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A.D. 400 Bells were invented by Paulinus, of Cam
c H A P. LXVIII.
MEMORABLE EVENTS FROM THE BEGINNING OF
THE FIFTH TO THE END OF THE TENTH Cen.
404 THE kingdom of Caledonia, or Scotland,
revived under Fergus. 406 The Vandals, Alans, and Suevi, spread into
France and Spain, by a concession of Ho
norius, emperor of the West, 426 The Romans, reduced to extremities at home,
withdrew their troops from Britain, and never returned.
before their departure, they advised the Britons to arm in their own
defence, and trust to their own valour. 428 Eutropius published his abridginent of the Ro
man history. 476 The western empire was finished ; and out
of its ruins several new states arose in Italy and other parts, consisting of Goths, Van
dals, Huns, and other Barbarians, under whom literature was extinguished, and the
works of the learned were destroyed. 513 Constantinople was besieged by Vitalianus,
whose fleet was burnt by a speculum of brass. 581 Latin ceased to be spoken in Italy. 622 Mahomet, a false prophet, fled from Mecca
to Medina, in Arabia, in the 44th year of his age, and 10th of his ministry, when he laid the foundation of the Saracen empire, and from whom the Mahometan princes to this day claim their descent. His followers compute their time from this æra, which in Arabic is called Hegira, that
is, the Flight. 653 Jerusalem was taken by the Saracens, or fol
lowers of Mahomet. 653 The Saracens extend their conquests on every
fide, and retaliate the barbarities of the
Goths and Vandals upon their posterity. . 664 Glass was invented in England by Benalt, a
monk. 685 The Britons, after a brave struggle of near
150 years, were totally expelled by the Saxons, and driven into Wales and Cornwall,
the history of the Saxons, and Scots. Be-
rable Bede. 800 Charlemagne, king of France, began the em
pire of Germany, afterwards called the western empire. He gave the present names to the winds and months, and endeavoured to restore learning in Europe ; but mankind were not yet disposed for it, being
solely engrossed in military enterprizes. 838 The Scots and Picts had a decisive battle, in
which the former prevailed, and both kingdoms were united by Kennet, which began
the second period of the Scottish history. 896 Alfred the Great, after subduing the Danish
invaders, against whom he fought 56 battles by sea and land, composed his body of laws, divided England into counties and hundreds, erected county-courts, and founded the uni
versity of Oxford. 901 King Alfred published his history, his philo
sophy, and his poetry. 915 The university of Cambridge was founded. 979 Coronation oaths are said to have been first
used in England.
991 The land.
991 The figures in arithmetic were brought into
Europe by the Saracens from Arabia. Let
ters of the alphabet were formerly used. 1000 Paper made of cotton rags was in use; that
of linen rags in 1170. The manufacture of it was introduced into England at Dartford, in 1588.
c H A P. LXIX.
REMARKABLE EVENTS OF THE ELEVENTH,
1015 CHILDREN were forbidden, by law, to
be sold by their parents, in England. * 1017 Canute, king of Denmark, got possession of
England. 1066 The battle of Hastings was fought between
Harold, and William, duke of Normandy, in which Harold was conquered and flain ; after which Williain became king of Eng
land. 1070 William introduced the feudal laws into Eng
1071 Musical notes were invented. 1075 Henry IV. emperor of Germany, and the
pope, quarrel about the nomination of the German bishops. Henry, in penance, walked barefoot to the pope, towards the
end of January 1076 Justices of the peace were first appointed in
England. 1080 The Tower of London was built by William,
to curb his English subjects, numbers of whom fled to Scotland, where they introduced the Saxon or English language, were protected by Malcolm, and had lands given
them. 1096 The first crusade to the Holy Land began,
under several Christian princes, to drive the
infidels from Jerusalem. 1118 The order of the Knights Templars was ir.
stituted, to defend the sepulchres at Jerusa
lem, and to protect Christian strangers. 1163 London bridge, consisting of 19 small arches,
was first built of stone. 1172 Henry II. king of England, and first of the
Plantagenets, took possession of Ireland; which from that period has been governed by an English viceroy, or lord lieutenant.