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She first invented and taught the art of tilling the earth, of fowing pulse and corn, and of making bread; whereas before, men only ate acorns. As soon as agriculture was introduced, and men began to contend about the limits of those fields, which before were common and uncultivated, she enacted laws, and determined the rights and properties of each person, when disputes arose.
Ceres is beautiful, because the earth which she resembles, gives a very delightful and beautiful fpectacle to beholders ; especially when it is arrayed with plants, diversified with trees, adorned with flowers, enriched with fruits, and covered with green herbs, when it displays the honours of the Spring, and pours forth the gifts of Autumn with a bountiful hand.
She holds a lighted torch, because when Proferpine was stolen away by Pluto, she lighted torches with the flames of mount Ætna, and with them fought her daughter through the whole world.
Among various nations, the first fruits of the earth were offered to Ceres, as goddess of corn and agriculture.
NEPTUNE was the son of Saturn and Ops,
and brother of Jupiter and Pluto. In the division of his father's kingdom by Jupiter, the empire of the sea was allotted to Neptune.
Having joined with Apollo in a conspiracy against Jupiter, they were both driven from heaven; and, by Jupiter's command, forced to serve Laomedon in building the walls of Troy. Neptune, not receiving the reward of his services, sent a sea-monfter on the coasts, which ravaged the country.
Neptune afterwards became charmed with the beauty of Amphitrite, but could not for a long time obtain her. At last, however, by the assistance of a dolphin, and the power of flattery, he drew her into marriage. Neptune, as an acknowledgment of this kindness, placed the dolphin among the stars, and he became a constellation.
In a dispute with Minerva, who should give a name to Athens, the capital city of Greece, he struck the ground with his trident, and produced a horse ; for which reason, the Athenians facrificed to him that animal.
Neptune is esteemed governor of the fea, and father of the rivers and fountains. He is represented riding on the sea in a car, in the form of a shell, drawn by sea-horses, preceded by Tritons. He holds a trident in his right hand, as an emblem of his sovereignty, and is attended by the young Tritons and Sea Nymphs.
OCEANUS, a marine deity, defcended from Colus and Vesta, was called, by the ancients, not only the father of rivers, but also of animals, and of the gods themselves.
Thetis, goddess of the fea, and wife of Oceanus, is faid to have had many fons; the chief of whom was Nereus, who dwelt in the Ægean Sea, and by his wife Doris, had fifty daughters, called from him Nereides. Thetis is represented fitting in a chariot, in the form of a shell, drawn by dolphins.
AMPHITRITE was daughter of Oceanus and Doris, goddess of the fea, and wife of Neptune. She is by the poets frequently taken for the sea itself. *. TRITON, the son of Neptune and Amphitrite, was, also his companion and trumpeter. In the upper part of his body he bears the resemblance of a man,
and of a fish in the lower part. Most of the sea' gods, from him, are called Tritons.
The Syren's were inhabitants of the sea. They had faces of women, but the bodies of flying fish. Their names were Parthenope, Ligæa, and Leucofia. These dwelt 'near the coast of Sicily, and drew to thein all passengers by the sweetness of their singing, and then devoured them.
OF THE INFERNAL DEITIES, PLUTO AND PRO',
CO was the son of Saturn and Rbea, and brother of Jupiter and Neptune. In the divi. sion of his father's kingdom, when he was de throned by Jupiter, Pluto had the western parts assigned to him, which gave rise to the poetical fable, that he was the god of hell.,
He is called Dis by the Latins, and Hades' by the Greeks, which laft fignifies dark and gloomy.-
Hé fits on a dark throne, holding a key instead of a fceptre, and wearing a crown of ebony.
Sometimes he is crowned with a diadem, fometimes with cypress, and sometimes with the daffodil, which flower Proserpine was gathering, when he stole her away.
His horses and chariot are of a black colour; and himself is often painted with a rod in his hand for a fceptre, and covered with a head-piece. PROSERPINE is
queen of hell, the infernal Funo, and wife of Pluto. She was daughter of Jupiter and Ceres.
When none of the goddesses would marry Pluto, because of his deformity, the god being vexed that he was despised, and forced to live a single life, in a rage mounted his chariot, and suddenly sprung up from a den in Sicily, amongst a company of very beautiful virgins, who were gathering flowers in the fields. Pluto, inflamed with the love of Proferpine, carried her off with him, and sunk into the earth, not far from Syracuse, where suds denly a lake arose.
The Nymphs, her companions, being struck with terror, acquainted her mother with the loss of her daughter. Ceres, with lighted torches from mount Ætna, long fought her in vain ; but at last, being informed by the Nymph Arethusa, that she was stolen by Pluto, she went down into hell, where the found Proserpine, queen of those dark domi