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however, by agreement of the several boards interested therein, said school may be placed under the control and management of such persons as may be determined by a majority of said boards.'

The Illinois Teacher gave the reason for the name, union schools, thus: “They are called Union Schools because they afford all the advantages of a well conducted common or select school and academy for gentlemen, and the seminary for ladies; they are called graded because the pupils are classified according to their attainments; in such, the scholar may commence with the alphabet and pass from one grade to another, until prepared to engage in the common pursuits of life, or enter any college or university.'

Therefore, it is quite evident that the high school was a part of the union graded system. Moreover, it was essential to the union graded schools to have a high school as the capstone. "Our Union Graded Schools have demonstrated to the most skeptical that by adopting this plan they can have schools, apparatus and libraries, equal, if not superior, to our private institutions, with but a small additional expense to the present system. We look upon the establishment of the Union Graded, or Central High School to be essential to the free school system.” 9

The scheme of gradation was advocated somewhat vigorously over the State because its advocates believed that it was economical; that it was a stimulus to exertion on the part of the pupil; that classification could be made on merit; that the school system would become a selective agent; that a broader range of studies was possible; that school work could be made continuous; that more expert teaching was possible; and that better organization and administration resulted. 9a

From the above advantages of gradation, as were pointed out in educational thought, the framers of educational legislation were induced to make provision for graded schools in the bill of 1854. Township boards “shall have power to establish schools of different grades, to assign such number of scholars to such schools as they may think best, and to control

Sess. Laws, 1855, p. 61, sec. 37.
& Ill. Teach., v. I, p. 257.
• Ibid. v. 4, p. 6.

Da These arguments are greatly expanded in the Illinois Teacher, Volume 4, page 90.

and regulate the admission of scholars to schools of the higher and different grades, and if on account of great distance or difficulty of access to the schools in any township, or on account of the scholar being too far advanced to prosecute his studies in any school in his township, any of the pupils could be more conveniently accommodated in any other schools, academies or colleges in this State, the board of education shall have the power to make an arrangement by which such pupils may be instructed in the most convenient school, academy or college in this state, and the expense of such instruction shall be paid out of the public funds, as may be agreed upon by the board of education.” 10

The high school developed as a part of the common school system when the common schools became graded into primary, grammar and higher departments. It is true that the gradation of each of the departments took place next, but we are only concerned now with the last department. The academy may be said to have represented the upper part of the common school system in an ungraded form, with some enrichment of the curriculum. With the great power of the State behind the free common schools, the private schools and academies could not compete. Many of the private institutions accordingly, asked the state superintendent how they could be changed into high or union graded schools under the present law. By the law of 1855, as amended in 1857 and 1859, two methods were open:

•1. The directors of all the districts that wanted to unite should determine the number of scholars to attend the new school, should erect, rent or purchase a building and should levy a tax on each district in proportion to the number of pupils therefrom. The academy buildings might be so selected, and the directors in the district where the school was to be located should have its control and management.

2. All district directors might elect three trustees to be styled, directors of union district No.- in township No.- The union directors should have power to levy a tax on all property of the union district. Pupils should be admitted from outside the union district under such rules as the trustees should see fit to establish.

10 State Supt. Rep., 1854, p. 30.

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The difference in the two methods lay in the fact that, in the first, the tax was to be levied on each district in proportion to the number of pupils therefrom and the care of the school rested in the hands of the directors where the school was located. By the second plan, the directors were the trustees of the entire union district with the power to levy taxes on all of the property in the union district. Finally, the school was under the control of the directors representing the whole district.

By these provisions, private institutions could become public. Whether they did or not must be proved by investigation, although the state superintendent said, “that nearly two-thirds of all the private Academies and Seminaries that existed in the state have thrown up their organizations and reorganized under the Common School law." A list of Illinois High Schools in Existence at the Beginning

of the Civil War. The ordinary conception is that few free high schools were in existence in the United States before the Civil War. But investigations in Massachusetts, Ohio and Illinois have shown that an unexpected number were in operation. Certainly those institutions were not our present day high schools any more than early Harvard and Yale were the universities we know today. The characteristics of the high schools in Illinois before the Civil War were clearly enough marked out to warrant the use of the term-high school.

