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I would keep my land as a good housewife keeps her house. I would brush out every hole and corner. I have mentioned the disuse of the coinmon harrow in preparing land for cropping. It seems to me totally unfit for working land of these Islands, and does a great deal of harm in preparing land for a second ploughing, or in covering in seed. Porous lands in all warm countries particularly in countries subject to drought, by being harrowed, lose sooner their moisiure and from the smooth surface it brings on, affords no shelter to the piercing rays of the sun; consequently shoots are weak and spire up without stooling; whereas land worked by the tormentor or plough, locks up in the roughed surface moisture already prepared for the young springing plant without the means of escape. The young shoots penetrate these rubbly clods and draw out their moisture which by being worked has been rubbed down by the harrow and have escaped. For those reasons it is the practice in many countries to plough in all grain crops instead of harrowing them in again. On these Islands the land cakes and receives little benefit from the slight showers when the rain patters against hard ground which the harrow brings on. The drops of rain burst before they can penetrate the ground and their constituents escape again into air. Although inoisture may be afforded still it has to be prepared before the plants can use it.
In concluding my observations permit me to bring once more to your notice the following facts. I have endeavored to prove in the case of the Pine Apple that there is a state of vegetation highly favorable to the appearance of insects. I have also endeavored to show in the case of the Apple-blight a similar circumstance, and both cases by changing the mode of cultivation has brought on a vegetation which afforded no inducement.
It occurred to me since I wrote these observations that it would be well to explain the theory of transplanting when a plant is produced from a seed. The rhizoma or root descends deep into the soil and the sap it sucks up is not acted upon by the atmosphere. It ascends the plant in a crude state; it is distilled by the leaves and descending forms wood. The returned sap is excrementitious and is exhaled from the roots by the knobs; it is again sucked up slightly modified by additional matter. In course of time this sap becomes too impure and too strong and is one of the principal causes of the diseases of plants,
their premature decay, and originates those gormandisers mentioned by Mr. Rhodes.
Transplanted plants have a fibrous structure and act upon the atmosphere in the same way as the leaves; they distil the sap before it enters the plant, consequently take up less of foreign matter. The plant is increased by double distilling, the sap is of a finer quality, contains better sugar, hence its increase specific proof and the essential oil which gives flavor is more perfect. Plants also exude this returned fluid from the stem branches and leaves, hence the insects crawl up the stem branches in search of it and as long as the plants furnish them with food they remain, stop the supply and they are off; from the same cause the smutty appearance of the leaves and stems of plants. This matter vegetates a minute fungus which may be brought on the plant by insects and they are always found together or by the atmosphere the spongy places are full of them; it submits to the same treatment as the American blight. Dark leaves being more subject to them than light is easily accounted for by the difference of energy of chorophly of the colors. Thus leaves in shady situations have this powder in greater quantity. The faculty that plants have in expelling the returned matter by the roots is the theory of Ranton crops and many other beautiful arrangements of the vegetable world.
REPORT ON STATISTICS.
Hilo, Hawaii, 20th May, 1852. R. C. Wyllie, Esq., Chairman to collect Statistics.
Sir:-As one of the committee on Statistics I have the honor herewith to transmit you a report of our proceedings in this district for the year ending with date the which should it serve no other purpose will at least I trust be admitted as proof that notwithstanding the insignificance of our ways and means, and the numerous disadvantages we labor under the charge of slothfulness cannot be laid at our door.
During the past year we have had but one arrival from the coast of
California, the reason for which I presume may be attributed to the fact of there being scarcely sufficient inducement for visits from that quarter until about the ensuing month and as we are yet unable to compete with the northern quarter of our Island in its attractive trade of Irish Potatoes. We cannot consequently for the time being allow ourselves to hope for an extension of our export trade in that quarter. But I am sanguine enough to look forward to a time when through the desirable medium of good roads and various other embryo improvements together with an addition to our foreign population of some intelligent and enterprising men our district may so far outrival the various others of the Island as its magnificent harbor and prolific soil fairly entitles it to do. In saying this much in its favor I would not be understood as conveying any depreciation of the various districts in question; doubtless they are blessed by the same beneficent Providence with their several natural advantages and combined render the Island of Hawaii as a whole one of the most valuable of the Sandwich group. While its scenery, its subterranean fires and its variety of climate are so well and widely known as to stand in no need of comment from my unworthy pen.
Since the Report which I had the honor of laying before the Society last year no material change has occurred in the district if I except the addition of a sugar plantation commenced lately under the auspices of some ploddingly industrious Chinamen. The fact is, no material improvement can reasonably be expected to take place until our roads be rendered more suitable for the transmission of produce and the numerous ravines which lay between the most prolific portion of the district and the harbor are made available to this end. This most highly important object is in a small way and after a fashion in course of accomplishment and I earnestly trust that the present session of the Legislature will not terminate without due consideration being extended to our wants on this head.
I have taken the liberty to forward to Stephen Reynolds, Esq., sundry samples of a variety of produce which I have requested that gentleman in his capacity of Vice President for Oahu to lay before the Society at the approaching meeting.
Though somewhat tardy and out of course in compliance with the Resolution stating that "it shall be the duty of the several Committees
“to communicate to the Chairman of such committee an individual
STATISTICAL REPORT FOR THE DISTRICT OF HILO, ISLAND OF
HAWAII, FOR THE YEAR ENDING WITH DATE.
Exported Coastwise for the year ending with date
640,000 lbs. Sugar
22,000 lbs. Arrow Root. Total number of foreign arrivals at the Port of Hilo for the year ending with dateAmerican Whaleships
73. Bremen do.
1. American schooner from San Francisco,
1. “St. Marys," Sloop-of-War,
As a member of the Committee on Statistics, I beg to offer the following statement of the principal articles of domestic produce exported as cargo, from 1844 to 1851 inclusive; and a calculation of the number of Cattle, Horses and Sheep on this group, made up from information received from persons residing upon the different Islands, and engaged in grazing.
The tables from which the following statement of exports has been made up, have already been published here, but have not been put together before in such form as to admit of an easy comparison of one year with another.
In consequence of the annual meetings of the Society being held at different times of the year, it is impossible to give the amounts of exports between the times of the meetings in such way as to be satisfactorily compared, therefore I have chosen to give them for each year commencing with the lst of January.