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pounds of cured coffee per day. I have found women to be more expert pickers than men.
When there is a sufficiency of coffee in the hopper the mill is put in operation and the berries are separated from the hulls or skins ; this operation is easily effected by passing the coffee between a heavy cylinder covered with roughened copper, or other metal, on which a stream of water is kept continually running, and a bar of wood, lined with metal, wedges so close to the cylinder as just to admit the berries, which being thus subjected to a heavy pressure are deprived of their hull, the greater part of which is carried by the roughened surface of the roller between itself and another bar of wood set so close to it as not to admit the berries which now appear in their parchment covering, which latter is enveloped in a sort of gummy mucilage. The broken bulls are thus discharged at one end of the mill while the coffee falls on a sieve which is set in motion with the rest of the machinery and thus separated from the few hulls that escape being carried away between the cylinder and second crossbar. No coffee should be kept in the hull longer than one night, for if kept any length of time the hull becomes tough and leathery and exceedingly difficult to be removed.
The coffee is next soaked in water for twenty four hours for the purpose of removing the gummy matter in which it is enveloped ; two water-tight stone tanks, each sufficiently large to contain a day's grinding or pulping will be found sufficient for this purpose. I should recommend them to be built about eight feet square, three feet deep and with a shelving bottom. After the soaking it is to be repeatedly washed to render it perfectly clean, it is then thinly spread on the terraces to dry, these should be built gradually sloping from the centres to the sides, to allow the moisture to drain off, they should also be furnished with water-tight receptacles in their centres in which the partially dry coffee is thrown in the event of a shower and at night. The surface of the terraces is made even either by being flagged with stone slabs, or covered with cement; care should be taken at the commencement of the crop that they are in good order, for if not the coffee will be broken and of bad quality. The roofs of the drying and storehouses should also be carefully looked after and all leaks stopped.
The coffee in its partially dry state should never be heaped up, or
it would heat and spoil, but when sufficiently dry to be housed, it should be spread out a few inches thick on flat forms, and even here it should be continually stirred over until its turn arrives to be subjected to the parchinenting or peeling operation. It will generally be fit to be housed after the third day's drying, provided the weather is uninterruptedly fine ; the grain has by this time considerably shrunk within its parchment covering, and instead of completely filling it as it did at the time of peeling, it is upon being shaken heard to rattle inside. It sometimes happens during crop that a succession of rainy weather sets in, during this time the operations in the mill-house must, to a certain extent be interrupted ; no drying can of course go on, and the accumulation of coffee on the terraces will be very great ; in wet seasons it must sometimes lie exposed for a period of five or six weeks; during the whole of this time it should be thoroughly turned over and stirred two or three times each day to prevent it from growing. The clothing of the pickers should be attended to at these seasons, and as on merely showery days the picking can not be stopped, in places where labor is cheap I think the coffee grower would find it to his interest to distribute coarse woolen shirts among them gratis.
After the fifth or sixth day's exposure to the sun and wind, the parchment will be found quite dry and friable, and the coffee will be fit for the mill, if upon a few berries being rubbed between the hands the parchment is easily broken ; it cannot be too dry; in this state it is passed under a heavy grooved wooden roller which is made to resolve in a trough also grooved ; by this means the parchment is broken, and a thin pellicle or membrane within the parchment, called the silver skin, is removed. There is another method which is very effectual, but which requires rather more time to remove these two coverings by a machine called a peeling mill; this is a sort of drum the circumference and ends of which are made of roughened sheet-iron : it is made to revolve rather slowly on its axis ; on the same axis are four fanners ôr beaters also made of roughened sheet-iron, and which revolve inside the drum with great celerity : a quantity of coffee is put inside, the machine is set in motion and in a few minutes the coffee is turned out beautifully cleaned—it is then winnowed, packed, and sent to market.
In divesting coffee of the parchment and silver skin I make use of
both these machines, the roller first and the drum afterwards with very good effect ; in this manner the coffee does not require to be kept so long in the drum as it would do were it not first passed under the roller. Two men with two horses or mules may in this manner easily prepare twelve hundred pounds of merchantable coffee per day.
In some parts of Arabia the coffee is not subjected to any process of preparation for market for a considerable period, but when brought in from the field is dried on mats, it is then spread out in thin layers in buildings open to the atmosphere, where it remains, being continually stirred and turned over for a twelvemonth before the coverings are removed. There is no doubt that coffee prepared in this inaoner retains a much greater aroma and richer flavor than that prepared in the manner I have above described, but it would be quite inexpedient, if not impossible for us to adopt the same plan.
