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of this offering was wafted into the holy place, close by the veil of which stood the altar of incense, so do the prayers of the faithful ascend upwards, and find admission to the highest heaven." (Acts x. 4.)

V. The VOLUNTARY OF FREE oblations were either the fruits of promises or of vows; but the former were not considered so strictly obligatory as the latter, of which there were two kinds: 1. The vow of consecration, when any thing was devoted either for sacrifice or for the service of the temple, as wine, wood, salt, &c.; and 2. The vow of engagement, when persons engaged to do something that was not in itself unlawful, as not to eat of some particular meat, nor to wear some particular habits, not to drink wine, nor to cut their hair, &c. When the Jews made a vow, they made use of one of these two forms: "I charge myself with a burntoffering" or, "I charge myself with the price of this animal for a burnt-offering." Besides these they had other shorter forms; for instance, when they devoted all they had, they merely said, "all I have shall be corban," that is, "I make an oblation of it to God." Among other false doctrines taught by the Pharisees, who were the depositaries of the sacred treasury, was this, that as soon as a person had pronounced to his father or mother this form of consecration or offering, Be it corban (that is, devoted), whatever of mine shall profit thee (Mark vii. 11.), he thereby consecrated all he had to God, and must not thenceforth do any thing for his indigent parents if they solicited support from him. With great reason therefore does Jesus Christ reproach them with having destroyed, by their tradition, not only that commandment of the law which enjoins children to honour their fathers and mothers, but also another divine precept, which under the severest penalty, forbad that kind of dishonour which consists in contumelious words. (Mark vii. 9, 10. 13.) They, however, proceeded even further than this unnatural gloss; for, though the son did not directly give, or mean to give, any thing to God at that time, yet if he afterwards should repent of his rashness, and wish to supply them with any thing, what he had formerly said precluded the possibility of doing so; for his property became eventually devoted to God, and, according to the Pharisaic doctrine, the sacred treasury had a claim upon it, in preference to the parents. The words "be it corban," or devoted, consequently implied an imprecation against himself, if he should ever afterwards bestow any thing for the

1 Jones on the Fig. Lang. of Script. Lect. iv. towards the close. "The prayer of faith," adds this learned and pious writer, "is acceptable to God, as the fragrance of incense is agreeable to the senses of man; and, as the incense was offered twice a day, in the morning and evening, the spirit of this service is to be kept up at those times throughout all generations. The prophet Malachi (upon a forced and erroneous interpretation of whose words alone the church of Rome has founded and defended the use of incense in her worship) foretold that it should be observed throughout the world (Mal. i. 11.), and in the Revelation we hear of this incense as now actually carried up and presented in heaven. (Rev. v. 8.) Happy are they who fulfil this service; and at the rising and going down of the sun send up this offering to heaven, as all Christians are supposed to do, at least twice in every day." Ibid. (Works, vol. iii. p. 66.)

relief of his parents: as if he should say to them, "May I incur all the infamy of sacrilege and perjury if ever ye get any thing from me;" than which it is not easy to conceive of any thing spoken by a son to his parents, more contemptuous or more barbarous, and therefore justly denominated xaxoλoya, "opprobrious language."

