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not allotted will not suffice for the acquisition of the sites whose condemnation has been requested. Other sites also being necessary for carrying out existing projects of defense, an estimate of $500,000 is submitted for the acquisition of additional sites for gun and mortar batteries.

For the protection, preservation, and repair of fortifications, for which there may be no special appropriation available, $80,000 was appropriated August 18, 1890, and an equal amount February 24, 1891. As special appropriations are no longer made for individual works, these amounts must be applied to the ordinary expenses and the preservation and repair of all existing fortifications; no part of the general appropriations for the construction of gun and 'moitar batteries being thus applied. Accordingly allotinents were made for current expenses and for the most urgent and necessary repairs of works; a balance of $7,257.46 being now held in reserve for such special repairs and contingencies as can not now be foreseen. For many years, previous appropriations for this purpose ranged from $100,000 to $175,000, and were found necessary; it is not prudent to reduce these below the amounts of each of the last two appropriations, and therefore an estimate of $80,000 for the protection, preservation, and repair of fortifications is submitted.

For the construction of needful casemates and cable galleries there was appropriated August 18, 1890, $100,000, and February 24, 1891, $50,000. At of my last annual report there were building or completed casemates, as follows: 2 at Boston, 5 at New York, and 2 at San Francisco. These nine are now completed, and as their average cost was found to be less tban the amounts allotted for their construc. tion, the balances of a previous appropriation were re-allotted to other works.

Projects have been prepared and approved for additional casemates, as follows: Portland, 1; Philadelphia, 1; Washington, 1; Hampton Roads, 1; Charleston, 1; San Francisco, 1; in all, six. Projects are being prepared for two for the defense of Narragansett Bay, and an additional casemate at Philadelphia. The construction of these three will prob. ably consume the existing available balance of previous appropriations, which is $104,753.21. Seventeen casemates are thus provided for the places named, but the proposed defenses call for thirty. The construction of these important auxiliary defenses should continue, and for this purpose an estimate of $200,000 is submitted, which will probably suffice for six casemates.

Additional sea walls and embankments are required at Davids and Governors islands. At Davids Island, besides protecting the shore, 1} acres of land will be reclaimed by a wall and embankment 1,100 feet long; at Governors Island a wall 325 feet long is required on the east side to replace wharf fronts and timber bulkheads now decaying and rapidly deteriorating.

The restoration of Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., and the improve ment of the grounds has been carried on under a special appropriation of $15,000 ; $6,000 is asked to complete this work. A detailed report is given below.

Boston Harbor, Massachusetts.-Officer in charge, Lieut. Col. S. M. Mansfield, Corps of Engineers, with Capt. S. S. Leach, Corps of Engi. neers, under his immediate orders.

The approved project for the defense of this harbor contemplates, for the present, an armament of twelve 12-inch gims on lifts, fifteen 10-inch

and five 8-inch guns on disappearing carriages, one hundred and twentyeight 12-inch mortars, and submarine mines to be operated from four mining casemates. An emplacement for one 8-inch gun is under construction; the necessary demolition of old masonry and earth work has been well advanced toward completion and considerable new concrete material collected and stored; detailed plans for two emplacements for 10-inch gods are near completion; a mortar battery for sixteen mortars was commenced late in June, 1891; two mining casemates have been completed.

New York Harbor, New York.--Officers of the Corps of Engineers in charge: Col. D. C. Houston, Lieut. Col. G. L. Gillespie, with Lieut. Harry Taylor under his immediate orders, and Lieut. Col.'W. R. King.

The projects for the defenses of both the southern and eastern entrances to this harbor contemplate, for the present, an armament of nineteen 12-inch guns on lifts, seventeen 10-inch and nine 8 inch guns on disappearing carriages, one hundred and seventy-six 12-inch mortars, and submarine mines operated from five mining casemates. The five mining casemates are completed. Emplacements have been commenced for two 12-inch guns on lifts, six 8-inch guns, and thirty-two 12-inch mortars.

Colonel Houston reports as to the construction of three emplacements for 8-inch guns : 16,620 cubic yards of earth has been excavated and placed in embankment; the construction of a concrete-mixer has been begun, and material for concrete has been purchased.

Lientenant-Colonel Gillespie reports: All the excavations for the foundations of the northern half of the two 12-inch gun battery and nearly all those for the southern half were finished, and about 3,500 cubic yards of concrete and rough stone had been put in place, mainly in the northern half. The foundation for the accumulator pit, 5 feet below low water, has been successfully laid, and the curb for the shot lift is nearly adjusted. This latter penetrates the sand to a depth of 22 feet below low water. It is expected that the masonry will be finished so as to enable the contractors for the ironwork to erect the mechanism of oue lift early in the winter.

