would not like to make the statement on affidavit,) and the three other passengers, all with their knives in their mouths making play at the dinner-a strange feeling I say it was, and as though I was in a castle of ogres. But, after all, why so squeamish ? A few scores of years back, the finest gentlemen and ladies of Europe did the like. Belinda ate with her knife ; and Saccharissa had only that weapon, or a two-pronged fork, or a spoon, for her pease. Have you ever looked at Gilray's print of the Prince of Wales, a languid voluptuary, retiring after his meal, and noted the toothpick which he uses ? * * * You are right, madam; I own that the subject is revolting and terrible. I will not pursue it. Only-allow that a gentleman, in a shaky steamboat, on a dangerous river, in a far-off country, which caught fire three times during the voyage-(of course I mean the steamboat, not the country,—seeing a giart, a voracious supercargo, a bearded lady, and a little boy, not three years of age, with a chin already quite black and curly, all plying their victuals down their throats with their knives--allow, madam, that in such a company a man had a right to feel a little nervous. I dont't know whether you have ever remarked the Indian jugglers swallowing their knives, or seen, as I have, a whole table of people performing the same trick, but if you look at their eyes when they do it, I assure you there is a roll in them which is dreadful.
Apart from this usage, which they practise in common with many thousand most estimable citizens, the Vermont gentleman, and the Kentucky whiskered lady—or did I say the reverse ?-whichever you like, my dear sir—were quite quiet, modest, unassuming people. She sat working with her needle, if I remember right. He, I suppose, slept in the great cabin, which was seventy feet long at the least, nor, I am bound to say, did I hear in the night any snores or roars, such as you