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spread, and the voice plaintive, frequently interrupted with sighs. But when this passion is in excess it distorts the countenance, as if in agonies of pain ; it raises the voice to the loudest complainings, and sometimes even to cries and shrieks; it wrings the hands, beats the head and breast, tears the hair, and throws itself on the ground, and, like other passions in excess, seems to border on frenzy.

Sadness.
In sooth, I know not why I am so sad.
It wearies me; you say it wearies you :
But how I caught it, found it, or came by it,
What stuff 'tis made of, whereof ’tis born,
I am to learn.
And such a want-wit sadness makes of me,
That I have much ado to know myself.

Silent Grief.
Seems, madam! nay, it is ; I know not seems.
'Tis not alone my inky cloak, good mother,
Nor the dejected 'haviour of the visage,
No, nor the fruitful river in the eye,
Together with all forms, modes, shows of grief,
That can denote me truly : these, indeed, seem,
For they are actions that a man might play ;
But I have that within which passeth show;
These but the trappings and the suits of woe.-Hamlet.

SNEER. Sneer is ironical approbation, where, with a voice and countenance of mirth somewhat exaggerated, we cast the severest censures; it is hypocritical mirth and good humour, and differs from the real by the sly, arch, satirical tone of voice, look and gesture which accompany it.

Scoffing at Supposed Cowardice.
Satan beheld their plight,
And to his mates thus in derision called :
O friends, why come not on these victors proud ?
Erewhile they fierce were coming, and when we,
To entertain them fair with open front
And breast, (what could we more ?) propounded terms
Of composition, straight they changed their minds,
Flew off, and into strange vagaries fell,
As they would dance ; yet for a dance they seemed

Somewhat extravagant and wild, perhaps
For joy of offered peace; but I suppose,
If our proposals once again were heard,
We should compel them to a quick result.-Paradise Lost.

SURPRISE, WONDER, AMAZEMENT, ASTONISHMENT. An uncommon object produces wonder. If it appears suddenly it begets surprise, surprise continuing becomes amazement, and, if the object of wonder comes gently to the mind, and arrests the attention by its beauty or grandeur, it excites admiration, which is a mixture of approbation and wonder : so true is that observation of Dr, Young in the tragedy of the Revenge :

Late time shall wonder that my joys shall raise,
For wonder is involuntary praise.

Wonder or amazement opens the eyes and makes them appear very prominent. It sometimes raises them to the skies, but more frequently fixes them on the object. The mouth is open, and the hands are held up nearly in the attitude of fear. The voice is at first low, but so emphatical that every word is pronounced slowly and with energy: When, by the discovery of something excellent in the object of wonder, the emotion may be called admiration, the eyes are raised, the hands lifted up or clapped together, and the voice elevated with expressions of rapture.

Surprise at Unexpected Events.
Gone to be married ? gone to swear a peace ?
False blood to false blood joined ? gone to be friends ?
Shall Lewis have Blanche, and Blanche those provinces ?
It is not so : thou hast misspoke, misheard :
Be well advised, tell o'er thy tale again :
It cannot be ! thou dost but say 'tis so !
What dost thou mean by shaking of thy head ?
Why dost thou look so sadly on my son ?
What means that hand upon that breast of thine ?
Why holds thine eye that lamentable rheum,
Like a proud river peering o'er his bounds ?
Be these sad signs confirmers of thy words ?
Then speak again ; not all thy former tale,
But this one word, whether thy tale be true. -King John,

VEXATION. Vexation, besides expressing itself by the looks, gestures, tone, and restlessness of perplexity, adds to these complaint, fretting, and remorse.

Vexation at Neglecting One's Duty.
O what a rogue and peasant slave am I !
Is it not monstrous, that this player here,
But in a fiction, in a dream of passion,
Could force his soul so to his own conceit,
That, from her working, all his visage wann'd :
Tears in his eyes, distraction in's aspect,
A broken voice, and his whole function suiting
With forms to his conceit? And all for nothing !
For Hecuba!
What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba,
That he should weep for her ?-Hamlet.

