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Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., June 30, 1894. Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report for the fiscal year, from July 1, 1893, to June 30, 1894, consisting of two parts, viz:

Part I. Report on the topographical survey along American shore of St. Marys River from July, 1893, to December, 1893.

Part II. Report on mapping, charting, sketching, and office operations from December, 1893, to June 30, 1891.



The subject of the survey, as defined in your letter of instructions to me dated June 13 and July 15, 1893, was the southern shore of the St. Marys River, beginning at Little Rapids, including the western side of the new channel, thence westerly to a point beyond Point Iroquois, afterwards determined to be Salt Point.

The survey was to extend from the shore line of the river back to the crest of the first range of hills parallel thereto, and to include all islands on the American shore.

All light-houses, range lights, buildings; all topographical features relating to the conditions of the ground and improvements; all land survey, section and town lines, and contours for every 20 feet elevation were to be located and plotted on a scale of 1 to 5,000, afterwards changed to 1 to 10,000.


The character of this territory presents all the varieties to be found in this latitude. Almost the entire shore line on this reach is low and sandy or marshy, a rank growth of timber and brush reaching to the water's edge for more than half of the shore distance surveyed. Occasionally for short distances the shore line rises to a sandy bluff not exceeding 20 feet in height, and for the last 3 miles east of Salt Point outcroppings of a mineral formation are visible on shore, becoming very determined for about 1 mile, rising abruptly out of the water to a height of about 15 feet.

The range of hills coming from the south enters this territory about 1 mile south of Little Rapids at an elevation of about 125 feet above the river level, then gradually approaches the west end of Sault Ste. Marie within one-third of a mile of the river shore at an elevation of about 115 feet, then bears south for a distance of about 24 miles and again approaches and touches the shore line at the Clay Banks at a height of about 85 feet. Thence it bears west to a point south of Point Iroquois, and thence north rapidly rising and culminating in the Iroquois formation at a maximum altitude of about 440 feet above the river level at Little Rapids. From here the hills gradually recede in a southwesterly direction to a cousiderable distance from shore, gradually decreasing in elevation.

The drainage of this hill range from Little Rapids to the Clay Banks issues in three small creeks, and thence to its northward course to Iroquois is absorbed by the Waiska River, a water course of considerable volume: The Iroquois range proper drains into two small lakes at its foot which lie about 30 feet above the river and are without any visible outflow. The reach froin Iroquois to Salt Point is broken by one creek only.

The country between shore and hills is low and mostly thickly covered with all classes of timber and brush, tamarack, maple, and elm predominating. Occasionally large areas of timber are burnt over, and some depressions of considerable extent are swampy and marshy.

No land was found under cultivation after passing Sault Ste. Marie until the Waiska River is reached, where Superior, a settlement of about 100 people, is located, and some farming is done. On a peninsula 1} miles north of this is the village of Bay Mills, with about 400 inhabitants, :und 1 mile farther north on the beach is the Indian settlement“Mission” with about 75 people. From this point west the character of the country changes, the timber is frequently sprinkled with oak, and considerable of the land is under cultivation. With the exception of the sandstone near Salt Point, no mineral formation of any description was discovered.

The means of transportation through this territory westerly are a dirt roail (Waiska Bay road) leading from a point about 5 miles south of Sault Ste. Marie due west to Superior, whence it follows the shore to Mission; thence it leads upon the Iroquois platean, and due west for about 5 miles to Dollar Settlement, where it terminates. The Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railroad touches this territory at Superior, and thence pursues a northeasterly course to Sault Ste. Marie., The Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad enters in the eastern part, leading first north and then northeasterly to Sault Ste. Marie.

The whole territory is located in Chippewa County, Mich., comprising T's. N. 47, 1 E.; N. 47, 1 W.; N. 47, 2 W.; N. 47, 3 W.; N. 47, 4 W., and the northern half of N. 46, 2 W.

The principal meridian of Michigan passes through the western part of Sa ult Ste.
Marie, Mich.


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The organization of the topographical party under my charge consist ed of 1 recorder, at $70 per month; 4 rodmen, at $50 per month, each; 1 cook, at $50 per month.

The instruments used were the Buff & Berger transit No. 245, from July 12 to August 14, exclusively. On Angust 8 the Britt & Berger plans table No. 1, and on August 14'the stadia rods for the same were received, and this instrument was then used when and wherever it was practicable to do so; but much of the weather being stormy, and most of the territory being covered with a rank growth of brush, and large areas being swampy, made it often advisable to use the lightest and simplest field outfit to make reasonable progress possible, and in these cases a Fauth transit was used.

