« AnteriorContinuar »
ate enclosure and giving that attention to the whole for a short period, which otherwise is required from him all the year round. This plan also preserves a greater uniformity in the flock, so that both sheep and wool may be distinctly classified.
3d. Cutting the male lambs. This should be done within a month or six weeks from birth, and by having a lambing season this also would be the work of a particular season only, and the shepherd could be certain that his work was effectual.
In catching sheep, which is frequently necessary whilst the flock is grazing, a native would use a lasso or run his victim down, either way harassing the sheep and making at least but a bungling job of it This seems a trifling matter, but as the shepherd should be on the best possible terms with his flock he should do all things quietly, and a shepherd's crook is better than either lasso or long legs, and a shepherd should never be without one.
4th. Shearing.-Let it be done yearly of course. And we cannot do better than receive instructions from some of the Australian shepherds, who have lately wandered hither, as to the manner of conducting the operation, and the washing which should precede it.
5th. Protection from Dogs.–Vigilance is the best security. Wild dogs are doubtless troublesome, and now and then destructive, but could the truth be known, a more insignificant pack of native pets, whose beauty and utility are about on a par, would prove oftentimes to be the real delinquents.
And now as to the best breed of sheep, there will of course be divers opinions. But every body will allow that what we most require are sheep that will yield fine wool and good mutton, and can easily be taken to market. The Merino sheep combine these qualities, their wool is amongst the finest in the world, and sustains its character in a hot climate. Their mutton is sweet and good, they fatten readily and their carcasses are not unwieldy. We have half and quarter breed merinos here already, the produce of some pure merino rams imported by Mr. French some years ago, but the breed is fast degenerating. Pure merino rams and ewes can be imported from Sydney or Port Philip, where the rams can be bought for $15 to $25 each and the ewes for much less. In importing sheep, especial care must be taken that they be strict
ly scrutinized by some competent person on their arrival, that no dis. ease be imported with them, and it would be the safest plan even should such sheep appear in perfect health, to keep them alone for a time, that any lurking fault might be detected ere harm is done.
That the foregoing suggestions may be better received I should explain that they are written down after many conversations on the subject with a thoroughly practical man, a Scotchman from the highlands, one who has tramped over the heather, with his bleating flocks since he was a boy—who has known the joy of health and summer sunshine on the mountain tops, smarted for years in the drifting snow storms and can talk most patriotically of Scotch mists-whose collie dog was his faithful companion and bosom friend, and whose last experience was the charge of forty thousand sheep in South Australia, forbye large herds of kyne. And it is to be hoped that he is one of the number whose past experience shall fall like good seed on these islands of ours and produce a thousand fold.
And if our limited capabilities are insufficient to promise an extensive export, we can at least manufacture our own wool. Useful cloths and blankets and a hundred articles of domestic need may be produced from our own material, by our own people, to their benefit every way, and our Hawaiian homespun may yet bear to be named with Irish frieze, Welsh flannel and Scotch tweed. The spinning wheel may replace the kapa hamali, and knitting needles in the hands of Hawaiian matrons may become more pleasing companions than sucking puppy dogs and dry nursed little black pigs.
Before closing this, I fear, very lame report, I would suggest whether the Alpaca might not be introduced here with good effect. Let those who know something of this animal give their opinion.
Waimea, Hawaii, 24th July, 1851.
REPORT ON NEAT CATTLE.
The committee of the agricultural society appointed to report on the state of cattle and cattle-farming generally in the Hawaiian Islands, beg to lay the following report before the society.
