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NOTES AND MEMORANDA.

REFRIGERATING SALTS.—Herr F. Rudorff has a paper in Poggend. Ann. comparing the refrigerating effect of various salts in solution. The two most remarkable seem to be the sulpho-cyanides of ammonium and potassium ; 133 parts of the former added to 100 of water reduced the temperature of the liquid from 12:2° C. to -18° C., while 150 parts of the latter in 100 of water, reduced it from 10.8° C. to - 23.7° C. or 34:59. To produce a maximum of effect, quantities of from 250 to 500 grammes of the salt employed should be used, in a thin glass vessel surrounded by loose cotton. The salts should be an impalpable powder, and well stirred with the thermometer. A little more of the salt should be used than would suffice to saturate the water. The minimum temperature may be obtained in less than a minute.

THE AGE OF WRITINGS IN COMMON INK.-M. F. Carré has communicated to the French Academy remarks on an approximate determination of the age of writing made with ink having like those in common use an iron base. He says, that writing, eight or ten years old may be copied with an ordinary press, if the copying paper is moistened with water to which one-twelfth of hydrochloric acid has been added. In this case the copying is almost as easy, as when it is done upon fresh writing in the usual way. The facility of the copying process diminishes with time, and a writing thirty years old did not give a legible copy, while one dating 1787, scarcely yielded a perceptible trace. When writings are washed with, or soaked in dilute hydrochloric acid of the strength mentioned, an inverse action is noticed. Those made from a few months to ten years ago disappear after an immersion of from a few hours to a few days, while a writing thirty years old could be read after fifteen days maceration. When copies are made with acidulated paper, they should be held over a dish containing liquid ammonia for a few seconds to neutralize the acid.

THE COURAGE OF THE WEASEL.-Frequent mention has been made of the boldness of the weasel, which is curiously illustrated by the following fact. The editor was lately walking in his garden in Sussex with two ladies and a gentleman, when a small animal was seen busy on the lawn a few yards off. The party stood still to look at it, and the creature trotted towards them. It made a slight attempt to pass them by dodging behind a bush, but not succeeding, boldly approached, and allowed itself to be taken up in a pocket-handkerchief without a struggle. After being carried about for ten minutes and shown to several people, it was replaced on the grass, but instead of running away, it made a curious squeaking noise, and opened its mouth as if to bite. Stroking it with the handkerchief caused it to renew its bold demonstrations, but on being left alone it ran slowly through an evergreen harbour towards a bank in which it is supposed to live. It did not seem at all afraid, or much annoyed at being handled, and only resented it by diffusing its nasty and characteristic odour. This incident happened in broad daylight.

THE APOMECOMETER.—In our April number we gave an account of an ingenious modification of the sextant to form a small pocket instrument for measuring heights, devised by Mr. N. J. Heineken, of Sidmouth. We have since received from that gentle. man a letter stating, that his attention has been called to Millar's apomecometer made by Mr. Stanley, of Great Turnstile, very similar to his own. Mr. Heineken's last instru. ment is only a variation from one he made in December 1868, and was used by him and a friend (Dr. Radford), in January 1869. Mr. Millar and Mr. Heineken, working independently, seem to have devised a very similar modification of the principle of the sextant.

INDEX.

Arctic expedition from Sweden, 159
Arctic temperature, 152
Arenicola, 326
Ariciidæ, 321
Aristarchus and Linné, 190
Artificial stone, composition for, 388
Asteroids, orbits of, 3
Astronomical notes, 35, 123, 217, 279, 366,

440
Astronomy, progress of, during present

century, 1
Atmosphere in the moon, question of, 257
Atmospheric pressure, 44, 46, 48
Attire, head, in feudal times, 202

ABNEY Moor, stone circles at, 347
Abranchiata, 93
Absorption of gases, 143, 311
Acicula, 162
Actinidæ, 85
Actinozoa, gastric cavities of, 241
Actinozoa, Mediterranean, 81
Aerolites, orbits of determined, 3
Age of writings in common ink, 466
Air, temperature of the, 44, 46, 49
Alcyonaria, 85, 241
Alcyonidæ, 85
Alimentary substances, regeneration, 388
Aluminium, reduction of, from its ores,