The methods employed with the transit were of the usual practice in "traversing;” the plane table was used in much the same manner, as no sheets with coordi. nated points located had been prepared for the reach under survey. A section of shore line between reference points was first located, and from it traverse lines to the range of hills were run. These latter had to be invariably chopped through the timber or brush, while much of the shore had to be similarly cleared before the instrumental work could be done. A working programme being decided upon by the chief, lines to be cleared were chopped out by the rodmen under the direction of recorder, the chief running shore line or roads at the same time with transit and two rodmen, or employing himself at plotting. When practicable the plane table was nised for detailed surveys, regniring then the entire party. The horizontal distances were obtained by stadia readings always, and the elevations by the vertical angle. Azimuth observations on Polaris were made during the progress of the survey.

The recorıls of the survey were kept in field books, as customary in transit work, and when the plane table was used a field sheet was constructed on the table as the work progressed, notations in field book also being made of distances and vertical angle readings.


The topograpbical party was organized on July 1, 1893, took the field on July 12, in camp at Little Rapids, moving on July 21 to shore near Ashmun Creek; on August 10, to Point Louisa, Canada; on September 18, to Birch Point; on September 29, to Waiska Bay; on October 16, to Mission Hill; on November 16, to Dollar Settlement; and on November 25, returning to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, where it was disbanded.

'The survey was begun at A East Base, tying, in its progress, on 5 primary and 12 tertiary triangulation stations, and closing ou the secondary station at Salt Point.

The levels were referred to B. M. “A”, at Little Rapids, and checked on P. B. M. “4” of the precise level line located on west side of Waiska River.


The field work of the season covered about 51.4 square miles of territory, resulting in the location of about 484 miles of shore line, 283 miles of hill range, 19 miles of railroads, 634 miles of roads, and all the details of conditions of ground and improvements within this territory.

The office records of this work are in 6 field books and in 7 field sheets, all of them
on file at the engineer office at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

The cost of the survey was for-
Instruments purchased..

$305.00 Camp outfit purchased

286. 63 Salaries paid to members of party.

2, 237.21 Subsistence of members of party.

479. 68 Repairing camp outfit....

6. 25 Transportation of members of party.

48. 56 Total cost

3, 363. 33 The cost per square mile of survey is found by charging the survey with all amounts paid forSalaries, subsistence, transportation, and repairs of camp outfit

$2,771, 70 10 per cent of the cost of instruments

30.50 50 per cent of the cost of camp outfit..

143.32 Total cost of 51. 4 square miles of topographical survey...

2, 945.52 Cost per square mile, $57.30.

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For future topographical surveys in this region I would respectfully recommend the following organization of topographical party :

One assistant engineer in charge.
Two recorders, to be men capable of running the plane table and to be fair drafts-
Five rodmen, to be young men of sound physique, who are prepar

for the profession or have had previous experience as rodnen.

Ono head axman, to be capable to take charge of laborers and to understand the nse of reconnoitering instruments, and act as head rodman on a transit survey.

Two axmen, and at times such additional number of axmen as the work may require; these men to be woodsmen, preferably of the region the survey is operated'in. This party to be equipped with the following instrumental outfit:

Instruments.-One transit, 1 Y-level, 2 plane tables, and such additional instruments as are fund of service in reconnoitering.

The methods to be employed I would recommend to be as follows: Plane table field sheets of the reach to be surveyed during the season should be fully prepared before the party takes the field, with all bench marks, tertiary, secondary, and primary triangulation stations plotted thereon.

The assistant to plan the work for the two plane-table parties and for the advance chopping of necessary traverse lines, and to locate by additional triangulation and leveling such additional reference points and bench marks as it may be found desirable to establish in order to have no such points originated by plane table alone.

The recorders to secure all needed topographical information by plane-table surveys from these fixed and plotted points, always orienting the plane table by intersection or resection upon points plotted on the sheet. Each plane-table party to consist of the recorder in charge, 2 rodmen, and 1 axman, who is to carry the plane table.

The head axman is to take charge of the chopping needed to clear lines for survey on shore, hill range, roads, and traverse, with such additional axmen as could be employed at intervals for short periods; at other times he would be available with the fifth rodman to form a transit or level crew for the assistant in charge. He is also to take charge of the camp property and tools, and of camp policing and moving of camp.

