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acter, and where they can detect and check those tendencies to evil to which most children are prone.

Besides, private schools and academies were located where they were least needed. “The private school system will never plant schools where they are needed to meet the wants of the entire community. Hence some, nay, many would under it be excluded from all school privileges by location. Teachers will of course choose to establish schools only in dense and wealthy communities, where good compensation will be assured to them, and the poorer and more sparsely settled sections of the country will be left altogether unsup

plied." 24

Even though academies were rightly located, “they are too expensive for general use. Teachers must live; and private schools must charge a rate of tuition per scholar which will support the teacher or teachers, and afford a superior income sufficient to pay rent for buildings and fixtures, and this will make education much more expensive to scholars than when the property is taxed to support the schools of the district. And especially does this private school system press heavily upon those in the community who are rich only in mouths to be filled, backs and feet to be covered, and bills to be paid. Multitudes of children must remain untaught if only this system be in operation among us." 25

Finally, the private school teacher sacrificed efficiency for popularity with pupils, which meant popularity with the parents. Some thought that popularity was incompatible with the proper handling of pupils, because the only concern of the teacher should be to know and do his duty. Wealth ought not make any difference in the children's school privileges. But common school pupils paid only thirty dollars, where academic pupils paid ninety dollars for instruction.

However, it was recognized that the academy had some advantages. (1) “The teachers in the private schools, as a class, are superior in natural endowments and scientific attainments to the teachers in the public schools. They must be so to sustain themselves. No private school with inferior teachers at its head ever had more than an ephemeral existence; while nine-tenths of the public schools, taking the country through, are supplied with teachers of an inferior grade, unfit to be trusted with the molding of immortal minds." 28 (2) The equipment and apparatus was far superior in the academies. (3) The academies had a more enriched curriculum while public school education was “confined to the intellect at the expense of manners, morals, and the organic structure. Better no education, than such education. It only tends to make rogues." 27

23 111. Teach., p. 80. 24 Ibid., p. 87. a Ibid., p. 86.

It is evident therefore, that the State was divided into two groups, the one favoring public schools, the other academies. The south, generally, wanted to be left alone with its original class system of education. On the other hand, the north wanted to impose its common school system on all alike, the State over. The attitude of the two sections can be clearly obtained by studying the literature of each of the two groups. Many times the south was bitterly opposed to the common school, while the north eulogized it.

We have got to hating everything with the prefix free, from free negroes up and down through the whole catalogues -free farms, free labor, free society, free will, free thinking, free children, and free schools—all belonging to the same brood of damnable isms; but the worst of all these abominations is the modern system of free schools. We abominate the system because the schools are free." 28

The other attitude follows: “We dedicate it to freedom; to humanity; to advancing civilization of the ages; to an ever onward, ever upward, and ever glorious career of conjoined knowledge and industry, science and art, justice and humanity. In a word, we dedicate it to the human race, to Christ, and to God, to the truth they enjoin, the beneficence they inspire, and the glory they impart; and should any ever in the future attempt to divert or hinder it from these great ends, this glorious career, we this day pray that their hands and their tongues may become palsied and powerless; that its beams and rafters may cry out against them, and its very bricks and stones confront and repel them; and that, ever guarding its own vestal fire within, it may throw far abroad the radiance of its own light—resplendent and beneficient to

» 111. Teach., v. 4, p. 77.
21 Ibid.
* Ibid., p. 79.

all on earth—accepted and blessed by all in Heaven; and that from age to age the zephyrs may still waft the sweet music of its love over the green grass where its founders rest as successive generations of youthful voices arises to call them the blessed of the Lord.'' 29

Ex-Gov. Reynolds, at this time, wrote a little book urging the people of the south to accept the free school law. The repeal of the Missouri Compromise through the Dred Scot Decision, and the birth of the Republican party kindled anew the sectional feeling. So it is doubtful whether his book had a wide circulation and much influence in the interests of free education in the southern part of the State.

S. W. Moulton, who managed the free school law in the legislature, spoke of it, about the time Reynolds wrote his book, as having aroused the people from apathy because their interest lay where their money was spent. The property tax led, therefore, to suggestions and improvements in the law that could not be foreseen until experience was obtained by practice.