SHAME. Shame, or a sense of appearing to disadvantage before one's own fellow-creatures, turns away the face from the beholders, covers it with blushes, hangs the head, casts down the eyes, draws down and contracts the eyebrows. It either strikes the person dumb, or, if he attempts to say any thing in his own defence, causes his tongue to falter, confounds his utterance, and puts him upon making all kinds of gestures and grimaces to keep himself in countenance; all which only heighten his confusion and embarrassment. Shame at being Convicted of a Crime.

O my dread lord,
I should be guiltier than my guiltiness,
To think I can be undiscernible
When I perceive your grace, like power divine,
Hath looked upon my passes ; then, good prince,
No longer session hold upon my shame,
But let my trial be mine own confession:
Immediate sentence, then, and sequent death,
Is all the grace I beg.--Measure for Measure.

GRAVITY. Gravity, or seriousness, as when the mind is fixed, or deliberating on some important subject, smooths the countenance, and gives it an air of melancholy ; the eyebrows are lowereà,

eyes cast downward, the mouth almost shut, and sometimes a little contracted. The posture of the body and limbs is composed, and without much motion ; the speech slow and solemn, the tone without much variety.

Grave Deliberation on War and Peace.
Fathers, we once again are met in council :
Cæsar's approach has summoned us together,
And Rome attends her fate from our resolves.
How shall we treat this bold aspiring man ?
Success still follows him and backs his crimes :
Pharsalia gave him Rome. Egypt has since
Received his yoke, and the whole Nile is Cæsar's.
Why should I mention Juba's overthrow,
Or Scipio's death ? Numidia's burning sands
Still smoke with blood ; 'tis time we should decree
What course to take : our foe advances on us,
And envies us even Libya's sultry deserts.
Fathers, pronounce your thoughts ; are they still fixed,
To hold it out and fight it to the last ?
Or are your hearts subdued at length, and wrought,
By time and ill success, to a submission ?
Sempronius, speak.-Addison's Cato.

COMMANDING. Commanding requires an air a little more peremptory, with a look a little severe or stern. The hand is held out and moved toward the person to whom the order is given, with the palm upward, and sometimes it is accompanied by a nod of the head to the person commanded. If the command be absolute, and to a person unwilling to obey, the right hand is extended and projected forcibly toward the person commanded.

Commanding Combatants to Fight.
We were born not to sue, but to command;
Which since we cannot do to make you friends,
Be ready, as your lives shall answer it,
At Coventry, upon St. Lambert's day ;
There shall your swords and lances arbitrate
The swelling difference of your settled hate.
Since we cannot atone you, you shall see
Justice decide the victor's chivalry.
Lord Marshal, command our officers at arms
Be ready to direct these home alarms.-Richard II.

These, we think, will be sufficient to illustrate how important a part the correct manifestation of the passions has to play in the proper rendering of many of the finest passages of our best authors, and, therefore, the great need there exists for careful consideration by all who wish to succeed as Reciters or Readers.

CHAPTER VI. PROSE ELOCUTION, OR HOW TO READ PROSE. THE first and most important thing to bear in mind in undertaking to read Prose is to fully understand what you wish to do; then to clearly comprehend what you have to say; and finally, so to speak or read as to convey a distinct impression to the minds of those who are listening that you fully understand whatyou are saying, and, therefore, intend to give the sense as clearly as your voice and action will enable you.

Now the highest triumph of Elocution has been stated to be : the truthful utterance of intense and passionate feeling." If this is to be attained, it will at once be clearly seen that success can only be assured in proportion as the voice, the expression, and the energy of the whole being is so concentrated as to secure the embodiment of the fullest and most complete representation of the words selected. One writer on Elocution truly observes, “Elocution has a high aim ; she follows the human voice in its natural and unrestrained expression of intense feeling; she accompanies it ‘in the very torrent, tempest, and whirlwind of its passion ;' she knows it in its joy and its sorrow ; she catches and treasures up its intonations of love and hate, persuasion and command, scorn, pity, tenderness, and rage ; and by the power of her 'so potent art,' she holds them like familiar spirits, to be let loose at will. Under her teaching, he who will may learn their mastery ; subdue them to his power, and call them to his aid when he would cast a spell over the minds and hearts of his fellow men.”

Such being the case, it will be seen that in addition to the general instructions already given, and which deal with the details of the art of Elocution, it is important that careful study should be given to the various forms of style which belong to

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