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TABLE NO. 4.—Tertiary triangulations, St. Marys River, Michigan, Little Rapids to Point Iroquois.

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129

6

723

3.

3.

5.

3.

2

AR
C2.

3.

AE

R U 2

AP
A E

C 2.

Station.

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C

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41 45 57.5

34 03 35. 4 104 10 27.1

87 15 48.5
35 23 09.9
57 21 01.6

34 51 38.5 42 00 23.0 103 07 58.5

74 12 07.8
23 30 33.0
82 17 19.2

42 07 58.3 | 1,741.77

68 31 55.7
69 20 06.0

39 42 48.4
88 36 22.6
51 40 49.0

78 23 48.6
59 51 39.9
41 44 31.5

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53 28 55.6
84 03 33.3

42 27 31.1

58 49 36.9

91 40 29.5

29 29 53.6

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Meters.

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1,329. 70
1,270.38
1, 396. 66

2,287. 41
2.680.28
1,329. 70

2. 287.41
2, 172. 43
1, 163. 43

2,416.23
3, 402. 74
2,287.41

2,416. 23
2, 429. 31

2,439.01
3. 208. 01
1, 741.77

1. 675. 61
1.408. 88
2,439. 01

54 01 12.1
71 02 45.7

2,047. 12
2.432.30

51 56 02.2 1.991.66

1,987.78
1, 152. 40
1,675.59

676.38
791.91

1. 152. 40

1,987.78
824. 04
2,047. 12

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Side.

Miles.

0.826

0.789
0.868

1.421

1.665

0.826

1.421

1.350

0.723

1.501

2.114

1.421

1.082

1.501
1.510

1.516
1.993
1.082

1.041 0.875 1.516

1.235
0.716
1.041

0.420
0.492

0.716

1.235 0.512 1.272

1.272
1.511
1.238

1.936
1.709
1.316

1.316
1.629

1.105

1.629
1.903

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1.238 & L
1.936

1.520

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K

AB

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M.

A

I.

B

Iroquois

I.. & A

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29 02 46.0

68 18 46.9

82 38 27.1

26 33 17.4 52 02 15.5 101 24 27.1

65 25 52.5
56 42 03.6
57 52 03.9

52 32 09.0
69 26 26.7
58 01 24.3

69 52 09.1
79 48 34.1
30 19 16.8

55 49 19.3

83 12 55.4
40 57 45.3

70 23 24.5

49 20 22.9
60 16 12.6

42 56 50.0 38 08 00.7 98 55 09.3 1

37 59 22.4
88 39 20.6
53 21 17.0

97 09 47.4
50 41 54.7
32 08 17.9

79 45 03.9

64 36 12.4
35 38 43.7

52 53 25.3
56 33 59.1

70 32 35.6

63 35 29.7
26.06 16.4
90 18 13.9

54 57 54.5 78 56 50.6 46 05 14.9

South Gros Cap 71 15 06. 7

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Meters. 1, 508. 14 836.55 1,249. 27

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Miles.

0.937

0.520

0.776

0.520

0.995

1.062

0.995

1.755

2. 181

1.755

1.612

1. 634

1.612 1.902

1. 723

1.723 1.806

0.927

0.927

1 112 0.734

0.734

0.591

0.677

1.723

1561

2.499

2.499 4.058

3.257

3.257 2.540

1.746

2.540

2.332 1.504

3. 257 3.416 3. 851

3.851 1.892 4.300

4.300

5. 153 3.783

& E
D

A C
AE

85 19 32.2
45 50 51.4

3,062. 25
2,204.47

48 49 36.4 2, 312. 72

0.937

1.903

1.370

1.437

Iroquois
A..

28 02 49.4
80 42 03.9

5. 153
2.559
5.371

TABLE NO. 5.-Geographical positions of the stations of the tertiary triangulation of the river between Little Rapids and Point Iroquois.

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A 21 A 14

A 8

A 21

A 19

A 8

A 9.

A 19

A 6

A 8

A 21 A 6

A

A 2

7

A 2

A 2

A 7

AR

A 7 A 3

ப2

A 3

AR

AE

02

AP

ΔΟ

260 07 24.0
345 26 56.2
211 18 07.5
326 02 14.3
63 24 03.1
A 12.
11 21 47.5 A 17

AP

AC

AN

AE

AC

AE

AN

AC A 17

A 15. A 10. A 12 Round

light-house.
A 12..

280 39 27.5
183 30 47.3
336 35 51.8

A 10.

287 15 28.9 A 11
A 13.

36 52 39.7
212 25 27

A 11.
A 15.
234 16 00.4 A 15
191 19 10.4
A 10

Island

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Distance.

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Loga rithms.

