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What shall we call them? (Shall we call them) Piles of crystal light? (Shall we call them) A glorious company of golden streams? (Shall we call them) Lamps of celestial ether burning bright - (or) suns lighting systems with their joyous beams? But thou to these art as the noon to night. Hail to your lordship! I am glad to see you well. (It is) Horatio, (who speaks to me,) or I do forget myself. (It is) The same, my lord, and (I am) your poor servant
Sir, (you are) my good friend. I'll change that name with you.
Ah, whither now are fled those dreams of greatness ? (Whither now are fled) Those unsated hopes of happiness? (Whither now are fled) Those busy, bustling days? (Whither now are fled) * Those gay-spent, festive nights, (and) those veering thoughts, lost between good and ill, that shared thy life?
Almighty! trembling like a timid child, I hear thy awful voice (and when I hear it I am) alarmed - (and) afraid. I see the flashes of thy lightning wild, and in the very grave would hide
head. Sourceless and endless God! compared with thee, life is a shadowy, (and not only a shadowy, but also a) momentary dream; and (even) time, when viewed through thy eternity, (is) less than the mote of morning's golden beam.
Curse these cowardly covenanters ! - what (shall we do) if they tumble down upon our heads pieces of rock from their hiding-places ? (Shall we) advance ? Or (shall we) retreat ?
To save a bishop, may I name a dean? (May you name) a dean, sir? No; his fortune is not made; you hurt a man that's rising in the trade. If (I may) not (name) the tradesman who set up to-day, much less (may I name) the apprentice who to-morrow may (set up.)
So goes the world; if (you are) wealthy, you may call this (man your) friend, that (man your) brother ; friends and brothers all (men will be to you) (or you may call all men your friends and brothers.)
* The ellipsis is supplied, at each of these inquiries, to show that the falling inflection of the voice is required at each of the questions ; and it will be noticed, throughout this lesson, that the ellipsis is supplied in parentheses in many sentences where it may appear to be superfluous ; but the author's design in so doing is to lead more directly to the proper intonation of the voice.
The word Antithesis means opposition, or contrast. In all sentences in which an emphatic word occurs, there is an antithesis expressed or understood ; and it is necessary to be able to distinguish the words which form the antithesis, or which are contrasted, in order to ascertain which word should be emphasized. Thus, in the sentence given in the introduction to the 176th lesson — “Shall you ride to town to-day? if the answer be, “ No, I shall walk,” there is an antithesis, or contrast, in the words ride and walk, which shows that ride is the emphatic word. Again, if the answer be, “ No, I shall ride into the country,” the antithesis is in the words town and country, which shows that the word town is the emphatic word. Once more, if the answer be, “ No, but I shall go to-morrow,” the antithesis is in the words to-day and tomorrow, which shows that the word to-day is to be emphasized.
[It is thus seen that it is necessary that the pupil should study out the meaning of a sentence, and be able to form the antithesis upon which the emphatic words depend, in order to read it correctly and expressively. This exercise will require judgment and discrimination. Indeed, it is this very thing which constitutes the whole Art of reading, and which often renders it a subject of deep study even to matured minds. It is, however, a subject of such paramount importance, that it must not be overlooked or neglected even in the lessons of very young readers. The assistance afforded the reader in this lesson will lead his mind, it is thought, to a correct understanding of the subject, and enable him to apply his powers suc. cessfully to the analysis of other sentences, in which no aid is furnished.]
The emphatic words which form the antithesis in the following sentences are printed in small capitals, and the member of the antithesis which is understood is supplied in Italic letters between crotchets. Let the whole passage first be read, and then let the sentence be read, with the omission of the part in crotchets.
The darts of anguish (may STRIKE, but they) Fix not where the seat of suffering hath been thoroughly fortified by acquiescence in the will supreme, (not only for a SHORT PERIOD, but) for TIME and for ETERNITY.
Hereditary bondmen! Know ye not, who would be free (must not depend upon the assistance of others, but) THEMSELVES must strike the blow ? By THEIR right arm (not by the right arm of OTHERS) the conquest must be wrought.
Where'er we tread (it is not a COMMON spot, but) 't is HAUNTED, HOLY ground.
It is often said, by inconsiderate men, that TIME (not INCLINATION) is wanted for the duties of religion.
Misses ! the tale that I relate (is not intended for your DIVERSION alone, but it) seems to carry this LESSON : Choose not alone a proper MATE, but proper TIME to marry.
As much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men, (but ot with all WOMEN.)
You did not read that last sentence correctly; for, by emphasizing the word MEN, you made it appear as if the apostle meant that you might quarrel with women and CHILDREN, (if you would live peaceably with men.) Now, his meaning is, that you should live peaceably with all men, (not with your FRIENDS alone, but with ALL MANKIND.) Therefore
should read it thus : As much as lieth in you, live peaceably with ALL men.