155
Ammoniacal salts, manufacturing, 391
Amphinomacea, 165
Amphinome, seta of, 109
Amphiosus, 326
Anatomy of stentors, 352
Ancient Britons, cannibalism of, 60
Ancient remains, preservation of, 313
Andromeda nebula, 178
Aniline black, manufacture of, 235
Animal life, curious page of, 210
Animal substances, preservation of, 70
Animals, excommunication of, 216
Aumonière, 199
Annelida errantia, 161
Annelidan worms, 91, 161, 261, 321, 432
Annelides, orders of, 93, 321
Annular eclipse of the sun, 43
Annular nebulæ, 188
Ant-eater, 337
Anthropomorphism, 269
Antidote to phosphorus poisoning, 240
Antipatharia, 85, 241
Ants, white, black, and red, 336
Aphrodiseans, 161
Aphrodita aculeata, 104, 162
Aphrodita hystrix, 162
Aphrodita bystrix, foot of, 109
Aphrodites, 161
Apomecometer, 466
Application of gas and vapour, 235
April meteors, 220
Archipelago, Malay, 221
Archæologia, 60, 229, 313, 384, 458

BAILEY's beads, 129
Balani, 325
Bamboo cane, preparing fibre from, 461
Barbel, 412
Barrow at Dotterill Park, 61
Beck's new rotating stage, 79
Berriew, barrow at, 350
Bignor, Roman villa at, 64
Bird of Paradise, 226
Birds, mimicry of colour in, 225
Black ants, 336
Blast furnaces, 387
Blast furnaces, elimination of nitrogen in

working, 70
Blenny, 416
Blocks for surface printing, 462
Bliault, 205
Blue sky, Tyndall on, 160
Boilers, incrustation in, 68
Boiling point of airless water, 320
Boiling water by the sun's
Boots, India-rubber soles for, 155
Borneo, solar eclipse as seen at, 129
Boscawen-un, stone circle of, 350
Botany, economic, new facts in, 26
Bottles, material for covering, 387
Bottles, stopper for, 389
Bourgeoisie, power of the, in the fourteenth

century, 287
Blood corpuscles, oviparous vertebrate,

320
Brassington Moor, stone circles at, 347
Bricks, composition for, 388

rays, 58

stars, 3

Bridlington, turuli near, 60

Concentrating and treating saccharine and
Bristles of Annelides, 104, 162

saline solutions, 389
British hydroid zoophytes, 274

Connection between comets and shooting
Britons, cannibalism of ancient, 60
Browning's self-regulating electric lamp, Cooling of the earth's crust, 177
65

Copal, sources of, 356
ryozoa, 83

Coralline, 228
Buildings, plastic composition for deco Corallium rubrum, 82, 241
rating, 462

Corals and their polypes, 81, 241
Burgher life in the Middle Ages, 286 Coriaria, the properties of, 26
Button fastening, 461

Cornettes, 202

Correspondence, 71, 156, 460
CALLERNISH, stone circle of, 348

Costume in the Middle Ages, 196
Callophie, poison glands of, 400

Cote, 197
Camisia, 197

Cottus gobio, 455
Canada, meteor shower as seen in, 40 Courage of the weasel, 466
Cannibalism amongst Ancient Britons, 60 Covering bottles, material for, 387
Capele, or chapelet, 202

Coverings for floors, 66
Capoëta, 413

Crater of Vesuvius, 173
Carbonizing iron, 462

Crustacea, Fritz Müller on, 316
Carclaze, a Cornish mine, 154

Curious page of animal life, 210
Carp, 413

Cyprinoids, 410
Carpenter's, Dr., dredging report, 76
Carts, 390

DAGGER plant, the leaves of the, 26
Carts in the feudal ages, 23

Damoiselles of the castle, 14
Carophylliæ, 87

Dartmoor, stone circles at, 347
Caucasus, glaciers of the, 55

Darwinism and design, 268
Cavities in minerals, 240

Decoction of worms, 437
Cement, preserving and hardening, 463 Decomposition of sulphurets of iron, 233
Central heat of the earth, 175

Density of hydrogenium, 146, 311
Cerebral functions, velocity of, 362

Destruction of ants by poison, 337
Cerianthidæ, 86

Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum,
Chwtopterus, 325

173
Change in appearance of lunar craters, 192 Destruction of Roman walls in France, 232
Chemical theories of volcanoes, 176

Devdoroc, glacier of, 56
Chloride of magnesium, growth of fungi | Development of skull in domestic fowl,
in, 80