1, 601. 07

3, 510. 62

3.3831380 3.0657401

3.3854822

3.0657401

3.5318283

3.2409908 3.5062357

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3.3872129

3.1488748

3. 2044094 3.5453839 1,708, 83 3.2326998 2,823.61 3.4508042 2, 629. 13 3.4198116 2,773, 233.4429865 2,594.96 3.4141302 1, 491. 16 3.1735244

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3 2501807 3.1785417 3. 0966572

3.3433037 3.3641230

3, 061.08

2, 907. 08

3.4858747 3.4634572 1, 181.62 3.0724796 1,089.27 3.0371353 951.55 2.978435 1,789.83 3. 2328113 2, 513. 43 3.4002671 4, 021. 14 3.6043491 3.8149888 3.7194700 3 7844628

1

3.4860410

2.9224934

46 29 03.72

46 29 44.52

46 29 21.39

46 30 22.63

46 29 51.85 46 29 41.60

46 30 36.98

46 30 05.36 46 29 34.67

46 29 39.71

46 30 34.06 46 30 20.56

46 29 23.53

46 30 02. 19

46 28 37.34

46 29 49.96

46 28 37.46

46 28 14.99

46 27 51.77

46 26 23.53

46 26 49.96

46 28 10. 13 46 26 36.13 1

46 26 25.69. 46 26 01.04 46 26 02.44

46 26 39.58

46 25 06.34

46 25 25.61

46 28 58.83 46 30 10.22

46 29 10.14

84 17 35.50

84 17 43.19

84 18 35.78

84 19 36.12

84 20 07.59
84 21 12.61

84 21 28.15

84 22 15.78
84 22 46.52

84 22 15.66

84 23 22.46
84 23 55.80

84 24 39.41
84 26 19.49

84 26 23.39

84 28 01.33

84 27 34. 10

84 27 12.19

84 28 19.28

84 27 44.59
84 29 41.66

84 30 40.26
84 30 48.69

84 29 59.89
84 30 26.63
84 31 17.26

84 35 16.83

84 31 47.65

84 33 26.15

84 25 14.82

112 59 21.71
172 34 32.71
116 03 03. 35
57 30 30. 15
115 39 58. 09
145 46 04.79

58 23 27.61
35 13 43.21
100 31 25.91
215 13 20.4
280 33 20.4
169 02 11.6
120 20 28.1
87 53 41.3
46 07 43.8
121 56 42. 1
157 19 29.7
214 40 31.3
81.52 54.5
179 49 15.2
76 41 16.7
59 36 22.9
313.48 06.5
27 50 52.2
119 13 58.0
259 29 57.0
319 21 36.9
1 49 08.0
235 18 00.8
90 08 35.7
56 27 48.6

214 20 28.4
344 47 41.5
108 06 03.1
153 12 19
222 38 45.7
73 23 44.9

84 33 00.89

244 37 33.7
282 36 56.2
| 120 59 50.2
231 56 40
134 46 52.6
84 35 54.40 199 20 59.3
279 06 03. 2
353 12 03.4
46 05 28.8
316 22 31.2
19 58 01.0
66 03 16.0
146 45 19.8
217 46 12.4

6, 531. 14
5,241.67
6,087.83
2,810.32

4,088.04

2, 421.01
3,752.86
5,485.15
6, 197.43
3,044, 65
6, 919, 40
8, 293. 89
4, 118. 27
2,751.12

34487558
3.6115152
3.3889965

3.5743620

3.73918-2

3.7922114 3 4835 78 3.8400687 3.9187383 3.6147152

3.4395083

F.-REPORT OF MR. 11. VON SCHON, ASSISTANT ENGINEER.

UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., June 30, 1894. Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report for the fiscal year, from July 1, 1893, to June 30, 1894, consisting of two parts, viz:

Part I. Report on the topographical survey along American shore of St. Marys River from July, 1893, to December, 1893.

Part II. Report on mapping, charting, sketching, and office operations from December, 1893, to June 30, 1891.

PART I.

SUBJECT OF SURVEY

The subject of the survey, as defined in your letter of instructions to me dated June 13 and July 15, 1893, was the southern shore of the St. Marys River, beginning at Little Rapids, including the western side of the new channel, thence westerly to a point beyond Point Iroquois, afterwards determined to be Salt Point.

The survey was to extend from the shore line of the river back to the crest of the first range of hills parallel thereto, and to include all islands on the American shore.

All light-houses, range lights, buildings; all topographical features relating to the conditions of the ground and improvements; all land survey, section and town lines, and contours for every 20 feet elevation were to be located and plotted on a scale of 1 to 5,000, afterwards changed to 1 to 10,000.

CHARACTER OF TERRITORY.