[Sometimes both the words which constitute the antithesis are expressed, as in the following sentence.]
"It is from UNTAMED PASSIONS, not from WILD BEASTS, that the greatest evils arise to human society.
WHEN a number of particulars are mentioned in a sentence, it is called an Enumeration.
In many sentences of this kind, it is proper to use the falling inflection of the voice at each of the subjects of the enumeration, except the last but one, which should be read with the rising inflection. The following sentences are of this kind. In order to assist the pupil, the acute and grave accents are used to designate the inflections of the voice.
O, how canst thou renounce the boundless store of charms that Nature to her votary yields! The warbling woodland, the resounding shòre, the pomp of groves, the garniture of fields; all that the genial ray of morning gilds, and all that echoes to the song of èven; all that the mountain's sheltering bosom shields, and all the dread magnificence of heaven, oh, how canst thou renounce, and hope to be forgiven?
The coffin was let down to the bottom of the gràve, the planks were removed from the heaped-up brink, the first rattling clods had struck their knell, the quick shoveling was óver, and the long, broad, skillfully-cut pieces of turf were aptly joined together, and trimly laid by the beating spade, so that the newest mound in the churchyard was scarcely distinguishable from those that were grown over by the undisturbed grass
and daisies of a luxuriant spring. Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these : adultery, fornication, unclèanness, lasciviousness, idòlatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wràth, strife, sedi
tions, hèresies, envyings, mùrders, drùnkenness, révellings, and such like.
But the fruit of the Spirit is love, jòy, peace, long-suffering, gèntleness, goodness, fàith, meekness, tèmperance.
Nature has laid out all her art in beautifying the fàce: she has touched it with vermilion; made it the seat of smiles and blushes; lighted it up and enlivened it with the brightness of the èyes; hung it on each side with curious organs of sense ; given it airs and graces that cannot be described, and surrounded it with such a flowing shade of hair as sets all its beauties in the most agreeable lìght.
They, through faith, subdued kingdoms, wrought rìghteousness, obtained pròmises, stopped the inouth of lions, quenched the violence of fìre, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made stròng, waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of the aliens.
The Slur. THE Slur is the name given to such a management of the voice as is opposed to emphasis. When a word or part of a sentence is emphasized, it is to be pronounced with a louder and more forcible effort of the voice, and it is frequently to be prolonged. But when a sentence or part of a sentence is slurred, it is to be read like a parenthesis, in an altered tone of voice, more rapidly, and not so forcibly, and with all the words pronounced nearly alike.*
The parts which are to be slurred in this lesson are printed in Italia letters, and the words on which emphatic force is to be bestowed are printed in capitals.
Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me more. Say from WHENČE you owe this strange intelligence ;
or WHY upon this blasted heath you stop our way with such prophetic greeting.
But let me ask by WHAT RIGHT do you involve your
* On the management of the slur much of the beauty and propriety of enunciation depends ; especially in all sentences in which parentheses abound. How much soever a sentence may be cumbered with explanatory details, or interrupted and obscured by parentheses and unimportant adjuncts, the reader, by a proper management of the slur, can always bring forward the most important particulars into a strong light, and throw the rest into shade; thereby entirely changing the character of the sentence, and making it appear lucid, strong and expressive,
self in this multiplicity of cares? WHY do you weave around you this web of occupation, and then complain that you cannot break it ?
And when the prodigal son came to himself, he said, “How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger ! I will arise and GO to my father; and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants.'” And he arose, and was coming to his father; but while he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him. And the son SAID unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son.
When therefore the Lord knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John, though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples, he left Judea, and departed again into Galilee.
Then again the PHARisees asked him how he had received his sight. He said unto THEM, “ He put clay upon mine eyes, and I washed, and do see.” *
But yonder comes the powerful KING OF DAY, rejoicing in the east. The lessening cloud, the kindling azure, and the mountain's brow illumed with fluid gold, his near approach betoken glad. LO, NOW, APPARENT ALL, aslant the dew-bright earth and colored air, he looks in boundless MAJESTY abroad, and sheds the shining day, that burnished plays on rocks, and hills, and towers, and wandering streams, HIGH GLEAMING FROM AFAR.
Behold, I show you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a MOMENT, in the TWINKLING of an EYE, AT the LAST TRUMP; for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this CORRUPTIBLE must put on INCORRUPTION, and this MORTAL must put on IMMORTALITY. So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, DEATH IS SWALLOWED UP IN
* This passage has been previously related ; and all similar repetitions are to be slurred, unless there is particular reason for emphasizing them.