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Cocytus is increased by the tears of the wicked; and flows with a lamentable noise, imitating the miserable.

Phlegethon swells with fiery waves, and rolls streams of fire. The fouls of the dead, having passed over these rivers, are carried into Pluto's palace.

Lethe is the river of forgetfulness. If the ghosts of the dead drank the waters of this river, they were said to lose the remembrance of all that had passed in this world.

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FABLE relates four remarkable punishments in

Tartarus. 1. Ixion, for attempting to seduce Juno, was.by Jupiter cast into hell, and condemned to be chained to a wheel, which continually whirled round. 2. The rebel Giants, after their defeat by Jupiter, were punished in the feverest manner, for their enormous crimes. The poets, in speaking of these monsters, say, they had snakes

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instead of legs. 3. Tantalus is represented as hanging over the waters, which are always flowing from him ; and, at the same time, the finest fruit almost touches his lips, which he is not permitted to taste. To this eternal torment of hunger and thirst he was condemned, for having invited the gods to a feast, when, to prove their divinity, he killed, boiled, and served up the joints of his son Pelops, as a repast for them. 4. Sysiphus, the son of Æolus, is doomed to roll a huge round stone to the top of a mountain, whence it immediately descends, and makes his labour perpetual. This punishment was allotted him, because he revealed the secrets of the gods. He was also a notorious robber.

CH A P. XLI.

OF THE INFERIOR DEITIES,

THE poets mention several deities of inferior

note, stiled Dii Minores : Æolus god of the winds, tempests, and hurri. canes, was the son of Jupiter and Alcesta.-Aquila and Boreas are cold winds of the north.Eurus, or

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the

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the genius of the east winds, presided over all the eastern quarter of the heavens.—Zephyrus, or the west wind, presided over the west, and is the mildest of all the wind deities.-Aufter, or Notus, the genius of the south wind, was the chief director of the fouth. These deities were all brothers, fons of Aftræus, the eldest brother of Saturn, by Aurora.

Momus, son of Nox and Somnus, was the god of jesting, banter, and folly. He is represented with a mask and grotesque face. He was rather a jester, mocker, or mimic of the gods, than a god himself,

MORPHEUS was the god of sleep.

Pan, son of Mercury and Penelope, was the god of the woods and shepherds. He is represented half man, and half goat, with a large pair of horns on his head, a crook in one hand, and a pipe, composed of reeds, in the other. The Arcadians much admired his music, and paid him divine honours.-SYLVANUS and FAUNUS were also gods of the forests, from whom were descended the other rural deities, as Satyrs, Sylvans, Fauns, Nymphs, or Dryades, who were all inhabitants of the woods.

FLORA was the goddess of the spring and flowers, and wife of Zephyrus. She is represented adorned with garlands, and near her is a basket of flowers.

POMONA

POMONA presided over gardens, orchards, and fruit trees. She was beloved of Vertumnus, as Ovid relates.

TERMINUS was a deity, who presided over the boundaries of lands, which were held so facred, that whoever removed a land-mark, or ploughed it up, was subject to death.

PRIAPUS was the son of Venus and Bacchus. It was his business to drive away birds, and guard the fruit and trees.

CHAP. XLII.

OF CUPID, AND OTHER INFERIOR DEITIES.

CUPID, god of love, son of Mars and Venus

, is represented blind, with a bow in his hand, and a quiver of arrows on his shoulders, with which he wounds the hearts of lovers.

HYMENÆUS, or Hymen, is the god of marriage; and is represented under the figure of a young man, holding a torch in his hand, with a crown of roses, and sweet marjoram on his head,

The PENATES and LARES were also deemed gods. The first presided over provinces and kingdoms, and the latter over houses and particular

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families.

families. The Lares also presided over the highways; and they were wònt to sacrifice to these houshold gods, frankincense, wine, bread, corn, and a cock; and, according to some writers, a lamb and a hog.

The Genti also were spirits, or deities, that presided over all persons and places. And, indeed, so great was the number of these inferior gods, that the ancient mythology furnished almost as many deities as there are things in nature.

ÆSCULAPIUS, son of Apollo, was the god of phyfic. He was slain by Jupiter with a thunderbolt forged by the Cyclops, on the complaint of Pluto, for raising the dead, or rather recovering men by his skil in medicine from their sickness. He was worshipped under the figure of a serpent; and sometimes he is represented feated on a throne of gold and ivory, holding a rod environed with a ferpent, and a dog at his feet.

The CYCLOPS, four in number, were fons of Neptune and Amphitrite. They were servants of Vulcan, and had only one eye placed in the middle of their foreheads.

SILENUS was the fofter father of Bacchus. He is accounted the god of abftrufe mysteries and knowlcdge. He is represented as a fat, old, drunken fellow, riding on an ass.

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