The character of this territory presents all the varieties to be found in this latitude. Almost the entire shore line on this reach is low and sandy or marshy, a rank growth of timber and brush reaching to the water's edge for more than half of the shore distance surveyed. Occasionally for short distances the shore line rises to a sandy bluff not exceeding 20 feet in height, and for the last 3 miles east of Salt Point outcroppings of a mineral formation are visible on shore, becoming very determined for about 1 mile, rising abruptly out of the water to a height of about 15 feet.

The range of hills coming from the south enters this territory about 1 mile south of Little Rapids at an elevation of about 125 feet above the river level, then gradually approaches the west end of Sault Ste. Marie within one-third of a mile of the river shore at an elevation of about 115 feet, then bears south for a distance of about 24 miles and again approaches and touches the shore line at the Clay Banks at a height of about 85 feet. Thence it bears west to a point south of Point Iroquois, and thence north rapidly rising and culminating in the Iroquois formation at a maximum altitude of about 440 feet above the river level at Little Rapids. From here the hills gradually recede in a southwesterly direction to a cousiderable distance from shore, gradually decreasing in elevation.

The drainage of this hill range from Little Rapids to the Clay Banks issues in three small creeks, and thence to its northward course to Iroquois is absorbed by the Waiska River, a water course of considerable volume: The Iroquois range proper drains into two small lakes at its foot which lie about 30 feet above the river and are without any visible outflow. The reach froin Iroquois to Salt Point is broken by one creek only.

The country between shore and hills is low and mostly thickly covered with all classes of timber and brush, tamarack, maple, and elm predominating. Occasionally large areas of timber are burnt over, and some depressions of considerable extent are swampy and marshy.

No land was found under cultivation after passing Sault Ste. Marie until the Waiska River is reached, where Superior, a settlement of about 100 people, is located, and some farming is done. On a peninsula 1} miles north of this is the village of Bay Mills, with about 400 inhabitants, :und 1 mile farther north on the beach is the Indian settlement“Mission” with about 75 people. From this point west the character of the country changes, the timber is frequently sprinkled with oak, and considerable of the land is under cultivation. With the exception of the sandstone near Salt Point, no mineral formation of any description was discovered.

The means of transportation through this territory westerly are a dirt roail (Waiska Bay road) leading from a point about 5 miles south of Sault Ste. Marie due west to Superior, whence it follows the shore to Mission; thence it leads upon the Iroquois platean, and due west for about 5 miles to Dollar Settlement, where it terminates. The Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railroad touches this territory at Superior, and thence pursues a northeasterly course to Sault Ste. Marie., The Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad enters in the eastern part, leading first north and then northeasterly to Sault Ste. Marie.

The whole territory is located in Chippewa County, Mich., comprising T's. N. 47, 1 E.; N. 47, 1 W.; N. 47, 2 W.; N. 47, 3 W.; N. 47, 4 W., and the northern half of N. 46, 2 W.

The principal meridian of Michigan passes through the western part of Sa ult Ste.
Marie, Mich.

METHODS.

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The organization of the topographical party under my charge consist ed of 1 recorder, at $70 per month; 4 rodmen, at $50 per month, each; 1 cook, at $50 per month.

The instruments used were the Buff & Berger transit No. 245, from July 12 to August 14, exclusively. On Angust 8 the Britt & Berger plans table No. 1, and on August 14'the stadia rods for the same were received, and this instrument was then used when and wherever it was practicable to do so; but much of the weather being stormy, and most of the territory being covered with a rank growth of brush, and large areas being swampy, made it often advisable to use the lightest and simplest field outfit to make reasonable progress possible, and in these cases a Fauth transit was used.

The methods employed with the transit were of the usual practice in "traversing;” the plane table was used in much the same manner, as no sheets with coordi. nated points located had been prepared for the reach under survey. A section of shore line between reference points was first located, and from it traverse lines to the range of hills were run. These latter had to be invariably chopped through the timber or brush, while much of the shore had to be similarly cleared before the instrumental work could be done. A working programme being decided upon by the chief, lines to be cleared were chopped out by the rodmen under the direction of recorder, the chief running shore line or roads at the same time with transit and two rodmen, or employing himself at plotting. When practicable the plane table was nised for detailed surveys, regniring then the entire party. The horizontal distances were obtained by stadia readings always, and the elevations by the vertical angle. Azimuth observations on Polaris were made during the progress of the survey.

The recorıls of the survey were kept in field books, as customary in transit work, and when the plane table was used a field sheet was constructed on the table as the work progressed, notations in field book also being made of distances and vertical angle readings.

NARRATIVE.

The topograpbical party was organized on July 1, 1893, took the field on July 12, in camp at Little Rapids, moving on July 21 to shore near Ashmun Creek; on August 10, to Point Louisa, Canada; on September 18, to Birch Point; on September 29, to Waiska Bay; on October 16, to Mission Hill; on November 16, to Dollar Settlement; and on November 25, returning to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, where it was disbanded.

