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sions. The enraged mother complained to Ju-
piter of the violence offered to her daughter by his
brother Pluto. Jupiter promised that the should
return to the earth, provided fhe had eaten nothing
in hell. Upon which, Ceres went down rejoicing;
and Proserpine was returning with transport, when
Ascalaphus declared, that he faw Proserpine eat
some grains of a pomegranate, which she gathered
in Pluto's orchard. By this discovery, her return
was stopped. The mother, incensed at this intelli-
gence, changed Afcalaphus into an owl; and, by
her importunate intreaty, extorted from Jupiter,
that Proferpine should live one half of the year
with her, and the rest of the time with her husband
Pluto. Proserpine afterwards so loved this dif-'
agreeable husband, that she became jealous of him,
and changed his mistress Mentha into the herb,
named mint.

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PLUTUS, god of riches, is said to be blind,

void of judgment, and of a nature quite timor

All these qualities denote some peculiar property of this god. He is blind, and void of judgment, in the unequal distribution of riches, as he frequently paffes by good men, whilst the wicked are loaded with wealth ; and timorous, because the rich are constantly in fear, and watch over their treasures with great care and anxiety.

Nox, goddess of darkness, is the most ancient of all the goddefses. She married the river Erebus in hell, by whom she had many daughters. Nox is painted in black robes beset with stars.

CHARON, the son of Erebus and Nox, is the ferryman of hell. He is represented by the poets as a terrible, grim, dirty, old fellow. According to the fable, he attended with his boat, and, for a small piece of money, carried over the river Styx the souls of the dead ; yet not all promiscuously, but only those whose bodies were comunitted to the grave. The unburied shades wandered about


the shores an hundred years, and then were admitted into the boat, and ferried over the lake,

The Titans or GIANTS were at first inhabi. tants of the earth, who, trusting to their great stature and strength, waged war against Jupiter, and attempted to dethrone him from the possession of heaven. In this battle they heaped up mountains upon mountains, and from thence darted trees of fire into heaven. They hurled also prodigious stones and folid rocks, which falling again upon the earth, or in the sea, became mountains or islands. But, being unsuccessful in the attempt, and destroyed by the thunder of Jupiter, with the allitance of the other gods, they were driven from the earth, and cast into hell.




HE FATES were three in number, daugh

ters of Erebus and Nox. These were said to preside over time past, present, and to come. Their naines are Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropas. Their office is to superintend the thread of life. Clotha holds the distaff, and draws the thread, Lachesis turns the spindle, and Atropos cuts the thread with her scisfars; that is, the first calls us into life, the second determines our lot and condition, and the third finishes our life.


The Furies, or Eumenides, were daughters of , -Nox and Acheron. They were three, namely, Alecto, Megæra, and Tifyphone. Their abode was in hell. to torment the wicked. They were armed with blazing torches, and surrounded with snakes and other instruments of horror.

The Harpies, or birds of prey, were also inhabitants of hell. These were indifferently called Furia, Ocypete, and Lamia. They were instru. ments in the hands of the gods to raise wars in the world, and disturb the peace of mankind.

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'HE infernal regions, the residence of Pluto,

are said to be a subterraneous cavern, whither the shades or souls of mortals descended, and wero


judged by Minos, Æacus, and Rhadamanthus, appointed by Pluto judges of hell. This place contained Tartarus, the abode of the unhappy ; also Elysium, the abode of those that had lived well.

Cerberus, a dog with three heads, was doorkeeper, and, covered with serpents, always waited at the infernal gate, to prevent mortals from entering, and the Manes or Shades from going out.

Charon, as before mentioned, was ferryman. of hell, and conducted the departed fouls to the tribunal of Minos,




THE rivers of Hell were, Acheron, Styx,

CoCyrus, PHLEGETHON, and LETHE. The waters of Acheron are extremely muddy and bitter.

Styx is the principal river of hell. It was held in so great veneration by the gods, that whoever broke the oath he had once made by this river, was deprived of his divinity for one hundred years.


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