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Sextilis of 30, September of 30, October of 31, Na. vember of 30, December of 30 ; in all 304 days. "

2. The Roman year of Numa consisted of twelve months. Januarius', had 29 days, Februarius : 28, Martius 31, Aprilis 29, Maius 31, Junius 29, Quine tilis 31, Sextilis 29, September 29, October 31, No. vember 29, December 29 ; in all 355..

The months called Quintilis and Sextilis, from their order in Romulus's year, were changed into Julius and Augustus *, in honour of Julius Cæfar and his succeffor Augustus. I mori! Vi: 6.3. The Julian -year consists of twelve months, viz. January of 31 days, February of 28, March of 31, April of 30, May of 31, June of 30, July of 31, August of 31, September of 30, OEtober of 31, November of 30, December of 31; in alt 365.

Every fourth year, in the Julian account, has 366 days, February, then having 29, as we have before observed.

The Gregorian year has the same number of months and days as the Julian, the only difference being that each month in the former, begins eleven days fooner than in the latter.

4. The Jewish, year consists of twelve months.. Nifan or Abib has 30 days, Jiar or Zius, 29, Siban

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or Sivan, 30, Thamus or Tamuls, 29, 16 30, Elul .29, Tifri or Ethanim, 30, Marchesvan or Bul, 29, Cifleu 30, Tebeth 29, Shebat or Schebeth, 30, Adar 29; in all 354.

This is made to agree with the solar year, by adding eleven, and sometimes twelve days.

It may not be amiss to observe, that as the form of the year is various among different nations, so likewise is its beginning. The Jews, as most other nations of the East, had a civil year, which commenced with the new moon in September; and an ecclefiaftical year, which commenced from the new moon in March. The Persians begin their year in the month answering to our June. The Chinese, and most of the Indians, begin it with the first moon in March; and the Greeks with the new moon that happens next after the summer folstice.

In England, the civil or legal year formerly commenced on the 25th day of March, and the historia cal year on the first day of January. But since the alteration of the stile, in 1752, the civil year, in this country, as I observed before, has likewise begun on the first of January.

From what is said of the patriarchs having lived so many centuries, and some even to the age of nine hundred years, may we not believe that the

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years were then sporter than at prefent? By no

For we learn from Moses, that the year confifted then, as now, of twelve months. . In his history of the deluge, he tells us, that after the rains, which began on the 17th day of the second month, had fallen upon the earth for the space of forty days and forty nights, it was only in the seventh month that the ark, which floated upon the waters, rested upon Ararat, a mountain of Armenia ; and, in the tenth, that land began to appear.

The changes and varieties that happen in nature, by the annual revolution of the earth round the sun, are called the seasons. Spring, Şuinmer, Autumn, and Winter are the names of the seasons, and each feafon continues three months. Spring begins on the 21st of March, Summer on the 21st of June, Autumn on the 23d of September, and Winter on the 21st of December.

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СНАР,

CH A P. LV.

OF MONTHS.

T
HE first and principal division of the year is

into parts called months, which are usually 'twelve y and these are either astronomical or civil.

An astronomical or natural month is that which is measured exa&tly by the motion of the fun or moon, and is accordingly either lunar or folar. • A lunar month is the time the moon takes to revolve round the earth, which the performs in twenty-seven days, seven hours, forty-three mimutes, and eight seconds.

A folar month is that space of time in which the fun runs through one of the signs of the Zodiac. Now as the apparent motion of the sun is fometimes flower and sometimes fafter, thefe months must consequently be unequal. But, as he constantly travels through all the twelve figns in 365 days, five hours, and forty-nine minutes, the quantity of a inean solar month is found by dividing that number by twelve. And hence it appears that each of these months, one with another, contains thirty days, ten hours, twenty-nine minutes, and five seconds.

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Civil months are those which are framed to serve the uses of life, being made to consist of a certain number of whole days, approaching nearly to the quantity of astronomical months, either lunar or solar. :: Cavil lunar months consift alternately of twentynine and thirty days; fo that two of them are equal 10 two aftronomical ones, excepting the odd mis nutes,

Givil solar months usually confift of thirty and thirty-one days alternately, except one of the twelve, whịch every fourth year has twenty-nine days in prhers but twenty-eight. ,

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Month is divided into four parts called weeks, A

each consisting of seven parts called days, Of these months there are thirteen in a Julian year, and one day over; of weeks there are fifty-two, and of days 365, as before observed.

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