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tions. That idea, more specific, more refined and more extended, was the basis upon which the Land Grant Act was made, the Illinois Industrial University was chartered and manual training in high schools was begun.

The academy in Illinois was a well established institution by 1850. Up to that time, there was practically no other nieans in the state for obtaining a useful, cultural, or a professional secondary education.

ucation. But the academy was limited in its clientele because communication was undeveloped, transportation by railroad was possible only between the chief towns, and wagon roads, a greater part of the year, were too muddy for convenient travel. Consequently, chartered or private academic institutions had to be established in towns where there was the possibility of having a local student body. Of course, non-resident pupils were welcomed but they came in no large numbers. From the sources of student population, sufficient numbers to maintain a school were frequently lacking, so that the academy had to close its doors or sell to a more enterprising master. For example, in the period from 1835 to 1840, Springfield had a succession of eight or ten institutions, struggling for a year or so, and then passing out of existence. In spite of the short life, especially of the unchartered institutions, and several of the chartered academies, the academic system was kept in existence in the larger towns until the free school law of 1855 made it possible for the academies to have public support. Usually in the North, the weaker institutions took advantage of the law, but some of the stronger and well supported academies that had less need for public financial aid, continued to serve the more select group of people.

It was evident, therefore, that many of the children of the state were unable to attend academies. But the people were too close to the traditions of the states from whence they migrated not to make attempts to provide some of the educational means that were used at home. Hence, the next division will consider the common school system as distinguished from the academy, and will show how the upper part of the former ordinarily developed into the free public high school, and the means by which the latter was permitted to become a free institution if it so desired.

PART II. THE COMMON SCHOOL.

CHAPTER VII.

The Apprenticeship System. The educational provision for the well-to-do classes has been discussed in the chapters on the academies. The poor people from early colonial days on, were apprenticed to masters as indentured servants in order to learn a trade or profession. Ordinarily, the term of service was seven years, but the boys had to serve the master until they became twentyone years of age, and the girls, eighteen years of age. The apprentice received no wage in the industry in which he worked. His responsibility was to the master instead of to the parent. But the master was required to furnish the apprentice with clothing, food and a home, as well as to look after his morals and to teach him the craft.

The master had to train the indentured servant in the mystery of the craft so that the latter could become a selfsupporting individual. About the last half of the seventeenth century, a policy developed which required the master also to teach the servant reading, writing, and arithmetic. This applied to the principal industries and professions of the time, namely, shipping, agriculture, household service, commerce, teaching, law and medicine. The reading of law and the reading of medicine in the offices of eminent local lawyers and physicians is but the survival of the apprenticeship system.

Moreover, the early laws required, quite frequently, that the apprentice pay an enrollment and an exit fee. The master had to acknowledge the indenture before a court of record which made the contract a public affair. This public enrollment was necessary to insure both parties to the contract against the violation of the agreement. If either party failed to live up to the terms of the contract, he was liable to summons before the police power of the locality. The master could be discharged and the servant bound out to another. The servant was liable to the penalty of a fine and the lengthening of the term of service.

Indentured servants, early in colonial days, were mostly white persons : debtors, soldiers of fortune, orphans and kidnapped children, all from Europe, as well as poor people who sold themselves to ship owners for passage to the new world. Not until the eighteenth century did the negro indentured class outnumber the whites. One of the prominent educational problems of that day was the instruction of all classes of indentured servants. The southern colonies required reading taught to the negro and the white, with writing and arithmetic to the latter, in addition.

Now the eastern and southern states, by 1818, had not given up completely the master and servant means of educating the children of the common man. But as has been pointed out, Illinois had few eastern settlers until 1830. Consequently, the apprenticeship system was established by law, which was mainly southern, the principal features of which were these:

1. Boys under twenty-one and girls under eighteen might be apprenticed with or without the consent of the parent or guardian.

2. The mother of illegitimate children should bind them over to a master.

3. If the father was dead, a fugitive from justice or incapacitated, the mother had the right to apprentice his children.

4. Poor children were bound to a master by the overseers

of the poor.

5. A copy of the indenture should be recorded with the probate judge.

6. The probate judge, or two justices of the peace were empowered to receive complaints of apprentices and summon the master to appear in court.

7. A penalty was imposed on the apprentice for assault on the master, or the violation of the terms of the contract.

8. The apprentice could not be removed from the state.

9. The master had to furnish the apprentice comfortable board, lodging, washing, clothing and so much schooling as shall be deemed right.

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10. “That the master or mistress to whom such child shall be bound, as aforesaid, shall cause such child to be taught to read and write, and the ground rules of arithmetic, and, shall give also unto such apprentices, a new Bible, and two new suits of clothes, suitable to his or her condition at the expiration of his or her term of service, Provided however, that when such apprentice is a negro or mulatto child, it shall not be necessary to insert in said indenture that such negro or mulatto shall be taught to write, or the knowledge of arithmetic.” 1

11. If a guardian failed to educate his apprentice in reading, writing and the ground rules of arithmetic, the probate judge was empowered to appoint another master, "and superintend the education of such minor or orphan.

As late as 1840, indentures were still being made for white children, an example of which follows: "This Indenture made and entered into this 31st day of August, A. D., 1840, between James Thompson and George Thompson, minors, of their own free will and consent, and by and with the consent and approbation of William Thompson, their father, of the county of Shelby and the State of Illinois of the one part, and Daniel Golloher of the same county and the State, of the other part witnessesth: that the same James Thompson and George Thompson does by these presents of their own free will and accord and by and with the consent of William Thompson, their father, bind each of themselves to the said Daniel Golloher as an apprentice to learn the art of Farming, to dwell with and serve the said Daniel Golloher from the day of the date hereof, until the 10th day of August, 1850, at which time the said James Thompson will be twentyone years old, And the said George Thompson until the 17th day of September, A. D., 1851, at which time the said George Thompson will be twenty-one years old, during all of which time or term the said Apprentices their said Master will and faithfully shall serve, his secrets to keep, and his lawful commands everywhere at all times readily obey, they or either of them shall do no damage to their said Master nor knowingly suffer any to be done by others, they or either of them shall not waste the Goods of their said Master, nor lend them unlawfully to any. At cards, dice or any other unlawful Game they shall not play, Matrimony either of them shall not contract during their said term. Taverns, Ail-houses, and places of Gaming they shall not frequent or resort from the service of their said Master, either of them shall not absent himself, but in all things and at all times they and each of them shall demean and conduct themselves as good Apprentices, words can't tell-during the whole term aforsesaid. And the said Daniel Golloher on his part does hereby Covenant and agree to furnish each of the said Apprentices good and sufficient diet, clothing, lodging, and the other necessaries convenient and useful for said Apprentices during the whole term aforesaid, and also shall cause each of said Apprentices to be taught to read and write, and the Ground rules of Arithmetic, and shall also give unto each of the said Apprentices a New Bible and two new Suits of Clothes suitable to their condition at the expiration of their term of service, and also Eighty Acres of Common Land for each fit for farming to be as near as may be to timber and prairie or all timber and In testimony whereof we have hereunto Set our hands and Seale the day and year first written.

1 Sess. Laws, 1826. Sess. Laws, 1830.

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Daniel Golloher Seal As early as 1819, negro indentures were recorded at Edwardsville. The following excerpt from one of those records showed the personal and educational provision of the contract: “During all which term the said boys shall faithfully serve and obey all the lawful commands of their said mistress. And on her part said Elizabeth doth bind and hereby obligate herself, her heirs, etc., to teach or cause to be

: Shelby County Probate Record, 1839-49, v. 1, p. 52.

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