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Again I call upon every member of the R. H. A. Society to aid in every possible way in developing the best resources of which the country is capable. With the blessing of God which is never withheld from those who seek it, we might soon see “the fruitful field laugh with abundance." Let us see that these fields be not fertile in their own disgrace. Let them groan with the weight of the luscious sugarcane ; be turned into a wilderness of our unequalled coffee ; let the plains wave with the golden wheat ; with barley, oats and corn let the valleys be filled ; while clover, herd's-grass, and other species shall crown the mountains to satisfy the lowing herds, and the bleating sheep; while the grape, fig, guava, orange, lemon, mango, chirimoya, tamarind and peach, filling our gardens shall well nigh make us forget our father's house and the luxuries of our own country. In a word let the experiment be made of causing to grow on these delectable isles, so far as man can cause to grow, “every tree, and every plant, and flower, and grain, that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food.” And though we shall not find “the tree of life in the midst of our gardens,” yet who can say that in the enjoyment of these earthly fruits and flowers we shall not find awakened in us the desire of tasting of that "tree which bears twelve manner of fruits, and yields her fruit every month, and whose leaves are for the healing of the nations ?" Especially let us determine that "bread," which, gentlemen, we have from high avthority, " is the staff of life, and in which is contained the quintessence of beef, mutton, veal, venison, porridge, plum-pudding and custard, and through which is diffused a wholesome and fermented liquor;" I repeat let us determine that nothing on our part shall be wanting to make bread abundant among all classes, not only of the foreign residents but of the native Hawaiians. I am of the opinion that the free use of bread would give stamina and character to the people. Quite a number at Makawao and Kula have enengaged wheat for sowing, and they seem determined to re-engage in its cultivation, not only for traffic, but for their own use. My people have lately formed an Agricultural Society, and as the rage for speculation seems to have spent itself, I may be able by another year to communicate on their behalf something of importance. Some of them may possibly compete with us for premiums. May I not suggest to the Society the propriety, not to say, justice of increasing the number
and value of premiums on wheat and corn. Only a single premium, I perceive is offered for each of these grains, and this no more than is offered for a hundred cigars, or for 5 pounds of cured tobacco. Could I offer an amendment to the report of the committee on premiums, I would recommend the putting of tobacco with the cut-WORM, and offering $40 for the destruction of both. If any of us shall be permitted, as was predicted at a former meeting of this society, "to sit under our own vines and fig trees,” it will be I trust, for a very different purpose than “to smoke Hawaiian long nines.” Most earnestly do I pray that no part of the soil of these lovely islands may be impoverished and polluted by the growth of this loathesome, and deadly weed, nor the balmy air tainted by the poisonous fumes of tobacco.
As I hope to have many a competitor soon in the growth of cereals permit me to suggest that for wheat and corn there be offered a premium, 1st. On the best bushel ; 2nd. On the best acre ; and 3rd. On the best 25 acres. A premium also on oats and barley. I would also recommend a change in the kind of premiums, a substitution of the plow, the sickle or the hoe, for the medal, which, pardon me when I say, has no particular use. Let the growers of flowers have the medals, but let the growers of flour aspire to something higher-more substantial. Our farms are ill supplied with implements of husbandry, and we need help in this department rather than in the ornamental. Our agricultural libraries are small and need replenishing. Would not the "New England Farmer," or the “Cultivator,” or some other agricultural periodical be an acceptable and useful premium.
The state of the highest prosperity which God promised to His ancient people in case of obedience was indicated by reference to agricultural products. God prepared for Isreal a land "flowing with milk and honey," i. e. a country admirably adapted to agricultural pursuits, When obedient, his Creator declared "thou shalt be blessed in the fruit of thy ground, the fruit of thy cattle, the increase of thy kine, in the flocks of thy sheep, in thy basket and in thy store.” In the fulfillment of this promise, “He made him to ride on the high places of the earth, that he might eat the increase of the fields, and He made him to suck honey out of the rock. Butter of kine and milk of sheep with the fat of lambs, and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats, with the fat of kidneys of wþeat, and thou didst drink the pure blood of the
grape.” Had they been uniformly obedient, it is said, “He should have fed them also with the finest of the wheat, and with honey out of the rock should I have satisfied thee.” And in a season of prosperity it is said " He maketh peace in thy borders, and filleth thee with the finest of the wheat." Let all labor and pray, that as we have peace in our borders, we may experience the fulfillment of the entire promise, all have a full supply, from our own soil, of this heaven bestowed, life invigorating nutriment.
