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A.D. 400 Bells were invented by Paulinus, of Cam






404 THE kingdom of Caledonia, or Scotland,

revived under Fergus. 406 The Vandals, Alans, and Suevi, spread into

France and Spain, by a concession of Ho

norius, emperor of the West, 426 The Romans, reduced to extremities at home,

withdrew their troops from Britain, and never returned.

before their departure, they advised the Britons to arm in their own

defence, and trust to their own valour. 428 Eutropius published his abridginent of the Ro

man history. 476 The western empire was finished ; and out

of its ruins several new states arose in Italy and other parts, consisting of Goths, Van



dals, Huns, and other Barbarians, under whom literature was extinguished, and the

works of the learned were destroyed. 513 Constantinople was besieged by Vitalianus,

whose fleet was burnt by a speculum of brass. 581 Latin ceased to be spoken in Italy. 622 Mahomet, a false prophet, fled from Mecca

to Medina, in Arabia, in the 44th year of his age, and 10th of his ministry, when he laid the foundation of the Saracen empire, and from whom the Mahometan princes to this day claim their descent. His followers compute their time from this æra, which in Arabic is called Hegira, that

is, the Flight. 653 Jerusalem was taken by the Saracens, or fol

lowers of Mahomet. 653 The Saracens extend their conquests on every

fide, and retaliate the barbarities of the

Goths and Vandals upon their posterity. . 664 Glass was invented in England by Benalt, a

monk. 685 The Britons, after a brave struggle of near

150 years, were totally expelled by the Saxons, and driven into Wales and Cornwall,

735 Bede,

735 Bede, a priest of Northumberland, published

the history of the Saxons, and Scots. Be-
ing almost the only learned man of his time,
he was honoured with the title of the vene-

rable Bede. 800 Charlemagne, king of France, began the em

pire of Germany, afterwards called the western empire. He gave the present names to the winds and months, and endeavoured to restore learning in Europe ; but mankind were not yet disposed for it, being

solely engrossed in military enterprizes. 838 The Scots and Picts had a decisive battle, in

which the former prevailed, and both kingdoms were united by Kennet, which began

the second period of the Scottish history. 896 Alfred the Great, after subduing the Danish

invaders, against whom he fought 56 battles by sea and land, composed his body of laws, divided England into counties and hundreds, erected county-courts, and founded the uni

versity of Oxford. 901 King Alfred published his history, his philo

sophy, and his poetry. 915 The university of Cambridge was founded. 979 Coronation oaths are said to have been first

used in England.

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991 The land.


991 The figures in arithmetic were brought into

Europe by the Saracens from Arabia. Let

ters of the alphabet were formerly used. 1000 Paper made of cotton rags was in use; that

of linen rags in 1170. The manufacture of it was introduced into England at Dartford, in 1588.

c H A P. LXIX.


1015 CHILDREN were forbidden, by law, to

be sold by their parents, in England. * 1017 Canute, king of Denmark, got possession of

England. 1066 The battle of Hastings was fought between

Harold, and William, duke of Normandy, in which Harold was conquered and flain ; after which Williain became king of Eng

land. 1070 William introduced the feudal laws into Eng

1071 Mu.


1071 Musical notes were invented. 1075 Henry IV. emperor of Germany, and the

pope, quarrel about the nomination of the German bishops. Henry, in penance, walked barefoot to the pope, towards the

end of January 1076 Justices of the peace were first appointed in

England. 1080 The Tower of London was built by William,

to curb his English subjects, numbers of whom fled to Scotland, where they introduced the Saxon or English language, were protected by Malcolm, and had lands given

them. 1096 The first crusade to the Holy Land began,

under several Christian princes, to drive the

infidels from Jerusalem. 1118 The order of the Knights Templars was ir.

stituted, to defend the sepulchres at Jerusa

lem, and to protect Christian strangers. 1163 London bridge, consisting of 19 small arches,

was first built of stone. 1172 Henry II. king of England, and first of the

Plantagenets, took possession of Ireland; which from that period has been governed by an English viceroy, or lord lieutenant.

II8o Glass

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