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Of pain : Nay, we must think, men are not gods ;
Nor of them look for such observances
As fit the bridal. -Beshrew me much, Emilia,
I was (unhandsome warrior as I am")
Arraigning his unkindness with my soul;
But now I find, I had suborn’d the witness,
And he 's indited falsely.

Emil. Pray heaven, it be state matters, as you think;
And no conception, nor no jealous toy,
Concerning you.

Des. Alas, the day! I never gave him cause.

Emil. But jealous souls will not be answer'd so;
They are not ever jealous for the cause,
But jealous for they are jealous: 'tis a monster,
Begot upon itself, born on itself.

Des. Heaven keep that monster from Othello's mind!
Emil. Lady, amen.
Des. I will go seek him.Cassio walk hereabout:


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For let our finger ache, and it indues
Our other healthful members ev'n to that sense

Of pain:] I believe it should be rather, Subdues our other healthful members to a sense of pain. Johnson.

Dr. Johnson's conjecture may be supported by a passage in one of Desdemona's speeches to the Senate :

My heart's subdued
Even to the very quality of my

lord.” Again, in p. 347:

and subdue my father Entirely to her love." Steevens. To indue appears to have signified in Shakspeare's time, to tincture, to embrue, and is so used here. See Hamlet, Act IV, sc. vii, Vol. XV.

The words 'Tis even so, relate to what Desdemona has just conjectured. This is certainly the case; some state affair has disturbed him." Malone.

How a member is to be tinctured or embrewed to any particular sensation, I am glad it is not my office to explain. Steevens,

the bridal.] i. e. the nuptial feast ; a Saxon word. Thus, in the ancient romance of Ywain and Gawain:

“ The bridal sat, for soth to tell

“ Till king Arthur come” &c. Again, in Gamelyn, or the Coke's Tale :

“ At every bridale he would sing and hop.” Steevens.

(unhandsome warrior as I am)] Unhandsome warrior, is evidently unfair assailunt. Johnson.

See note on the same expression, Act II, sc. i. Steeyene.


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If I do find him fit, I 'll move your suit,
And seek to effect it to my uttermost.
Cas. I humbly thank your ladyship.

Exeunt Des. and Emil

Enter BIANCA. Bian. Save you, friend Cassio ! Cas.

What make you from home? How is it with you, my most fair Bianca? l' faith, sweet love, I was coming to your house.

Bian. And I was going to your lodging, Cassio.
What! keep a week away? seven days and nights?
Eight score eight hours? and lovers' absent hours,
More tedious than the dial eight score times ?
O weary reckoning!

Pardon me, Bianca;
I have this while with leaden thoughts been press'd;
But I shall, in a more continuate time,
Strike off this score of absence. Sweet Bianca,

[Giving her DESDEMONA's Handkerchief. Take me this work out.2 Bian.

O, Cassio, whence came this?


in a more continuate time,] Thus the folio. The quarto, 1622, has a more convenient time. Malone.

A more continuate time is time less interrupted, time which I can call more my own. It gives a more distinct image than convenient. Johnson. The word occurs again in Timon of Athens, sc. i:

breath'd, as it were, “ To an untirable and continuate goodness.” See Timor of Athens, Act I, sc. i, Vol. XV.

Take me this work out.] The meaning is not, “ Pick out the work, and leave the ground plain;" but, “ Copy this work in another handkerchief." Johnson.

So, in a comedy, by Middleton), called, TV omen beware of TV


men :

she intends “ To take out other works in a new sampler." Again, in the preface to P. Holland's Pliny, 1601: “ Nicophanes (a famous painter) gave his mind wholly to antique pictures, partly to exemplifie and take out their patterns, after that in long continuance of time they were decaied." Again, in Sidney's Arcadia, Book II: “

- why doest thou in thy beautiful sampler set such a work for my desire to take out ?Steevens.

So, in Hearne's Liber Niger Scaccarii, Vol. II, p. 578, 581, and 585: “ to take out the arms,” means, to copy them. Tollet:

This is some token from a newer friend.
To the felt absence now I feel a cuase:
Is it come to this? Well, well.

Woman, go to !3
Throw your


guesses in the devil's teeth, From whence you have them. You are jealous now; That this is from some mistress, some remembrance: No, in good troth, Bianca. Bian.

Why, whose is it? Cas. I know not, sweet: I found it in my chamber. I like the work well; ere it be demanded, (As like enough, it will,) I ’d have it copied: Take it, and do 't; and leave me for this time.

Bian. Leave you! wherefore?

Cas. I do attend here on the general;
And think it no addition, nor my wish,
To have him see me woman'd.

Why, I pray you?
Cas. Not that I love you not.

