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petia, and Phæbe, and also Cycnus his friend, immoderately bewailed his death on the banks of the river; and by the pity of the gods, his sisters were changed into poplar-trees, and his friend Cycnus into a swan.

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MERCURY, son of Jupiter and Maia, daugh

ter of Atlas, was the god of eloquence and merchandize, and messenger of the gods.

He is represented as a young man, with chearful countenance, an honest look and lively eyes; fair, without paint, with winged shoes and hat, and holding in his hand a winged rod, bound about with two ferpents.

He had many remarkable qualities, on account of which they worshipped him as a god. He is faid to have invented letters and the use of them. He excelled in eloquence and the faculty of speaking; and therefore was accounted the god of rheto. ric and oratory.

In the art of thieving he far exceeded all the sharpers that ever have been, and is, therefore, named the Prince of tricking. The very day in which he was born, he stole away the cows of King Admetus, though attended by Apollo himself; who, while he complained of the theft, and bent his bow with an intent of

revenge,

found himself robbed of his quiver and arrows also.

He was a wonderful master at making peace, and pacified not only mortals, but also the gods themselves, when they quarrelled. This faculty is signified by the rod which he holds in his hand.

His chief offices were, to carry the cominands of Jupiter, to attend persons when dying, to unloose their souls from the chains of the body, and usher them into the world of spirits ; likewise to revive, and replace into new bodies, tose that had already completed their time in the Elysian fields.

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CTH A P. XXX.

OF MARS AND BACCHUS,

MA

ARS was the son of Jupiter and Juno. He

is the god of arınies and war, fierce in aspect, fern in countenance, and terrible in dress. He fits in a chariot drawn by two horses, which are driven by a distracted woman. He is covered with armour, and brandishes a spear in his right hand. Sometimes he is represented sitting on horseback, formidable with his whip and spear, with a cock at his feet, the emblem of watchfulness.

His servants are Fear and Terror. Discord also goes

before in a tattered garment, and Glamour and Anger follow him.

Bellona, goddess of war, is the companion and wife of Mars. She prepares for him his chariot and horses when he goes to battle.

BACCHUS, the son of Jupiter and Semele, as soon as he was born, was committed to the care of Sile. nus and the Nymphs to be brought up; and, in reward for their service, the Nymphs were received into heaven, and there changed into stars, called the Hyades.

Bacchus

Bacchus has a red face, swoln cheeks, and prominent belly. He appears dispirited with luxury, and intoxicated with wine. He is crowned with ivy and vine-leaves, and in his hand holds a thyrsus for a sceptre. His chariot is drawn sometimes by tygers and lions, sometimes by lynxes and panthers. A drunken band of Satyrs, Demons, and Nymphs presiding over the wine-presses, fairies of the fountains, and priestesses attend him as his guard, and old Silenus, riding on an ass, brings up the rear.

Bacchus first planted the vine and drank the juice of the grape. The tillage of the ground, and making of honey are also attributed to him.

He is called Liber, and Lyæus ; because wine frees the mind from cares, and those who have drank plentifully speak too gften whatever comes into their minds.

CH A P. XXXI.

OF MINERVA AND VENUS.

MINERVA, or Pallas, the goddess of wisdom,

war, arts, and sciences, was the daughter of Jupiter. Vulcan ftruck his forehead with a ham

D

4

mer,

mer, and, after three months, he brought forth Minerva.

She was called Minerva, as some say, from the threats of her stern and fierce look. Instead of a woman's dress, she is arrayed in armour ; weats a golden head-piece, and on it glittering crests; a brazen coat of mail covers her breast; she bran. dishes a lance in her right hand, and in her left holds a shield, whereon is painted the grisly head of Medusa, one of the Gorgons, rough and formi. dable with snakes.

*Upon the head of this goddess there was an olive crown, which is the symbol of peace; either be. cause war is only made that peace may follow ; OT: because she taught men the use of that tree. The cock and the owl are facred to Minerva ;

3 the first being expressive of courage and watchful.. ness, and the latter the emblem of caution and foresight.

Her birth from Jupiter's head, is most certainly an emblem that all human arts and sciences are the production of the mind of man, directed by superior wisdom.

Venus, the daughter of Jupiter and Dione, is the goddess of beauty, neatness, and chearful. nefs,

She

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