Then, we shall give a few examples to show how we have concluded that the free high schools were established as given in the table below. First, let us take Chicago. The legislature, March 1, 1839, gave the city council power to tax for schools.

“Sec. 3. The Common Council of the City of Chicago shall have power to raise all sufficient sums of money, by taxing the real and personal estates in said city, for the following purposes, to wit: To build school houses; to establish, support and maintain common and public schools, and to supply the inadequacy of the school fund for the payment of teachers; to purchase or lease a site or sites for school houses; to erect, hire or purchase buildings suitable for said

As an example of reorganization, see the special act allowing Crystall Lake Academy to reorganize. Sess. Laws, 1857, p. 1223.

and regulate the admission of scholars to schools of the higher and different grades, and if on account of great distance or difficulty of access to the schools in any township, or on account of the scholar being too far advanced to prosecute his studies in any school in his township, any of the pupils could be more conveniently accommodated in any other schools, academies or colleges in this State, the board of education shall have the power to make an arrangement by which such pupils may be instructed in the most convenient school, academy or college in this state, and the expense of such instruction shall be paid out of the public funds, as may be agreed upon by the board of education." 10

The high school developed as a part of the common school system when the common schools became graded into primary, grammar and higher departments. It is true that the gradation of each of the departments took place next, but we are only concerned now with the last department. The acadcmy may be said to have represented the upper part of the common school system in an ungraded form, with some enrichment of the curriculum. With the great power of the State behind the free common schools, the private schools and academies could not compete. Many of the private institutions accordingly, asked the state superintendent how they could be changed into high or union graded schools under the present law. By the law of 1855, as amended in 1857 and 1859, two methods were open:

1. The directors of all the districts that wanted to unite should determine the number of scholars to attend the new school, should erect, rent or purchase a building and should levy a tax on each district in proportion to the number of pupils therefrom. The academy buildings might be so selected, and the directors in the district where the school was to be located should have its control and management.

2. All district directors might elect three trustees to be styled, directors of union district No. in township

, No. The union directors should have power to levy a tax on all property of the union district. Pupils should be admitted from outside the union district under such rules as the trustees should see fit to establish.

10 State Supt. Rep., 1854, p. 30.

1

The difference in the two methods lay in the fact that, in the first, the tax was to be levied on each district in proportion to the number of pupils therefrom and the care of the school rested in the hands of the directors where the school was located. By the second plan, the directors were the trustees of the entire union district with the power to levy taxes on all of the property in the union district. Finally, the school was under the control of the directors representing the whole district.

By these provisions, private institutions could become public. Whether they did or not must be proved by investigation, although the state superintendent said, “that nearly two-thirds of all the private Academies and Seminaries that existed in the state have thrown up their organizations and reorganized under the Common School law." 11 A list of Illinois High Schools in Existence at the Beginning

of the Civil War. The ordinary conception is that few free high schools were in existence in the United States before the Civil War. But investigations in Massachusetts, Ohio and Illinois have shown that an unexpected number were in operation. Certainly those institutions were not our present day high schools any more than early Harvard and Yale were the universities we know today. The characteristics of the high schools in Illinois before the Civil War were clearly enough marked out to warrant the use of the term-high school.

Then, we shall give a few examples to show how we have concluded that the free high schools were established as given in the table below. First, let us take Chicago. The legislature, March 1, 1839, gave the city council power to tax for schools.

“Sec. 3. The Common Council of the City of Chicago shall have power to raise all sufficient sums of money, by taxing the real and personal estates in said city, for the following purposes, to wit: To build school houses; to establish, support and maintain common and public schools, and to supply the inadequacy of the school fund for the payment of teachers; to purchase or lease a site or sites for school houses; to erect, hire or purchase buildings suitable for said

11 As an example of reorganization, see the special act allowing Crystal Lake Academy to reorganize. Sess. Laws, 1857, p. 1223.

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