240
Chromis, 415

Dew-worm, 433
Church, bawks carried to, 139

Diaphragm for microscope, 429
Cilia of stentors, 353

Digestive system of annelides, 97
Cinescope, the, 320

Discognathus, 413
Circulation of the blood in annelides, 96 Domestic fowl, skull of, 240
Cirratulidæ, 321

Door-mat or scraper,

388
Cladocora cespitosa, 90

Dorsibranchiata, 93
Clarias, 415

Dotterill Park, barrow at, 61
Clavatella, buds of, 277

Doubtful goby, 71
Clouds, magellanic, 188

Dredging report, Dr. Carpenter's, 76
Coccoliths and coccospheres, 29

Dress of the burgher class in the Middle
Cod-fish, prey of, 162

Ages, 290
Cohesion figures, 80

Dress in the Feudal Ages, 19, 194
Coins, mediæval, found at Oxford, 314 Driving in the Feudal Times, 11
Colchester, Roman sepulchral monument Druid circles, 344
at, 458

Durian, the, 223
Colour in the moon, 251

Dye, poisonous stocking, 229
Coloured sparks and their spectra, 59
Comet, Encke's, 280

EARTH, central heat of, 175
Comet, Halley's, 281

Earth, probable appearance of the, from
Comet, Winnecke's, 218, 280

the moon, 252
Cometary theory, 368

Earth sbadow, 460
Cometic orbits, 5

Earth-worms, 432
Comets, 37

Eclipse, total solar, 35, 126
Comets, spectroscope analysis of comets, Economic botany, new facts in, 26
Composition for bricks, artificial stone, Eel, the, 411
etc., 388

Electric lamp, self-regulating, 65
Compound for tanning leather, 386 Electricity in the torpedo, source of, 320

Eliminating nitrogen in working blast fur-

paces, etc., 70
Elizabeth, queen, dress in the reign of,

444
Elk Low, barrow, 345
Elytra, 161
Encke's comet, 280
Equatorial fruits and flowers, 224
Errantia, 94, 161
Eruption of Vesuvius, 173
Eruptive rocks, microscopio planeta and

animals in, 160
Esquimaux, food of, 153
Escarpins or Estivaus, 199
Eta argûs, 460
Etna, mount, eruption of, 174
Eunice, masticatory apparatus of, 108
Euniceæ, 168
Euphorbiaceæ, 401
Euphrosyne foliacia, 167
Excommunication of animals, 216
Experiments on earth-worms, 427
Experiments with coralline, 228
Extravagance in dress in the feudal times,

195
Eyam Moor, stones circles at, 347
Eyesight and the microscope, 427

Gas and vapour, application of, 235
Gas generators, eliminating nitrogen in

working, 70
Gases, liquefaction of, 80
Gelatine, manufacture of, 388
Gemmation of hydra, 277
Generation, organs of, annelides, 101
Gephgrea, 95
Gerardia, 241
Glaciers, descent of, 160
Glaciers of the Caucasus, 55
Glass, manufacturing, 386
Glove fastenings, 234
Glyceridæ family, 266
Glycerine, heating and applying for warm-
Goby, a doubtful, 71
Gorgonidæ, 85,241
Graham on the absorption of gases, 143
Greenland, tertiary plant-beds of, 159
Growth of fungi in chloride of magne-

sium, 80
Guimple, 198

ing, 66°

Fabrics, textile, 67
Falconry in the Middle Ages, 138
Fashions in the Feudal Ages, 196
Fastening for neckties, 391
Fauna of Malay Archipelago, 222
Feet of annelides, 162
Felt hats, 69
Fermails or brooches, 200
Ferreting the rabbit in the feudal periods,

