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1180 Glass windows began to be used in private

houses in England. 1186 The great conjunction of the sun and moon

and all the planets in Libra, happened in

September. 1192 The battle of Ascalon was fought, in Judea,

in which Richard, king of England, defeated Saladine's army, consisting of 300,000

combatants. 1194 Dieu et mon Droit was first used as a motto by

Richard, on a victory over the French. 1200 Chimnies were not known in England. 1202 Surnames began to be used. The nobility were

the first who assumed them. 1208 London was incorporated, when the inhabi

tants obtained their first charter for electing their Lord Mayor, and other magistrates,

from king John. 1-215 Magna Charta was signed by king John and

the Barons of England. In the same year

the Court of Common Plea's was established. 1227 The Tartars, a new race of heroes, under

Gingis-kan, emerged from the northern parts of Asia, over-ran all the Saracen empire ; and, in imitation of former' conquerors, carried death and defolation wherever they marched.


1233 The

A.D. 1233 The inquisition, begun in 1204, was trusted

to the Dominicans. 1234 The houses of London, and other cities in Eng

land, France, and Germany, were still

thatched with straw. 1259 Matthew Paris, a monk of St. Alban's, pub

lished his history of England. 1264 According to some writers, the commons of

England were summoned to parliament for

the first time. 1273 The empire of the present Austrian family

began in Germany. 1 282 Lewellyn, prince of Wales, was defeated

and killed by Edward I. who united that

principality to England. I 284 Edward II. born at Carnarvon, was the first

prince of Wales, 1292 Roger Bacon, of Somersetshire, the nafural

philosopher, flourished. 1298 Knives with silver handles, silver spoons, and

cups, were a great luxury. 1299 Tallow candles were so great a luxury, that

splinters of wood were used for lights. 1300 Wine was sold by the apothecaries as a cordial.

c H A P.







'HE mariner's compass was invented, or 1302

improved, by Givia, of Naples. 1307 The Swiss cantons began. 1308 John Fordun, a priest of Merns-shire, pub

lished the history of Scotland. 1310 Lincoln's Inn society was established. 1314 The battle of Bannockburn between Edward

II. and Robert Bruce was fought, which established the latter on the throne of Scot

land. 1320 Gold was first coined in Christendom. It was

coined in England about the year 1344. 1340 Gunpowder and guns were first invented by

Swartz, a monk of Cologn. In 1346,
Edward III. had four pieces of cannon,
which contributed to gain him the battle of
Cressy. The same year, bombs and mor-

tars were invented. 1341 Oil painting was first made use of by John

Vaneck. 1342 Herald's college was instituted in England.

1344 The


1344 The first creation to titles by patent was used

by Edward III. 1349 The order of the Garter was instituted in

England by Edward III. and altered 1557.

It consists of 26 knights. 1537 Coals were first brought to England. 1362 The law pleadings in England were changed

from French to English, as a favour of

Edward III. to his people. 1363 John Wickliffe, an Englishman,' began to

oppose the errors of the church of Rome, with great acuteness and spirit. His fol

lowers were called Lollards. 1385 A company of linen-weavers, from the Ne

therlands, were established in London. 1386 Windsor castle was built by Edward III. 1391 Cards were invented in France, for the king's

amusement. 1399 Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall,

were rebuilt and enlarged. In the same year, the order of the Bath was

instituted, at the coronation of Henry IV. and renewed in 1725. It consists of 38

knights. 1400 Died the famous Geoffrey Chaucer, of Lon

don, the father of English poetry. 1402 Died John Gower, of Wales, the poet.


1410 Guild

A.D. 1410 Guildhall, London, was built. 1411 The university of St. Andrew's, in Scotland,

was founded. 1415 The battle of Agincourt was gained over the

French, by Henry V. of England. 1428 Laurantius, of Harleim, invented the art of

printing, which he practised with separate wooden types. Guttenburgh afterwards invented cut metal types. But the art was carried to perfection by Peter Schoeffer, who invented the mode of casting the types

in matrices. Frederic Corsellis began to print at Oxford, in 1468, with wooden types; but it was William Caxton who introduced into England the art of printing with fusile types

in 1474.

1446 The sea broke in at Dort, in Holland, and

drowned 100,000 people. 1453 Constantinople was taken by the Turks, which

put an end to the eastern empire, 1123 years from its dedication by Constantine the Great,

and 2206 years from the foundation of Rome. 1454 The university of Glasgow, in Scotland, was

founded. 1460 Engraving and etching in copper was invented. 1477 The university of Aberdeen, in Scotland, was


1483 Richard

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