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Sec. 32. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such individual liability of the corporators and other means as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 33. The term corporations, as used in this article, shall be construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies having any of the powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. And all corporations shall have the right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts, in like cases as natural persons.

Sec. 34. The legislature shall have no power to pass any act granting any charter for banking purposes, but associations may be formed, under general laws, for the deposit of gold and silver; but no such associations shall make, issue, or put in circulation any bill, check, ticket, certificate, promissory note, or other paper, or the paper of any bank, to circulate as money.

Sec. 35. The legislature of this state shall prohibit by law any person or persons, association, company, or corporation from exercising the privileges of banking or creating paper to circulate as money.

Sec. 36. Each stockholder of a corporation or joint-stock association shall be individually and personally liable for his proportion of all its debts and liabilities.

Sec. 37. It shall be the duty of the legislature to provide for the organization of cities and incorporated villages, and to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, contracting debts, and loaning their credit, so as to prevent abuses in assessments and in contracting debts by such municipal corporations.

Sec. 38. In all elections by the legislature the members thereof shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the journal.

Sec. 39: In order that no inconvenience may result to the public service from the taking effect of the amendments proposed to article 4 by the legislature of eighteen hundred and sixty-one, no officer shall be suspended or superseded thereby until the election and qualification of the several officers provided for in said amendments. (New section ratified September 3, 1862.)

ARTICLE V.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. Section 1. The supreme executive power of this state shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the Governor of the State of California.

Sec. 2. The governor shall be elected by the qualified electors, at the time and places of voting for members of the assembly, and shall hold

his office four years from and after the first Monday in December subsequent to his election, and until his successor is elected and qualified. (Amendment ratified September 3, 1862. Original provided for term of two years.)

Sec. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of governor (except at the first election) who has not been a citizen of the United States and a resident of this state two years next preceding the election, and attained the age of twenty-five years at the time of said election.

Sec. 4. The returns of every election for governor shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the speaker of the assembly, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in presence of both houses of the legislature. The person having the highest number of votes shall be governor; but, in case any two or more have an equal and the highest number of votes, the legislature shall, by joint vote of both houses, choose one of said persons so having an equal and the highest number of votes, for governor.

Sec. 5. The governor shall be commander in chief of the militia, the army, and navy of this state.

Sec. 6. He shall transact all executive business with the officers of government, civil and military, and may require information in writ

ing from the officers of the executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

Sec. 7. He shall see that the laws are faithfully executed.

Sec. 8. When any office shall, from any cause, become vacant, and no mode is provided by the constitution and law for filling such vacancy, the governor shall have power to fill such vacancy by granting a commission, which shall expire at the end of the next session of the legislature, or at the next election by the people.

Sec. 9. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the legislature by proclamation, and shall state to both houses, when assembled, the purpose for which they shall have been convened.

Sec. 10. He shall communicate by message to the legislature, at every session, the condition of the state, and recommend such matters as he shall deem expedient.

Sec. 11. In case of a disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time of adjournment, the governor shall have power to adjourn the legislature to such time as he may think proper; provided, it be not beyond the time fixed for the meeting of the next legislature.

Sec. 12. No person shall, while holding any office under the United States, or this state, exercise the office of governor, except as hereinafter expressly provided.

Sec. 13. The governor shall have the power to grant reprieves and pardons after conviction, for all offenses, except treason and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions and with such restrictions and limitations as he may think proper, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons. Upon conviction for treason, he shall have the power to suspend the execution of the sentence until the case shall be reported to the legislature at its next meeting, when the legislature shall either pardon, direct the execution of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He shall communicate to the legislature, at the beginning of every session, every case of reprieve or pardon granted, stating the name of the convict, the crime of which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, and the date of the pardon or reprieve.

Sec. 14. There shall be a seal of this state, which shall be kept by the governor, and used by him officially and shall be called “The Great Seal of the State of California.”

Sec. 15. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the people

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