VI. The PRESCRIBED OBLATIONS were either first-fruits or tithes. 1. All the First Fruits, both of fruit and animals, were consecrated to God (Exod. xxii. 29. Numb. xviii. 12, 13. Deut. xxvi. 2. Neh. x. 35, 36.); and the first-fruits of sheep's wool were offered for the use of the Levites. (Deut. xviii. 4.) The amount of this gift is not specified in the law of Moses, which leaves it entirely to the pleasure of the giver: the Talmudical writers, however, inform us, that liberal persons were accustomed to give the fortieth, and even the thirtieth; while such as were covetous or penurious gave only a sixtieth part. The first of these they called an oblation with a good eye, and the second an oblation with an evil eye. To this traditional saying our Lord is, by some learned men, supposed to have alluded in Matt. xx. 15. Among animals, the males only belonged to God and the Jews not only had a right, but were even obliged, to redeem them in the case of men and unclean animals, which could not be offered in sacrifice. These first-fruits were offered from the feast of pentecost until that of dedication, because after that time the fruits were neither so beautiful nor so good as before. Further, the Jews were prohibited from gathering in the harvest until they had offered to God the omer, that is, the new sheaf, which was presented the day after the great day of unleavened bread neither were they allowed to bake any bread made of new corn until they had offered the new loaves upon the altar on the day of pentecost; without which all the corn was regarded as unclean and unholy. To this St. Paul alludes in Rom. xi 16.; where he says, If the FIRST-FRUIT be holy, the lump also is holy. The presentation of the first-fruits was a solemn and festive ceremony. At the beginning of harvest, the sanhedrin deputed a number of priests to go into the fields and reap a handful of the first ripe corn and these, attended by great crowds of people, went out of one of the gates of Jerusalem into the neighbouring corn-fields. The firstfruits thus reaped were carried with great pomp and universal rejoicing through the streets of Jerusalem to the temple. The Jewish writers say that an ox preceded them with gilded horns and an olive crown upon his head, and that a pipe played before them until they approached the city: on entering it they crowned the first-fruits, that is, exposed them to sight with as much pomp as they could, and the chief officers of the temple went out to meet them. They were

1 Dr. Campbell's Translation of the Four Gospels, vol. ii. pp. 379–382. third edition.

2 From the Jewish custom of offering first-fruits to Jehovah, the heathens bor rowed a similar rite. See Pliny, Nat. Hist. lib. xviii. c. 2. Horace, Sat. lib. ii. Sat. v. 12. Tibullus, Eleg. lib. i. El. i. 13.

then devoutly offered to God in grateful acknowledgment of his providential goodness in giving them the fruits of the earth. These first-fruits, or handful of the first ripe grain, gave notice to all who beheld them that the general harvest would soon be gathered in. How beautiful and striking is St. Paul's allusion to this religious ceremony in that most consolatory and closely reasoned chapter, the fifteenth of his first Epistle to the Corinthians, in which, from the resurrection of Jesus Christ, he argues and establishes the certainty of the general resurrection: and represents Christ as the firstfruits of a glorious and universal harvest of all the sleeping dead! Now is Christ risen, and become the FIRST-FRUITS of them that slept. (1 Cor. xv. 20.) The use which the apostle makes of this image is very extensive. "In the first place, the growing of grain from the earth where it was buried is an exact image of the resurrection of the body for, as the one is sown, so is the other, and neither is quickened except it first die and be buried. Then the whole harvest, from its relation to the first-fruits, explains and ensures the order of our resurrection. For, is the sheaf of the first-fruits reaped? then is the whole harvest ready. Is Christ risen from the dead? then shall all rise in like manner. Is he accepted of God as an holy offering? then shall every sheaf that has grown up with him be taken from the earth and sanctified in its proper order :Christ the FIRST-FRUITS, and afterwards they that are Christ's at his coming." (1 Cor. xv. 23.)

2. Besides the first-fruits, the Jews also paid the Tenths or Tithes of all they possessed. (Numb. xviii. 21.) They were in general collected of all the produce of the earth. (Lev. xxvii. 30. Deut. xiv. 22, 23. Neh. xiii. 5. 10.), but chiefly of corn, wine, and oil, and were rendered every year except the sabbatical year. When these tithes were paid, the owner of the fruits further gave another tenth part, which was carried up to Jerusalem, and eaten in the temple at offering feasts, as a sign of rejoicing and gratitude to God. These are called second tithes. The Levites paid a tenth of the tithes they received to the priests. Lastly, there were tithes allotted to the poor, for whom there was also a corner left in every field, which it was not lawful to reap with the rest (Lev. xix. 9. Deut. xxiv. 19.); and they were likewise allowed such ears of corn, or grapes, as were dropped or scattered about, and the sheaves that might be accidentally forgotten in the field. Field-tithes might be redeemed by those who desired it, on paying one-fifth in addition: but all conversion of the tithes of cattle was prohibited. (Lev. xxvii. 32, 33.) The payment and appreciation of them Moses left to the

1 Jones's Works, vol. iii. p. 64. Harwood's Introd. to the New Test. vol. ii. p. 307. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 146-149. Beausobre's Introd. to the New Test. (vol. iii. p. 200. of Bishop Watson's Collection of Tracts.) Dr. Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. p. 984. vol. ii. pp. 184. 306, 307. folio edit. Lamy's Apparatus, vol. i. p. 204. Ikenii Antiq. Hebr. part i. c. 15. pp. 210-224. Schulzii Archeol. Hebr. pp. 287-292. Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. i. pp. 203-206.

