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HATRED, AVERSION. Hatred or aversion draws back the body as if to avoid the hated object, the hands at the same time thrown outspread as if to keep it off. The face is turned away from that side toward which the hands are thrown out, the eyes looking angrily and obliquely the same way the hands are directed ; the eyebrows are contracted, the upper lip disdainfully drawn up, and the teeth set; the pitch of the voice is low, but loud and harsh, the tone chiding, unequal, surly and vehement.

Hatred Cursing the Object Hated.

Poison be their drink,
Gall, worse than gall, the daintiest meat they taste;
Their sweetest shade a grove of cypress trees,
Their sweetest prospects niurdering basilisks,
Their softest touch as smart as lizard's stings,
Their music frightful as the serpent's hiss,
And boding screech-owls make the concert full ;
All the foul terrors of dark-seated hell. —Henry VI.

(This seems Imitated by Dr. Young.)
Why, get thee gone, horror and night go with thee.
Sisters of Acheron, go hand in hand,
Go dance about the bower and close them in ;
And tell them that I sent you to salute them.
Profane the ground, and for th' ambrosial rose
And breath of jessamin, let hemlock blacken,
And deadly night-shade poison all the air :
For the sweet nightingale may ravens croak,
Toads pant, and adders rustle through the leaves :
May serpents, winding up the trees, let fall
Their hissing necks upon them from above,
And mingle hisses—such as I would give them.

The Revenge.

Hatred of a Rival in Glory.
He is my bane, I cannot bear him ;
One heaven and earth can never hold us both ;
Still shall we hate, and with defiance deadly
Keep rage alive till one be lost for ever ;
As if two suns should meet in one meridian,
And strive in fiery combat for the passage.

ROWE's Tamerlane.

ANGER, RAGE, FURY. When hatred and displeasure rise high suddenly from an apprehension of injury received, and perturbation of mind in consequence of it, it is called anger; and rising to a very high degree, and extinguishing humanity, it becemes rage and fury.

Anger, when violent, expresses itself with rapidity, noise, harshness, and sometimes with interruption and hesitation, as if unable to utter itself with sufficient force. It wrinkles the brow, enlarges and heaves the nostrils, strains the muscles, clinches the fist, stamps with the foot, and gives a violent agitation to the whole body. The voice assumes the highest tone it can adopt consistently with force and loudness, though sometimes, to express anger with uncommon energy, the voice assumes a low and forcible tone.

Anger and Scorn.
Thou den of drunkards with the blood of princes !
Gehenna of the waters ! thou sea Sodom !
Thus I devote thee to the infernal gods !
Thee and thy serpent seed ! Slave, do thine office!
Strike as I struck the foe! Strike as I would
Have struck those tyrants ! Strike deep as my curse !
Strike, and but once.

Scorn and Violent Anger, Reproving.
Grace me no grace, nor uncle me no uncle ;
I am no traitor's uncle ; and that word-grace,
In an ungracious mouth is but profane.
Why have those banished and forbidden legs
Dared once to touch a dust of England's ground ?
But more than why-why have they dared to march
So many miles upon her peaceful bosom ;
Frightening her pale-faced villages with war,
And ostentation of despised arms ?
Comest thou because the anointed king is hence ?
Why, foolish boy, the king is left behind,
And in my loyal bosom lies his power.
Were I but now the lord of such hot youth
As when, brave Gaunt, thy father and myself
Rescued the Plack Prince, that young Mars of men,
From forth the ranks of many thousand French ;
Oh, then, how quickly should this arm of mine,
Now prisoner to the palsy, chastise thee,
And minister correction to thy fault !-- Richard II.

REVENGE.

Revenge is a propensity and endeavour to injure the offender, which is attended with triumph and exultation when the injury is accomplished. It expresses itself like malice, but more openly, loudly and triumphantly.

Determined Revenge.
I know not : if they speak but truth of her,
These hands shall tear her ; if they wrong her honour
The proudest of them shall well hear it.
Time hath not yet so dried this blood of mine,
Nor age so eat up my invention,
Nor fortune made such havoc of my means,
Nor my bad life 'reft me so much of friends,
But they shall find awaked in such a kind,
Both strength of limb and policy of mind,
Ability in means, and choice of friends
To quit me of them thoroughly.

Much Ado about Nothing.

Eager Revenge.
O I could play the woman with mine eyes,
And braggart with my tongue ! But, gentle heaven,
Cut short all intermission : front to front,
Bring thou this fiend of Scotland and myself ;
Within my sword's length set him ; if he ’scape,
Heaven forgive him too !- Macbeth.