REPORT ON HORSES.
Since the last annual report we have but few statements to make. We would reiterate our opinion that there should be a limited number of stallions allowed to each district, to be selected by men appointed for that purpose, who are capable of judging of the qualities of the horse-impartial and independent in their choice without regard to the owners. This in our opinion will have a great tendency to improve the breed and at the same time relieve us of the wretched specimens of horses now to be seen on these islands, without apparently strength and spirit enough to take them to their stalls.
We would advise that every licensed stallion should be advertised by its owner through the newspaper, giving his name and the place at which he will stand. Three years is a good age for stallions, and from that to fifteen or twenty. Many think it is far safer on the score of profit to breed from an old stallion, who has uniformly proved himself a getter of valuable stock, than from young stallions who are entirely untried as to the qualities of their progeny-others again preser young stallions. But we have noticed that both in England and the United States some of the best horses have been from old stallions and likewise the same with old mares which have bred much, being more roomy for colts.
We are of opinion that the large breed of Sydney cart horses are
not the description of horses required here. They may originally have sprung from the English draft horse, but from breeding in and in, they have come to be miserable long legged, small carcassed animals without any muscle, requiring two or three acres to graze them on, and neither fit for draft or saddle horses; and you have only to notice some now going about our streets with their hind legs going in a contrary direction by compass to their fore, to give you an idea of the worthlessness of these animals.
The proper horses for this place would be the best breed of the Canadian horses. They are good !or the saddle and draft, and are generally fast trotters. They make an excellent family horse, and will thrive on much less food than the horses which we now have. This breed have sprung originally from Norman mares crossed with the English blood horse. The former were rather small and tough, but by crossing with the English blood, have brought a staunch, strong horse of good bone and muscle from 15 to 15} hands high, and which are now being imported into all parts of the United States.
We would add that at present there are two good foreign stallions in this place, known as "Oregon” and the "Admiral.”
REPORT ON SWINE.
BY P. J. GULICK. Although the subject of this report is rather repulsive than inviting, yet so long as pork is worth a real per lb, the grunter is by no means an object to be sneered at.
I shall, therefore, to the best of my ability, endeavor to point out some prominent characteristics of what is deemed the most desirable breed of hogs, and the best method of fattening them. The opinion seems to be entertained by some that swine of the lar
gest frame, or at least such as when full-grown and well-fattened will individually weigh most, are of course to be preferred. But it is believed this is a mistake.
If our theory is correct, that breed which will produce most pork of good quality from a given amount of food is most profitable, and therefore most desirable. Now it is fully believed that swine of very large size not only eat more food, in proportion to their weight, than those of middle size, but that their flesh is of a coarser quality and less savory than that of the latter. So far as the writer's observation extends the mass of swine on these islands are long-limbed, with long slim noses, and seem rather adapted for the race-course than for slaughter. There are, however, a considerable number of a better stamp, and some very good.
From what I have said it may perhaps be inferred that I deem the no-bone breed, as it is sometimes called from the smallness of the bones, superior to all others. But such is not the fact ; for they are very uncertain breeders and have small litters. I am not sufficiently versed in pig-ology, to give the name of the breed I prefer ; but will give the prominent characteristics, which may be a surer guide, than a name would be. These are, briefly, a frame of medium size, weighing scarcely 300 pounds when full grown and thoroughly fattened; short neck, head and nose; the last, thick, and deeply concave, viz : well scooped out between the eyes and the end of the snout. Lastly, white skin and hair. This last specification may be deemed whimsical ; but I think, though of less importance than the others, it will be found worth some attention. The skin and hair are usually of the same color, and the white skin is commonly, if I mistake not, thinner; and it certainly has a much pleasanter aspect, on the dish, than the black skin.
One important advantage of swine of the above description is, they will fatten at any age ; whereas the very large, and the slim-nosed races cannot easily be fattened until they are full-grown.
Now, as to the method of fattening. And here let me premise, that shelter is a matter of no small consequence, in fattening swine, in order to secure a dry and cool bed. It might be thought that in such a dry and mild climate as this, care on this head was superfluous. But such is not the fact. A friend of mine lost a valuable fat sow, merely,