2 On the application of these second tithes, see Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 142, 143.


consciences of the people, without subjecting them to judicial or sacerdotal visitations, but at the same time he did not prohibit the Levites from taking care that they duly received what was their The conscientious accuracy of the people, with respect to the second tithe, he secured merely by the declaration which they made every three years before God. From trifling articles he in no case required tithes; though we learn from the Gospel that the Pharisees affected to be scrupulously exact in paying tithes of every the least herb. (Matt. xxiii. 23.) If, however, a person had committed a trespass against the sanctuary, that is, had not paid the tithes of any particular things, and if at any time afterwards, his conscience were awakened to a sense of his guilt, he had it in his power to make an atonement, without incurring any civil disgrace, by simply paying an additional fifth, with his tithe, and making a trespass-offering. (Lev. v. 14-16.)

The custom of giving tithes to the Deity existed long before the time of Moses. Thus Abraham gave Melchisedek king of Salem (who was at the same time the priest of the Most High God,) the tithe of all that he had taken from the enemy, when he returned from his expedition against the four kings who were in alliance with Chedorlaomer. (Gen. xiv. 20.) And Jacob consecrated to God the tenth of all that he should acquire in Mesopotamia. (Gen. xxxviii. 22.) The same custom obtained among various antient nations, who devoted to their gods the tenth part of every thing they obtained.

1 Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 141-145. VOL. III. 38

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I. THE SABBATH.-How observed.-Jewish worship on that day.Their prayers, public and private; attitudes at prayer; forms of prayer.-II. Their manner of worshipping in the temple.-III. NEW MOONS.-IV. Annual festivals. V. THE PASSOVER; when celebrated, and with what ceremonies; its mystical or typical reference.-VI. THE DAY OF PENTECOST.-VII. THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES.-VIII. THE FEAST OF TRUMPETS.-IX. DAY OF EXPIATION.-X. Annual festivals instituted by the Jews.-FEAST OF PURIM. -XI. THE FEAST OF DEDICATION.-Other festivals observed at stated intervals.-XII. THE SABBATICAL YEAR.XIII. THE YEAR OF JUBILEE.

IN order to perpetuate the memory of the numerous wonders God had wrought in favour of his people, Moses by the divine command instituted various festivals, which they were obliged to observe : these sacred seasons were either weekly, monthly, or annual, or recurred after a certain number of years.

1. Every seventh day was appropriated to sacred repose, and called the SABBATH; although this name is in some passages given to other festivals, as in Levit. xxv. 4., and sometimes it denotes a week, as in Matt. xxviii. 1., Luke xxiv. 1., Acts xx. 7. and 1 Cor. xvi. 2. (Gr.) It was originally instituted to preserve the memory of the creation of the world (Gen. ii. 3.): whether it continued to be observed by the Israelites as a day of rest and holy convocation during their residence in Egypt, is a question concerning which learned men are by no means agreed. When, however, God gave them rest in the land of Canaan, he gave them his sabbaths to be statedly kept. (Exod. xx. 10, 11. and xvi. 23.)

In the observance of the sabbath, the following circumstances were enjoined by divine command. 1. This day was be held sacred as a day of worship, in memory of the creation of the world by Jehovah, and also as a day of repose both for man and beast, that they might be refreshed, and not have their bodily strength exhausted by uninterrupted labour (Gen. ii. 1-3. Exod. xx. 10, 11. Ezek. xx. 20.); hence the celebration of the sabbath was the making of a weekly profession that, they received and revered the Creator of heaven and earth, and was closely connected with the fundamental principle of the Mosaic law, whose object was to keep the people from idolatry, and to maintain the worship of the one true God; and hence also the punishment of death was denounced against the wilful profanation of this solemnity. 2. On this day they were most religiously to abstain from all manner of work. (Exod. xx. 10. xxiii. 12. xxxi. 12-17, xxxv. 2. Deut. v. 14, 15.

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