Since there were two extreme beliefs over the free school bill depicted, and since it appears that the opposition was connected with slavery, and in justice to both the North and the South, it would be in order to state from the evidence which we have what each section contributed and what its attitude has been to education.

The academy was supported alike by both sections, it having been first introduced by the South because southerners settled Illinois first. Though it operated in both sections for the education of leaders, the children of the poor were to be educated gratis, and a common school department for the "public" was usually attached. Manual labor was adopted principally to make it economically possible for the less wealthy to receive an education.

The apprentice laws were of southern origin, and the indentures were usually those of negroes or mulattoes. The explanation of the introduction of the apprenticeship system by the way of the South instead of the North lies in the fact that the northerner did not come until only the vestiges of indentures remained in the older eastern states; while the southern immigration took place at an earlier time when the apprenticeship system was a little more common.

20 Ill. Teach., v. 4, p. 185.

To the South should be attributed the enactment of the first free school law in 1825. The poor and ignorant for whom it was especially designed to benefit objected because they did not understand its benefits and could not pay the necessary tax for the support of schools. The South was wholly to blame for the repeal of the law.

Again, the South forged to the front in the proposed legislation for free schools, and county normal schools which were to be supported as the academies were in Kentucky and Virginia, but these plans were finally rejected by a legislature whose majority consisted of representatives from the older southern counties in Illinois.

The adoption of the recommendation of the representative leaders from both sections for a state superintendent of common schools failed, but the office was vested ex-officio in that of the Secretary of State. This was probably patterned after the Pennsylvania type.30

However, the resolutions, recommendations and petitions for a separate state superintendent came almost exclusively from the newer counties of the northern and western sections which were settled by New Englanders and easterners.31

The growth of the question of taxation is illustrative of the attitude of northern and southern Illinois toward free schools. The legislature, besides granting the right of taxation for school purposes in a few city charters, passed a general law in 1845 which allowed communities to levy a property tax by a two-thirds majority vote for school purposes. The taxing clause was changed in 1848 to a majority vote.

The first report, issued in 1849, which dealt with an ad valorem property tax for schools, showed that $29,947.46 was voluntarily levied by the people. Thirty of the counties levying such tax were in the northern part of the State, while six were in the southern part. In 1852, $51,101.14 were likewise voluntarily levied by forty-three counties, thirty-six of which were northern and seven southern. Of the twenty-six coun

30 Assembly Reports, 1844, p. 103. $1 Assembly Reports, 1846, 1849, 1851, 1853, Jr. Const. Con., 1847.

ties that did not levy a tax, eighteen were southern and eight northern counties.32

In the senate, the free school bill of 1855 passed by a vote of 20 to 3, and in the house, 47 to 14. An analysis of the vote relative to the section from which the representatives came shows that most of the opposition was in the southern tier of counties stretching to the east and southeast of St. Louis across the State.

Therefore, it is evident that the opposition to the idea of free education came from the old southern portion of the State. This probably was not due to the fact that these people were southern in origin for such leaders as Coles, Duncan and Edwards, always champions of free schools, migrated to Illinois from the South; but rather the opposition finds its explanation in the fact that the southern districts were economically much less able to support free schools than the fertile and commercial northern sections.

Before discussing the beginnings and characteristics of the high school, a summary of the free school law of 1855 follows. The constitutional convention of 1847 accepted the first reading of a bill which provided for a free system of public schools, and a state superintendent to give the proposal effect, but the convention omitted all mention of free schools in the final draft of the constitution. However, the leaders, associations and editors continued to agitate the same question until the legislature authorized the separation of the Department of State and the schools. It also authorized the appointment of a state superintendent and required that he prepare a bill for the reorganization of a school system, which bill was adopted in 1855. A state tax of two mills was levied on every dollar of property and the income added to the annual distribution of the common school fund; a local tax was levied by the trustees of both township and district to help maintain at least one free school in every district for six months in the year. The state common school fund was distributed in such a manner that two-thirds was given to the county on the basis of the number of white children between the ages of five and twenty-one years, and the remaining one-third on the basis of the number of townships,

32 Assembly Reports, 1849, p. 116; 1853, p. 149.

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