It is necessary, however, to premise that these observations have been made in the island of Oahu alone, nevertheless much of what is stated here will be found applicable in a great measure to the other Hawaiian Islands. In the first place it appears that great care must be taken by the cattle and owners to prevent the lands from becoming exhausted by allowing the increase of their stock, to exceed the decrease, more especially as from the increasing facilities of communication between the islands and the certainty of steamers running here very shortly, cattle from the other islands of the group will be brought into competition with the cattle of Oahu.
of the breed of cattle in these islands but little can be said in the way of commendation. The origin of the greater proportion may be traced to cattle imported from the coast of America. As but few were imported in the beginning it follows that breeding in and in has been carried to a very deteriorating extent, especially when the size of the islands is taken into consideration. On a vast continent like America the descendants of any one pair of animals would become so different from the parent stock and from each other in a few years by the modifications of difference of soil, climate, food, &c., by so many and various causes, in fact, that greater varieties would be found in three or four generations there, than there would be in ten or twenty where the same causes do not exist.
Since the first introduction of cattle here a few have been imported at various times, but up to the present time very few have taken pains to make the most of the advantages which might have been derived from such infusion of fresh blood by making a selection of the best cows, putting them to the best bulls and again doing the same by their produce so as to counteract as much as possible the ill effects arising from a small original stock and a limited locality.
In most of the herds here traces may be discovered of the breeds imported from some of the other islands of the Pacific, from Sydney, and from Columbia River.
Within the last twelve months a very valuable accession has been made to the stock already here by the arrival from V. Dieman's Land of a pure breed Angus bull, originally imported from Scotland to Van Dieman's Land, a young Hereford bull, and two well bred cows in calf at the time of their arrival to the Angus Bull. The cows have already since their arrival here produced three calves, one male and two females to the Angus bull and the great and obvious superiority of these over any of the native cattle although running on the same land and treated in the same manner is a sufficient proof that so far as soil and climate go these islands are capable of producing beef equal to any in the world.
To produce good beet' however, it will not do to allow growing heifers of eighteen months old to rear calves at an age when they have as much as they can do to rear themselves, their wretched and stunted offspring being again in their turn allowed to rear their wretched abortions, thus making each generation worse than the preceding one ; nor to allow old cows to go on rearing calves until they die of old age, each calf becoming worse than the last, losing all tendency to fatten, and the females becoming more and more unfitted for dairy purposes every generation.
The committee cannot conclude their report without calling the attention of cattle owners to the great advantages to be derived from making the cattle as tame as possible, and every cattle owner will acknowledge that the calves of the dairy cows are more disposed to fatten than any of the other cattle on the same lands.
However as from the present competition and from the excess of the increase over the decrease on the already heavily stocked lands, keeping bad cattle must be a losing business, the committee trusts that an improved system of management will gradually take the place of the present one, and that next year it will be enabled to report more favorably concerning Hawaiian cattle. "GOD SAVE THE KING."
REPORT ON HORSES.
Gentlemen of the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society :
Your committee (appointed at the first meeting of this society, one year ago,) to furnish such information as might be deemed of value, relative to the breeding of Horses on the islands of this group, have now to report as follows, viz :
That very laudable efforts have been made within the last three years to improve the present breed by the importation of four stallions, brought here by private individuals. Two of these came from Chile, one from the United States and one from Sydney.
By introducing these stallions a beneficial change has been commenced and some few fine, large-sized, young horses are now begining to be seen foaled by our best native mares.
Some few forcing mares have also been imported and although perhaps of no better blood than the native stock, they are of larger size and will tend to improve the present stock in this respect, which is & great desideratum.
There are among the different islands some fine breeding mares, foaling good colts, when not any attention whatever is paid to putting them with proper stallion. But there are some evils existing among us that if not eradicated or greatly mollified will eventually ruin the stock of island horses.
Foremost among these is the enormous number of inferior stallions. Indeed it is a notorious fact that they will not be either at the trouble or expense of having a deformed colt altered ; almost invariably allowing such to end their days entire.
Donkeys in crowds running at large, are if possible, a still greater nuisance.
Under such circumstances and entertaining these views, your committee have taken the liberty to offer the following suggestions :
Could not our rulers be prevailed upon to pass a law in effect somewhat as follows : Limiting the number of stallions in each district to a reasonable number. Said stallions to be approved by proper committees, (appointed as may be deemed best,) who shall recommend such prices as will not exclude any natives who own mares from de