In some parts of the East also an infusion is made and sold in the markets, of the hulls of the berry as they come from the mill, but the refined palate of the European or American would not approve of this insipid beverage ; the only use inade of the hulls with us is for the purpose of manure, and there is no doubt that all the refuse of the mill-house returned to the field is of essential service ; a small portion both of the hulls and parchment chaff should be appropriated to, and buried at the roots of each tree.
It is a matter of some consequence to determine what is the best and cheapest method of packing the produce. I have hitherto employed bags inade of the rushes that are found in abundance about the low lands for that purpose, but it seems that the increasing scarcity of labor will, ere long, compel us to have recourse to imported materials for our packages.
Coffee should not be stored near tobacco, spice, or any commodity of pungency or strong scent, for however good the packages may be, it will always in such a situation, to a certain extent become tinctured with another article's to the injury of its own flavor.
The method of preparing the infusion for the table is too well known to need a description of the process from me, the only directions that I consider necessary to give for the obtaining of this delicious beverage in perfection are, first :-To roast the coffee till it becomes of a uniform chocolate color without its being at all charred, as it is in this
state that its aromatic and refreshing qualities seem to be most fully developed ; and second : That a sufficiency of the ground coffee be used in insusing ; the proportion of two ounces of coffee to a pint of water will afford a beverage at once delicious in flavor and exhilarating in its effects, and against which the objections that are made to the use of fermented or alcoholic drinks cannot reasonably be urged.
REPORT ON SHEEP.
BY GEORGE S. KENWAY.
In considering the subject of raising sheep on these islands the first qustion that naturally presents itself is,-to what extent is this country adapted for the purpose ? Experiments hitherto have been on so small a scale and pursued by parties, who, generally speaking were unacquainted with the shepherd's art, that we are scarcely yet in a position to answer the question.
That many portions of the islands are well calculated for sheep lands is however beyond doubt, and we need only trace from their origia the history of some of the few small flocks already scattered about the hills and plains of Hawaii to be satisfied of this. Lest pretty nearly to their own guidance, scarcely even watched by their inexperienced tenders, suffered to roam at large day and night, or at night huddled together in a close, dirty, unsheltered fold, sheared, after a fashion, once in three or four years and sometimes not at all; lambs and rams and ewes, hairy sheep, and woolly sheep and perchance goats and animals that might be taken for either, all running together, chased by dogs, torn by bushes, smothered in mud and lambing from January to December, they have still thriven and increased, supplied Honolulu with a trifle of excellent mutton, filled many bags with very miscellaneous wool, started some new ideas among lately arrived colony ” folks, and they still look brisk and hearty and open to any reasonable amount of civilization.
First, then, where are the lands best adapted for experiments on a larger scale ? the best sheep lands? They are just those lands scarcely fit for any other purpose, the dry hill sides and plains on the lee, where grass is short and scant but sweet, and water scarce, where the dry soil preserves a healthy foot and the poverty of the pasture requires the animals to travel. The outer plain of Waimea, extending to the base of Mauna Kea and sloping towards the sea, a hitherto unused and useless tract, comprising at the least an area of 30 square miles, is a fine example, and on this land alone, (which of the kind is probably the largest on the islands,) a profitable and interesting population might be brought to exist, break the present dismal silence and redeem the idle wilderness.
But sheep to be profitable must be well cared for, and very artificially treated. They require more constant attention than any other domesticated animals, and such attention cannot be expected from the natives until they are first shown its good effects and profitable consequence. In this country, so far as experience has yet proved, sheep are peculiarly fortunate, being subject to none of those distressing and often fatal diseases so familiar to shepherds from the older countries. And if this natural health can be preserved, (though whether it is a characteristic of the climate or merely owing to the small size of our present flocks remains to be proved,) a most important and disagreeable item of labor, will be saved. Still very much is required, and above every thing system. The following suggestions may be worth attention :
1st. The pens or folds now used here are stationary, and must be unclean, injuring the feet and greatly damaging the wool. Moveable folds are preferable, constructed of light close hurldles which may easily be shifted. Thus the flock will always have a clean sweet and generally dry resting-place at night.
2nd. The rams here are allowed to run with the flocks, and there is no lambing season. The Ewes are dropping lambs all the year round and as fresh dropped lambs cannot follow the flock, they are left behind, either alone or with their mothers, and frequently lost. The rams should be kept apart and only visit the ewes at a certain season. The shepherd would know when to expect the lambs and make suitable preparations, keeping the young lambs with their mothers in a separ