The salary of such a party on the scale recommended for the coming season, together with salary of 4 additional axmen employed for ten days during each month, and the subsistence on the ratio of last season's cost, would amount to a total about 20 per cent less than the total cost of the two topographical parties last season, while in my estimation such an organization would be capable of accomplishing as much and probably more field work than the two parties did together during the past season.

A not inconsiderable saving in time and expense could be secured, in my opinion, by arranging to have the cook and mess outfits of the entire party located on a flatbottomed scow, which could be easily moved at any time without necessitating the packing and unpacking of all the utensils on the occasion of each move. More frequent moves of camp could be had and thereby walking to and from work reduced and inore time utilized in actual field work. With this arrangement it would be perfectly practicable to bave the heall axman, withi assistance of additional axmen, move the entire camp and relocate same while the field parties were doing their customary field work.

Part II.

MAPPING, CHARTING, SKETCHING, ETC. After completing the platting and inking of the last transit field work and converting field sheet No. 2 (Big Point to Solomons Point) from St. Marys River level data, to New York tide level data, my office work during period from December, 1893, to June 30, 1894, consisted, as outlined in your letter of instructions dated January 16, 1894, of

First. Special drafting work required by you from time to time. Under this head I constructed

(1) A general map of primary triangulation scheme of St. Marys River from line Gargantua-Mamainse to the Mackinac base, scale 1:380160;

(2) A similar plan of primary and secondary triangulation of same reach, scale 1:380160;

(3) A sketch of conventional signs for topography and hydrography;

(4) An outline sketch of chart No. 3, St. Marys River survey, with scheme of sounding lines for ice survey, scale 1: 40000;

(5) A similar outline sketch of chart No. 2, St. Marys River survey, scale 1:40000; (6) A general outline sketch of chart No. 1, St. Marys River survey, scale 1:40000; (7) A general outline sketch of a chart of Whitefish Bay, scale 1: 80000.

Second. The duplication of all field work done by the topographical parties, which necessitated the tracing of sheets Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the Canadian shore survey.

Third. The preparation of an accurate field plat of Sault. Ste. Marie, Mich., on a 1:5000 scale, which absorbed about two months of time devoted to the securing of all available reliable data relating to streets, subdivisions, buildings, etc., from public records, previous surveys, existing maps, and from personal reconnoissance.

Fourth. The preparation of a scheme for the polyconic projection of the reach covered by chart No.3, on a 1:40000 scale, and of its subdivision into suitable uni. form sheets showing both shores of river with hydrography on 1:10000 scale.

The general scheme and two of the sheets were completed. The first one, covering the reach from Big Point to Little Rapids and including Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., anıl Canada, with all the details previously secured, occupied about two months of my time; the serond sheet, covering the reach from Old Vessel Point, Canada, to Point aux Pins, was also completed.

Fifth. The preparation of a similar general and subdivision scheme for reach covered by chart No. 2, of which the general plan only was completed. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. von Sch

A88istant Engineer. First Lieut. CHARLES S. RICHÉ,

Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.



Detroit, Mich., May 14, 1894. SIR: I have the honor to submit the following final report relating to operations of the survey party under my charge, July 10 to December 1, 1893, while resurveying the Canadian shore of St. Marys River, between the Shingwauk Home and North Gros Cap.


In accordance with the order of Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers, dated Detroit, July 10, 1893, I reported for duty at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., on July 12, 1893.

The remainder of the month of July was devoted to the preparation of camp outfit, office work, etc.

From August 1 to 3 I carried a line of levels from B. M. “A” on the north wall of the '81 lock at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., across the international bridge and east along the Canadian shore to a point opposite Topsail Islands.

On August 4 I was ordered to cut lines of sight for triangulation work, from A Azimuth to A Soo, A Larke, and A Mirron. This was done by day's labor, and was completed on August 11.

The plane tables with which the topographical work was to be done arrived on August 7, and I proceeded at once to graduate the stadia rods for the two parties. The party in charge of Assistant Engineer H. von Schon being in the field, it was deemed Lore practicable for me to do this work.

My party was accordingly organized, and went into camp on the Canadian shore, opposite Topsail Islands, on August 14, 1893.

The party consisted of the following members :

John Conrick, recorder, in the service from July 12 to December 9, 1893; Clifton R. Norton, rodman, in the service from August 1 to September 13, 1893; Richard Johnson, rodman, in the service from August 7 to December 1, 1893; Fred'E. Leefe, rodman, in the service from August 10 to September 30, 1893; W. J. Steere, rodman, in the service from August 10 to December 1, 1893; Peter Biron, cook, in the service from August 10 to October 1, 1893.

