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press the tongue gently against the inner surface of the upper incisor teeth, instead of which, in forming the sound of s, they must breathe gently against the gums of the upper incisor teeth. In order to avoid making th for s they should draw the tongue back a little and turn its point upward against the gums of the upper teeth.
CHAPTER V. THE PASSIONS AND THEIR EXPRESSION. It is not intended to give anything like a complete list of the pas. sions, feelings, and emotions which have been classified, described, and numbered with so much care by Sheridan and Walker. Allthat is purposed is to present examples of the more prominent, in order that hints and illustrations may be furnished to those who wish to realise its importance, for “it should be remarked in passing, that feeling cannot be expressed by words alone, or even by the tones of the voice. It finds its best, and ofttimes its only expression in the flush of passion on the cheek, in the speaking eye, the contracted brow, the compressed lip, the heaving breast, the trembling frame, in the rigid muscle, and the general bearing of the entire body; and when emotion or passion thus speaks, its language is often confined to no particular part of the body, but the living frame as a whole sympathises in the action."
Shakspeare has given us an admirable picture of passion in its violence, and has made even the violent tension of the sinews a considerable part of its composition :
Now imitate the action of the tiger!
To its full height. To this might be added that admirable picture of violent anger which Shakspeare puts in the mouth of Suffolk in the second part of Henry VI. :
Would curses kill, as doth the mandrake's groan,
As curst, as harsh, and horrible to hear,
Should I not curse them.
PICTURES OF THE PASSIONS.
TRANQUILLITY. Tranquillity appears by the composure of the countenance and general repose of the whole body, without the active exertion of the muscles. The countenance open, the forehead smooth, the eyebrows arched, the mouth not quite shut, and the eyes passing with an easy motion from object to object, but not dwelling long upon any one. To distinguish it, however, from insensibility, it seems necessary to give it that cast of happiness which borders on cheerfulness.
INFLUENCE OF NIGHT.
CHEERFULNESS. When joy is settled into a habit, or flows from a placid temper of mind, desiring to please and be pleased, it is called gaiety, good humour, or cheerfulness. Cheerfulness adds a smile to tranquillity, and opens the mouth a little more.
Cheerfulness in Retirement.
As You Like It.
MIRTH. When joy arises from ludicrous or innocent amusements in which others share with us, it is called merriment or mirth.
Mirth or laughter opens the mouth horizontally, raises the cheeks high, lessens the aperture of the eyes, and, when violent, shakes and convulses the whole frame, fills the eyes with tears, and occasions holding the sides from the pain the convulsive laughter gives them.
Jaq. A fool, a fool! I met a fool i' the forest,
Thus may we see, quoth he, how the world wags.
Joy. Joy, when moderate, opens the countenance with smiles, and throws, as it were, a sunshine of delight over the whole frame. When it is sudden and violent, it expresses itself by clapping the hands, raising the eyes towards heaven, and giving such a spring to the body as to make it attempt to mount up as if it could fly. When joy is extreme, and goes into transport, rapture and ecstacy, it has a wildness of look and gesture that borders on folly, madness and sorrow.
Joy Approaching to Transport.
Pity. Pity is benevolence to the afflicted. It is a mixture of love for an object that suffers, and a grief that we are not able to remove those sufferings. It shows itself in a compassionate tenderness of voice, a feeling of pain in the countenance, and a gentle raising and falling of the hands and eyes, as if mourn. ing over the unhappy object. The mouth is open, the eyebrows are drawn down, and the features contracted or drawn together.
Her breathing, soft and low,
Kept heaving to and fro.
So slowly moved about,
To eke her living out.
Our fears our hopes belied;
And sleeping when she died.
And chill with earthly showers,
Another morn than ours.-Thomas Hood.
Hope is a mixture of desire and joy agitating the mind and anticipating its enjoyment. It erects and brightens the countenance, spreads the arms and hands open as to receive the object of its wishes. The voice is plaintive and inclining to eagerness, the breath drawn inward more forcibly than usual, in order to express our desires more strongly, and our earnest expectation of receiving the object of them.
Collins, in his Ode on the Passions, gives us a beautiful picture of
What was thy delighted measure ?
Still it whispered promised pleasure,
Still would her touch the strain prolong,
And, where her sweetest theme she chose,
A soft responsive voice was heard at every close, And Hope, enchanted, smiled, and waved her golden hair