But that you do not love me.
I pray you, bring me on the way a little;
And say,

if I shall see you soon at night.
Cas. 'Tis but a little way, that I can bring you,
For I attend here: but I 'll see you soon.
Bian. 'Tis very good; I must be circumstanc'd.5


3 Toman, go to!!] Old copies, unmetrically

Go to, woman! Steevens.

JVhy, I pray you ?] This and the following speech are wanting in the first quarto. Steevens.

I must be circumstanc'd.] i. e. your civility is now grown conditional. Warburton.

Rather, I must give way to circumstances. M. Muson.

Particular circumstances and your own convenience have, I see, more weight with you than Bianca has. I must be postponed to these considerations. Malone.



The same.

Iago. Will you think so?

Think so, Iago?

What, To kiss in private? Oth.

An unauthoriz'd kiss. Iago. Or to be naked with her friend abed, An hour, or more, not meaning any harm?

Oth. Naked abed, lago, and not mean harm? It is hypocrisy against the devil :6 They that mean virtuously, and yet do so, The devil their virtue tempts, and they tempt heaven.

Naked abed, Iago, and not mean harm?

It is hypocrisy against the devil:] This observation seems strangely abrupt and unoccasioned. We must suppose that lago had, before they appeared in this scene, been applying cases of false comfort to Othello; as that though the parties had been even found in bed together, there might be no harm done; it might be only for the trial of their virtue; as was reported of the Romish saint, Robert D'Arbrissel and his nuns: To this we must suppose Othello here replies; and like a good protestant. For so the sentiment does but suit the character of the speaker, Shakspeare little heeds how these sentiments are circumstanced.

Warburton. Hypocrisy against the devil, means hypocrisy to cheat the de. vil. As common hypocrites cheat men, by seeming good, and yet living wickedly, these men would cheat the devil, by giving him flattering hopes, and at last avoiding the crime which he thinks them ready to commit. Johnson,

The devil their virtue tempts, and they tempt heaven.] The true key to the explanation of this passage may be found in St. Matthew, iv, 7. The poet's idea is, that the devil tempts their virtues, by stirring up their passions, and they tempt heaven, by placing themselves in such a situation as makes it scarcely possible to avoid falling by the gratification of them. Henley.

As the devil makes a trial of their virtue by often throwing temptation in their way, so they presumptuously make a trial whether the divine goodness will enable them to resist a temptation which they have voluntarily created for themselves, or abandon them to the government of their passions. Malone.

Shakspeare had probably in view a very popular book of his time, The Beehive of the Roman Church : « There was an old wife, called Julia, which would take the young men and maides,


Iago. So they do nothing, 'tis a venial slip: But if I give my wife a handkerchief, —

Oth. What then?

Iago. Why, then 'tis hers, my lord; and, being hers, She may, I think, bestow 't on any man.

Oth. She is protectress of her honour too;
May she give that?

Iago. Her honour is an essence that 's not seen;
They have it very oft, that have it not:
But, for the handkerchief,

Oth. By heaven, I would most gladly have forgot it:-
Thou said'st,-0, it comes o'er my memory,
As doth the raven o’er the infected house,
Boding to all,3—he had my handkerchief.

Iago. Ay, what of that?

That 's not so good, now.

and lay them together in a bed. And for that they should not one byte another, nor kicke backewardes with their heeles, she did lay a crucifix between them.” Farmer.

More probably from Fabian's Chronicle, Part IV, ch. 141:“ Of hym (Bishop Adhelme] it is wrytten that when he was styred by his gostly enemy to the synne of the fleshe, he to do the more tormente to hym selfe and of his body, wolde holde within his bedde by him a fayre mayden, hy so longe tyme as he myght say over the hole sauter, albeit that suche holynes is no artycle of saynte Bennetis lore, nor yet for dyverse inconvenyence mooste alowed by holye doctours."

Again, and yet more appositely, in Bale's Actes of Englysh Totaryes, 1548: “ This Adhelmus never refused women, but wold have them commonly both at borde and at bedde, to mocke the devyll with,&c.-" he layed by hym naked the fayrest mayde he coude get” &c. Steevens.

As doth the raven o'er the infected house,
Boding to all, ] So, in King John:

confusion waits,
“ As doth the raven on a sick-fullen beast, -"Steevens.

boding to all --] Thus all the old copies. The moderns ungrammaticallyBoding to ill

Johnson The raven was thought to be a constant attendant on a house in which there was infection. So, in Marlowe's Jew of Malta, 1633:

“ Thus like the sad presaging raven, that tolls
“ The sick man's passport in her hollow beak,
“ And in the shadow of the silent night

“Does shake contagion from her sable wing.” Malone. VOL. XVI.



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