Subsequent changes caused the following to be employed :

Peter Biron, rodman, in the service from October 1 to November 24, 1893; C. E. Thompson, rodman, in the service from September 19 to December 1, 1893; Mrs. Peter Biron, cook, in the service from October 1 to November 22, 1893.

The first camp, near Topsail Islands, was occupied until September 1, and an area of about 5 square miles, including the greater portion of the town of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, was covered. As may be in ferred, this work contained considerable detail, which, together with a newly organized party, made the progress rather slow at first.

The second camp was pitched on Davignons Point, and was occupied until Sep. tember 29, having moved camp with the tug Myra. An area of about 9 square miles was surveyed from this camp, including the western portion of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, the Canadian canal grounds, Swedish settlement, and the country about 4 miles west of the town. A line of levels was also carried from a bench mark near the Canadian Lock, previously established, to a bench mark on Dick Moores Point.

The third camp was located between the Big and Little Carp rivers, about one-half mile from shore. Moving from Davignons Point was done by team and wagon. The area covered from here was abont 11 square miles.

More work was done from this camp than would ordinarily have been advisable, but for several reasons it was considered best to survey the Point aux Pins region from here, and not to occupy this locality with a camp.

The more important reasons leading to this conclusion may be thus stated: According to orders, the survey was to extend north as far as the bluffs, and this necessitated an inland camp. As there is only one road, which is very bad in places, leading from Point aux Pins to the north, and as the bulk of the work was done at some distance inland, it was thought best to complete the shore line and the lower portion of marshy country while being located at the Carp River camp, and then to move camp by wagon to the second line road, which was done October 23.

On October 9 and 10 I continued the levels from a bench mark on the base line road, previously established, to about one-half mile east of Gros Cap, at the Indian settlement.

The plane table being the only instrument available np to October 12, was used exclusively previous to this time. The weather was becoming very disagreeable, cold and rainy, so that the plane table was entirely abandoned as soon as a transit was placed at my disposal. Since October 12 the plane table was used only three days, during exceptionally good weather, on shore line work.

The camp No. 4, on the second line road, was occupied from October 23 to November 14. During this time the party lived in a vacant house which they had rented, in preference to camping in tents. The plan was a good one, as there was much rain. It kept the men in excellent health.

About 13 square miles were covered from this camp, completing the survey to
South Gros Cap.

At this time continual snowstorms made the progress very slow, but the work was nevertheless continued to North Gros Cap, in compliance with the orders received. This necessitated moving camp to South Gros Cap on November 14, and working as the weather permitted.

The larger portion of my camp outfit was moved to Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., via Point aux Pins, in sleighs, and the party took possession of Assistant Engineer Haskell's camp, as Mr. Haskell was no longer in need of his outfit.

The continued snow made the traveling very slow on the Gros Cap ridge, and as the country is thickly wooded there was much cutting to do, so that this work, covering only about 2 square miles, was not completed until November 28.

Messrs. John Conrick and C. E. Thompson walked to Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., to report the completion of the work and that camp should be moved.

The first opportunity for the tug Vyra to land at Gros Cap occurred on December 1, when the remainder of the party and the outfit were brought back to Sault Ste. Marie. The trip was very stormy, and one of the tents was blown overboard and could not be recovered.

The plotted and inked field sheets, numbered 1 to 5, together with notebooks comprising the records of the survey, were tiled in the office at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

The party was discharged and I returned to Detroit in obedience to a written order from Col. O. M. Poe, reporting for duty in Detroit on December 3, 1893.


The plane table with stadia was used exclusively from August 14 to October 12, it being the only good instrument provided for this work. From October 12 to completion of the survey, November 29, a transit and stadia was used, with the exception of three days. This transit had been used by Assistant Engineer E. E. Haskell on the triangulation work, and became available just at the time the cold and wet fall weather set in, and the plane table would necessarily have been discarded.

While working with the plane table the various duties were distributed among the members of the party as follows: The chief of party did the field plotting and took the station settings, directed the rodmen, and planned the general course of the work, besides logking up any doubtful matters. The recorder took the instrument pointings for side shots, recording all readings in his notebook, while the chief would plot the readings and number the points as recorded, so that it was possible to identify each plotted point in the notes.


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