REPROACH.

Reproach is settled anger or hatred, chastising the object of dislike by casting in his teeth the severest censures upon his imperfections or misconduct. The brow is contracted, the lip turned up with scorn, the head shaken, the voice low, as if abhorring, and the whole body expressive of aversion. Some. times it is marked with dignified spirit, as in the following :

Reproaching with Want of Friendship.
You have done that you should be sorry for.
There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats ;
For I am armed so strong in honesty,
That they pass me by as the idle wind
Which I respect not.

I did send to you
For certain sums of gold, which you denied me,
For I can raise no money by vile means :
By heaven, I haul rather coin my heart,

And drop my blood for drachmas, than to wring
From the hard hands of peasants their vile trash
By any indirection. I did send
To you for gold to pay my legions,
Which you denied me. Was that done like Cassius 9
Should I have answered Caius Cassius so !
When Marcus Brutus grows so covetous,
To lock such rascal counters from his friends,
Be ready, gods, with all your thunderbolts ;
Dash him to pieces !-Julius Cæsar.

Reproach with Want of Courage and Spirit.
Thou slave! thou wretch ! thou coward !
Thou little valiant, great in villainy !
Thou ever strong upon the stronger side !
Thou fortune's champion, thou dost never fight
But when her humorous ladyship is by
To teach thee safety! Thou art perjured, too,
And sooth’st up greatness. What a fool art thou,
A ramping fool, to brag, and stamp, and sweat,
Upon my party! Thou cold-blooded slave,
Hast thou not spoke like thunder on my side ?
Been sworn my soldier ? bidding me depend
Upon thy stars, thy fortune, and thy strength ?
And dost thou now fall over to my foes ?
Thou wear a lion's hide? Doff it for shame,
And hang a calf's skin on those recreant limbs. -King John.

FEAR AND TERROR. Fear is a mixture of aversion and sorrow, discomposing and debilitating the mind upon the approach or anticipation of evil. When this is attended with surprise and much discomposure

into terror and consternation. Fear, violent and sudden, opens wide the eyes and mouth, shortens the nose, gives the countenance an air of wildness, covers it with deadly paleness, draws back the elbows to the sides, lifts up the open hands, with the fingers spread, to the height of the breast, at some distance before it, so as to shield it from the dreadful object. One foot is drawn back behind the other, so that the body seems shrinking from the danger, and putting itself in a posture for flight. The heart beats violently, the breath is quick and short, and the whole body is thrown into a general tremor. The voice is weak and trembling, the sentences are short and the meaning confused and incoherent.

it grows

Terror of Evening and Night Described.
Light thickens; and the crow
Makes wing to the rooky wood ;
Good things of day begin to droop and drowse ;
While night's black agents to their prey do rouse.
Thou marvel'st at my words; but hold thee still ;
Things bad begun, make strong themselves by ill.

-Macbeth.
Fear from a Supernatural Object.
Angels and ministers of grace, defend us !
Be thou a spirit of health, or goblin damned,
Bring with thee airs from heaven, or blasts from hell,
Be thy intents wicked or charitable,
Thou com'st in such a questionable shape
That I will speak to thee. I'll call thee Hamlet,
King, father! Royal Dane : 0 answer me !
Let me not burst in ignorance.-Hamlet.

Horror at a Dreadful Apparition.
How ill this taper burns ! ha! who comes here?
I think it is the weakness of mine eyes
That shapes this monstrous apparition.
It comes upon me. Art thou any thing ?
Art thou some god, some angel, or some devil,
That mak'st my blood cold, and my hair to stare.
Speak to me, what thou art ?-Julius Cæsar.

Fear of being Discovered in Murder.
Alack ! I am afraid they have awaked,
And 'tis not done! the attempt, and not the deed,
Confound us. Hark! I laid their daggers ready,
He could not miss them ! Had he not resembled
My father as he slept I had done't !- Macbeth.

SORROW.

Sorrow is a painful depression of spirit upon the deprivation of good or arrival of evil.

When it is silent and thoughtful it is sadness ; when long indulged, so as to prey upon and possess the mind, it becomes habitual, and grows into melancholy; when tossed by hopes and fears, it is distraction ; when these are swallowed up by it, it settles into despair.

In moderate sorrow the countenance is dejected, the eyes are cast downward, the arms hang loose, sometimes a little raised, suddenly to fall again ; the hands open, the fingers

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