'The survey was begun at A East Base, tying, in its progress, on 5 primary and 12 tertiary triangulation stations, and closing ou the secondary station at Salt Point.

The levels were referred to B. M. “A”, at Little Rapids, and checked on P. B. M. “4” of the precise level line located on west side of Waiska River.

RESULTS.

The field work of the season covered about 51.4 square miles of territory, resulting in the location of about 484 miles of shore line, 283 miles of hill range, 19 miles of railroads, 634 miles of roads, and all the details of conditions of ground and improvements within this territory.

The office records of this work are in 6 field books and in 7 field sheets, all of them on file at the engineer office at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

The cost of the survey was for-
Instruments purchased..

$305.00 Camp outfit purchased

286. 63 Salaries paid to members of party.

2, 237.21 Subsistence of members of party.

479. 68 Repairing camp outfit....

6. 25 Transportation of members of party.

48. 56 Total cost

3, 363. 33 The cost per square mile of survey is found by charging the survey with all amounts paid forSalaries, subsistence, transportation, and repairs of camp outfit

$2,771, 70 10 per cent of the cost of instruments

30.50 50 per cent of the cost of camp outfit..

143.32 Total cost of 51. 4 square miles of topographical survey...

2, 945.52 Cost per square mile, $57.30.

1

RECOMMENDATIONS.

men.

For future topographical surveys in this region I would respectfully recommend the following organization of topographical party :

One assistant engineer in charge.
Two recorders, to be men capable of running the plane table and to be fair drafts-
Five rodmen, to be young men of sound physique, who are prepar

for the profession or have had previous experience as rodnen.

Ono head axman, to be capable to take charge of laborers and to understand the nse of reconnoitering instruments, and act as head rodman on a transit survey.

Two axmen, and at times such additional number of axmen as the work may require; these men to be woodsmen, preferably of the region the survey is operated'in. This party to be equipped with the following instrumental outfit:

Instruments.-One transit, 1 Y-level, 2 plane tables, and such additional instruments as are fund of service in reconnoitering.

The methods to be employed I would recommend to be as follows: Plane table field sheets of the reach to be surveyed during the season should be fully prepared before the party takes the field, with all bench marks, tertiary, secondary, and primary triangulation stations plotted thereon.

The assistant to plan the work for the two plane-table parties and for the advance chopping of necessary traverse lines, and to locate by additional triangulation and leveling such additional reference points and bench marks as it may be found desirable to establish in order to have no such points originated by plane table alone.

The recorders to secure all needed topographical information by plane-table surveys from these fixed and plotted points, always orienting the plane table by intersection or resection upon points plotted on the sheet. Each plane-table party to consist of the recorder in charge, 2 rodmen, and 1 axman, who is to carry the plane table.

The head axman is to take charge of the chopping needed to clear lines for survey on shore, hill range, roads, and traverse, with such additional axmen as could be employed at intervals for short periods; at other times he would be available with the fifth rodman to form a transit or level crew for the assistant in charge. He is also to take charge of the camp property and tools, and of camp policing and moving of camp.

The salary of such a party on the scale recommended for the coming season, together with salary of 4 additional axmen employed for ten days during each month, and the subsistence on the ratio of last season's cost, would amount to a total about 20 per cent less than the total cost of the two topographical parties last season, while in my estimation such an organization would be capable of accomplishing as much and probably more field work than the two parties did together during the past season.

A not inconsiderable saving in time and expense could be secured, in my opinion, by arranging to have the cook and mess outfits of the entire party located on a flatbottomed scow, which could be easily moved at any time without necessitating the packing and unpacking of all the utensils on the occasion of each move. More frequent moves of camp could be had and thereby walking to and from work reduced and inore time utilized in actual field work. With this arrangement it would be perfectly practicable to bave the heall axman, withi assistance of additional axmen, move the entire camp and relocate same while the field parties were doing their customary field work.

Part II.

MAPPING, CHARTING, SKETCHING, ETC. After completing the platting and inking of the last transit field work and converting field sheet No. 2 (Big Point to Solomons Point) from St. Marys River level data, to New York tide level data, my office work during period from December, 1893, to June 30, 1894, consisted, as outlined in your letter of instructions dated January 16, 1894, of

First. Special drafting work required by you from time to time. Under this head I constructed

(1) A general map of primary triangulation scheme of St. Marys River from line Gargantua-Mamainse to the Mackinac base, scale 1:380160;

(2) A similar plan of primary and secondary triangulation of same reach, scale 1:380160;

(3) A sketch of conventional signs for topography and hydrography;

(4) An outline sketch of chart No. 3, St. Marys River survey, with scheme of sounding lines for ice survey, scale 1: 40000;

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