For the mortar battery 30,000 cubic yards of sand was excavated, completing the excavations for the gun pits, passageways, aud magazines. Machinery has been set up and all other preparations made for the rapid and economical manufacture and deposit of concrete.

Lieutenant-Colonel King reports work on one of three emplacements for 8-inch guns as well under way. The excavation for the magazine and its approaches has been made, and concrete is being put in at the rate of about 75 cubic yards, soon to be increased to 100 or more cubic yards, per day.

This officer also reports that 400 cubic yards of rock and 1,600 cubic yards of earth have been removed on the site of a battery for sixteen mortars.

Washington, District of Columbia.–Officer in charge, Lieut. Col. Peter C. Hains, Corps of Engineers.

The approved project of defense contemplates emplacements for four 12 inch guns on lifts, six 10-inch and three 8-inch guns on disappearing carriages, eight 12-inch mortars, and submarine mines operated from two mining casemates. Detailed plans of emplacements for two 8-inch gups have been prepared and approved, and the emplace. ments are about to be commenced, and one mining casemate is under way.

Hampton Roads, Virginia.–Officer in charge, Lieut. Col. Peter C. Hains, Corps of Engineers, with Lieut. George A. Zinn, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders.

The approved project of defense contemplates, for the present, five 12-inch guns on lifts, ten 10-inch guns on disappearing carriages, thirtytwo 12-inch mortars, and submarine mines operated from two mining casemates. Plant and materials have been collected for the construction of two emplacements for 8-inch guns, the concrete work of the mining casemate is completed, and the sand cover is being put in place.

San Francisco Harbor, California.--Officer in charge, Col. George H. Mendell, Corps of Engineers, with Lieuts. Henry C. Newcomer, and Charles L. Potter, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders, the former since September 4, 1889, the latter since June 17, 1891.

The approved project of defense contemplates, for the present, eighteen 12-inch guns on lifts, twenty-three 10-inch and thirteen 8-inch guns on disappearing carriages; fifteen 12-inch, five 10 inch, and six 8-inch guns on non-disappearing carriages; one hundred and forty-four 12 inch mortars, and submarine mines operated from seven mining casemates. Two mining casemates are completed. A third was commenced in May, and excavation work continued through June. About 3,000 cubic yards was excavated for two emplacements for 8-inch guns, and a concrete. mixer and a stone-crusher have been ordered. Drawings of detailed plans have been made for emplacements for one 8-inch and three 10-inch guns, and the amount of concrete and excavation required has been computed. The drawings of sections remain to be made.


Officer in charge, Maj. M. B. Adams, Corps of Engineers, until November 10, 1890; afterwards, Capt. Dan C. Kingman, Corps of Engineers; Division Engineer, Col. Henry L. Abbot, Corps of Engineers.

Protection of site.-Operations bave been in progress for the protection of the site under allotments made from the appropriations for “Sea walls and Embankments.”

The project provided for the repair of the sea wall along the lake front, the construction of dikes of fascines, iron pickets, and stove along tbe river and a portion of the lake front, and the filling in behind these dikes to a height of 6 feet above low water, leaving a flat slope down to the water, then a suitable roadway, then a steeper slope to the gen. eral level of the site, to protect the lower slope by a growth of willows, and the upper slope by sod.

Uuder this project repairs have been made to the wall at the northwest angle, which had been breached and thrown down by the waves, and some 1,711 feet of dike has been built. July 1, 1990, balance unexpended...

$9, 126.40 Amount allotted October 11, 1890.


Jnue 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year

18, 126. 40

6, 437.45 Joly 1, 1891, balance unexpended July 1, 1891, balance available....

11, 638.95

11, 688.95 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project

20, 105, 30 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1893 13,000.00

(See Appendix No. 1.)


Officer in charge, Col. D. C. Houston, Corps of Engineers.

Davids Island, 21 miles distant by water from the Battery, New York City, is one of the principal recruiting stations of the Army. On the east side of the island was a bay into which garbage and refuse matter frequently drifted, becoming a source of annoyance and possible disease to the troops stationed there; separated from the bay by a low sand beach was a fresh-water pond, formerly used as a water supply during drought, and still used as an ice pond.

