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She is cloathed with a purple mantle, glittering with diamonds. Refulgent with a rosy crown, she is attended by two Cupids. The Graces stand round her, and the lovely Adonis follows after, gently holding up her train. Her chariot is of ivory finely carved, beautifully painted and gilt, fashioned in the form of a fhell, and drawn by swans, doves and swallows, or, sometimes by sparrows, as she directs, when she pleases to mount it.

She is faid to have fprung from the froth of the sea; and being laid in a shell, as it were in a cradle, to have been drawn by Zephyrus upon the island of Cyprus, where

She was educated. When she grew up, she was carried into heaven, and presented to the gods, who, being taken with her beauty, all strove to marry her ; but at last she was betrothed to Vulcan, to whom afterwards the was given in wedlock.

The companions of Venus, were Hymæneus, the god of marriage, and Cupid, the god of love. She is called the Lesbian Queen, from Lesbos, in the island of Cyprus.

On a dispute, at à feast of the gods, between Juno, Pallas, and Venus, for the pre-eminence of beauty, Jupiter, not being able to bring them to an agreement, referred the decision to Paris, a

thepherd

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Shepherd on Mount Ida, with directions that a golden apple should be given to the faireft. Paris determined the prize in favour of Venus, and alligned to her the golden reward. Venus, in return for this fingular regard to her, promised Paris Helena, the faireft beauty in the world. Paris failed into Greece with a great fleet, and brought away Helen, who had been betrothed to Menelaus, King of Sparta ; but he being then absent, Paris carried her away with him to Troy, which brought on the famous fiege of that city,

CHAP. XXXII.

OF THE TERRESTRIAL DEITIES, TITAN, VUL

CAN, AND JANUS.

TITAN
CITAN, the elder brother of Saturn, though

not a god, claims the first place, being the elder son of Colus and Terra ; and on agreement with Jupiter, his younger brother, he yielded to him his birthright, as is before mentioned. His fons were the Giants, called from him Titans.

VULCAR,

VULCAN, the husband of Venus, was son of Ju-piter and Juno ; but being born deformed, he was. cast down from heaven by Jupiter, as soon as he was born, and in the fall broke his leg. He was the god of subterraneous fires, and presided over metals.

He first made his addresses to Minerva, and was refused by her. He afterwards married Venus, but that goddess disregarded him for his deformity.

Vulcan made the chariot of the Sun, and supplied Jupiter with thunder. He fixed his forges on mount Ætna, but chiefly in the island Lemnos, where he worked for the gods, and taught the hatives the art of working iron by fire. His forgemen were the Cyclops, who are represented as having one eye only, in the middle of their forehead. Apollo, it is sad, slew them all, for having forged the thunder, with which Jupiter struck Æsculapius, the god of physic.

The principal temple of Vulcan was on mount Ætna, and he is painted with a hat of blue colour, the symbol of fire. He was called Mulciber, or, Multifer, from his softening and polish

ing iron.

JANUS, the son of Cælus and Hecate, had a double face and forehead in one and the same head, Hence he got the name of the two-faced god, and D 6

was

was said to see things placed behind his back, as well as before his face. In his right hand he holds a key, and in his left a rod; and beneath his feet are twelve altars.

The temple of Janus, at Rome, was held in great veneration, and was kept open in the time of war, and shut in the time of peace. It is remarkable, that, within the space of feven hundred years, this temple was fhut only thrice : once by Numa ; afterwards by the consuls Marcus Attilius and Titus Manlius, after a league struck up with the Carthaginians; and, lastly, by Auguftus, after the victory of Aetiim.

CHAP. XXXIII.

OF THE TERRESTRIAL GODDESSES, LATONA,

DIANA, AND CERES,

LA

ATONA was the daughter of Phoebe, and

Cæus the Titan. On account of her great beauty, she was beloved of Jupiter, by whom she had Diana and Apollo.

DIANA, goddess of hunting, was the daughter of Ceres and Jupiler, and fifter of Apollo. She is

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ufually painted in a hunting habit, with a bow in her hand, a quiver full of arrows hanging down from her shoulders, and her breast covered with the skin of a deer. She was the goddess of hunting and chastity.

She has three different names, and as many offices. In the heavens she is called Luna and Phæbe, on the earth Diana, and in hell Hecate. In the heavens she enlightens all' things by her rays, On the earth she subdues all the wild beasts, by her bow and darts; and in hell keeps in subjection the ghosts and spirits, by her power and authority.

Many temples were erected to this goddess, of which, that of Ephesus was the chief.' The woods, groves, and forests, were also consecrated to her.

Aftern, grandson of Cadmus, a famous hunter, intruding himself, whilft Diana was bathing in a fountain, the goddess changed him into a stag, and he was devoured by his dogs *

Ceres, the daughter of Saturn and Ops, is represented as a lady, tall in stature, venerable with majesty, beautified with yellow hair, and crowned with a turban, composed of the ears of corn. She holds in her right hand a burning torch, and in her left, a handful of poppies and ears of corn.

Ovid.

She

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