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in parliament, without a previous notice of ten years, signed by one hundred members of each house-afterwards it is competent for one of the representatives to introduce a bill on the subject; and if passed by the Commons, and also by the Peers, and obtain the royal assent, it becomes the law of the realm.
Constitution of the House of Peers.
This assembly is to be at all times numerically the same as that of the Commons.
The members of the other house represent particular districts; but each peer is a representative of the entire constituency of the kingdom.
The crown only has power to nominate to the peerage; but the party must belong to the hereditary nobility of the land, and must be on the censor's roll entitled to vote-the nomination is to be signified to the House of Commons; and if approved of by that body, the individual becomes a peer of the realm.
The House of Peers has no voice in the election; and the power of the Commons is restricted to a simple assent or veto.
The peers are chosen for life; unless their names are struck off the censor's roll; in this instance they cease to be members of parliament.
General laws of Parliament.
The Houses are never to be blended, so as to form one body, deliberating in the same place, on the same subject, at the same time; but each is by itself an independent legislative assembly, and is to act apart from the other.
Certain privileges of impeachment—expulsion of members-enforcement of respect from without, &c., belong to each house; but these privileges must be ascertained by act of parliament; and either house resolving contrary to such act, may be proscecuted in the person of its speaker, before the ordinary tribunals of the country.
To every person in the State, the right of petitioning both Houses is fully allowed.
An appeal in civil cases lies to a committee, composed of an equal number of Peers, and members of the Commons; whose decision is final.
Laws of Nobility.
All nobility emanates from the crown, and is restricted to certain lives, or perpetual-at the will of the sovereign who grants the title.
A yearly income arising from freehold lands or tenements, considered indispensable to nobility; the amount is fixed by parliament, and varies with the rank-say, ten thousand per annum for the highest, and one thousand for the lowest Grade.
No creation is valid, nor must the title be borne until evidence is tendered to both Houses, shewing that the individual is in the enjoyment of the requisite sum. An heir cannot assume the title without this proof: and during his life the next in succession cannot take it, though he have the stipulated income; moreover, if the heir die under pecuniary disqualification the title becomes extinct; the crown can restore it to the family when it possesses the property fixed by law, but is not obliged to do so, it is then optional.
The superior titles are not inclusive of the inferior; and by virtue of a higher rank in the head of the family, the children or relations shall not, whether by courtesy or otherwise, be allowed to bear them.
The number of noblemen is without limitation, but the ranks or degrees of nobility ought to be few.
No law of primogeniture is to secure the estate to the eldest child or heir of the title-a parent being noble may bequeath his property in such manner as he thinks proper. If he refuse to leave the amount necessary for the descent of the title, he is at liberty; if he leave such amount, no interference with the will of the deceased is permitted; unless beyond this, he have property and do not provide for any of his children in which instance the State can set aside the testament, and make what provision it may judge suitable it is a civil case under the immediate cognizance of parliament.
As the crown can limit the transmission of the
titles it grants, so the Public from whom it is immediately held, can by their parliament, restrict the tenure of the crown.
Let it be perpetually hereditary in the eldest branch; that is the eldest child of the sovereign, and his or her offspring inherit the throne. This branch failing, it passes to the next branch, if one of the parents of the party next in succession were Sovereign of the country, or a child of the Sovereign-otherwise it reverts to a new election.
The legitimate children of both sexes, subject to the previous regulations are equally elegible according to priority of birth.
The election of a new Sovereign is by parliament. He must be a nobleman, though not necessarily of the highest rank; his remaining fitness is left to the judgment of the two Houses of the legislature. If the sovereign deliberately violate the Constitution in its fundamental articles, such breach involves a forfeiture of the crown.
If the sovereign have no children, and there is no rightful successor, the parliament during his life is competent to appoint an Heir-elect, who shall, however, hold no post in the public service; and if the reigning Prince should afterwards obtain issue,