To protect the pond from salt water, as well as for sanitary reasons, the construction of a sea wall in front of this beach was recommended in 1883 and 1884. In 1886 $47,000 was estimated as the cost of a masonry wall about 980 feet long, with embankment behind, the wall to be placed near low-water line and to rise to 12 feet above mean low. water level.

Under the appropriation of September 22, 1888, 847,000 was allotted for this sea wall and embankment. Recent stringent regulations prevent the deposit of garbage in this vicinity; therefore a riprap wall with dimension stone capping was substituted for the masonry wall originally designed, the cost being less and the wall equally effective. The sea wall was completed in April, 1890; work on the embankment, which was in progress July 1, 1890, was completed September 13.

In March, 1891, at request of the Quartermaster's Department, an examination was made of the shore above the coal wharf on the west side of the island, where the bank has been caving for several years; the damage was found to have been serious during the past winter, and a survey was made as a basis for estimates of cost of protection there and at other points. The field work of this survey is just completed, and the officer in charge reports that protection of the shore northeast of the coal wharf is necessary, and shonld be undertaken as soon as practicable; he estimates $30,000 as the cost of a sea wall about 1,100 feet long, and of embankment behind it to reclaim and preserve about it acres area.

The final report upon the survey will inclade a consideration of other points where protection of the shore is less immediately necessary. July 1, 1890, balance unexpended

$15,793.94 June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year

4, 201.08 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.

11,597.86 July 1, 1891, balance available


Amount (estimated) required for completion of project submitted June 30, 1891

55,000.00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1803. 55,000,00

(See Appendix 2 A.)


Officer in charge, Col. D. C. Houston, Corps of Engineers. The project adopted in 1865 provided for inclosing the entire island by a sea wall. Under an allotment made in 1865, and other subsequent allotments and appropriations, walls were built on the soutlı, southeast, east, and north west sides of the island, which, with the Castle Williams wall and the ordnance wall, inclosed the entire island, with the exception of about 325 feet at the coal wharf, for which no estimate has beretofore been submitted, and about 1,515 feet on the west side of the island, for which $50,000 was appropriated by act of August 1890. A contract for the construction of this wall and for emba ment back of it was made November 26, 1890; work of building wall was begun in May, 1891, and is now in progress. To June 1891, 144.05 cubic yards of concrete foundation and 153.59 linear 1 of masonry wall were laid. Work on the embankment has not b begun.

A masonry wall should be built at the coal wharf on the east side the island about 325 feet long, estimated to cost $17,000. July 1, 1890, balance unexpended ...

$8.75 Amount appropriated by act approved August 18, 1890...


58,75 June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year....

5,01 July 1, 1891, balance mexpended....

53,74 July 1, 1891, outstanding liabilities..

$2,608.44 July 1, 1891, amount covered by uncompleted contracts..... 47, 446, 76

50, 05 July 1, 1891, balance available..

3, 68 Amount (estimated) required for completion of project submitted June 30, 1891....

17,00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.. 17,00

(See Appendix 2 B.)


FORT MONROE, VIRGINIA. Officer in charge, Lieut. Col. Peter C. Hains, Corps of Engine with Lieut. George A. Zinn, Corps of Engineers, under his immed orders.

Beach protection. The erosion of the beach on the bay side and the northeastward of Fort Monroe bas progressed to such an ext that the narrow strip of beach connecting Fort Monroe with the m land is in danger of being cut through.

An allotment from the appropriation for preservation and repai fortifications enabled the construction of jetties to be commenced, work being continued with an appropriation of $27,000 made for purpose by act of February 24, 1891.

A contract was made March 4, 1891, for the construction of ab 1,600 feet of pile jetty, and the work is now in progress. From pres indications the erosion will be checked and accretions may result.

(See Appendix 3 A.)

Water supply.—The supply of water is dependent upon rain wa stored in cisterns, and water of inferior quality brought across Creek by a system of iron pipes. It is important that an adequ supply be had within the limits of the fortification. An appropriat of $10,000 for obtaining such a supply was recommended in my l annual report; $6,000 was appropriated by act of February 24, 19 This amount not being sufficient to sink a well to a depth alreally monstrated at this place to be insufficient, it has not been expend and it is recommended that the additional $4,000, thought necessa be appropriated.

(See Appendix 3 B.)

Severage system. The act of March 2, 1889, appropriated $27,000 a complete system of sewerage, inside and outside of the fort. Bids ceived for this work demonstrated the insufliciency of the appropriat

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