137
Feudal lady out of the castle, 11
Feudal period, hunting and hawking in

the, 131
Fiddian's lamp, 80
Fire-places, 73
Firestone, Reigate, 29
Fishes of the Holy Land, 409
Fixed stars, distance of, 8, 41
Flax Dale barrow, 345
Flight, insects wings during, 52
Floor coverings, 66
Flowers, equatorial, 224
Flowers of coriuria, 26
Fluid cavities in minerals, 240
Food for horses and cattle, 461
Food for silkworms, 320
Food of Esquimaux, 153
Fowl, domestic, skull of, 240
France, insanity in, 400
Freia, 353
Fruits, equatorial, 224
Fruits of coriaria, 26
Fuel, utilizing, 316
Fungi, growth of, in chloride of magne-

sium, 80
Furnaces, blast, 387

HABITS of Ourang-utan, 223
Halley's comet, probable meteors of, 281
Hartle Moor, stone circle at, 346
Hathersage Moor, stone circles at, 347
Hats, felt, 69
Head-dress in Feudal Ages, 198, 202
Hearing, sensation of, 364
Heat, central, of the earth, 175
Heat of the stars, 240
Heat, solar, as a motive power, 57
Heating and applying glycerine for warm-

ing, 66
Height of glaciers above sea level, 55
Heights, measuring, 236
Henning, 209
Herculaneum, destruction of, 173
Hercules, great star cluster in, 177
Herschel's method of gauging the sidereal

heavens, 9
Holy Land, fishes of the, 409
Horned headdresses, 202
Horses and cattle, food for, 461
Hands employed in the Middle Ages, 133
Humidity, relative, 45, 47, 49
Hunting and hawking in the feudal period,

131
Hydrogen, relation of, to palladium, 143,

311
Hydrogenium, 79, 146, 311
Hydroid zoophytes, 274
Hydrozoa, 84

ICEBERGS, size of, 152.
Icthyology of the Holy Land, 417
Illumination for the microscope, 428
Incrustation in boilers, 68
India-rubber soles for boots, 155
India-rubber tubing, 155
Indian copal, 357
Influence of sun-light upon ants, 343

Ink, common, age of writings in, 466 Manufacture of gas, 235
Insanity in France, 400

Manufacture of gelatine, 388
Insect life in Natal, 336

Manufacturing ammoniacal salts, 391
Insects, mimicry of form in, 224

Manufacturing glass, 386
Insects, rain of, 400

Mannre, 69
Insects, ravages of, 216

Mare crisium, colour of, 259
Insects' wings during flight, 53

Mare serenitatis, colour of, 254
Invention, progress of, 65, 155, 233, 315, Marphysa, 169
386, 461

Matches, safety, 69
Iron, paint for protection of, 65

Material for covering bottles, 387
Iron, smelting, carbonizing, and purifying, Materials for dress in Feudal Ages, 196
462

Mayer, Joseph, statute of, 385
Irregular nebulæ, 188

Measuring beights, 236
Isle of Man, stone circles in, 349

Medicine, earth-worms as a, 437

Mediæval coins found at Oxford, 314
JUPITER, light of the planet, 251

Meduse, 277
Kiss of peace, 201

Megascolex, 438

Mercury, notes on a transit of, 157
LADIES hawking in the Middle Ages, 141

Metal, paint for protection of, 65
Ladies in church in feudal times, 17

Meteoric observations, 38
Laminarie, 330

Meteorological observations made at Kew,
Lamp, a new, 315

44, 303
Lamp, electric, self-regulating, 65

Meteors, April, 220
Lamp, Fiddian's, 80

Meteors, orbits of, determined, 3
Land leech, 239

Meteors, probable, of Halley's comet, 281
Lapdscapes, lunar, 190

Microscope, diaphragm for, 429
Late solar eclipse, 80

Microscope and the eyesight, 427
Lava floods, source of, 175

Microscopic plants and animals in eruptive
Lawsuit, curious, 215

rocks, 160
Leam Moor, stone circles at, 347

Medieval picnic, 15
Leather, compound for tanning, 386 Milky way, the, 8, 111, 178, 181
Leaves of the dagger plant, 26

Miller's thumb, parental attachment of
Leech land, 239

the, 455
Lepidonotus, 162

Mimicry of form in insects, 224
Leucodore, 324

Minyadinæ, 87
Life, curious page of animal, 210

Mine, Carclaze tin, 154
Light, extinction of, 113

Minerals, fluid cavities in, 240
Light waves, 158

Moon, colour in the, 251
Linné and Aristarchus, 190

Moon, occultations of stars by the, 125,
Lipari, eruption of, 174

218, 279, 441
Liquefaction of gases, 80

Moon, photographs of the, 156
Literary notices, 74, 158, 237, 316, 392, Motive power, solar heat as a, 57
463

Multiplication of stentors, 421
Loach, 412

Mus marinus, 162
Locket, new form of, 233

Musical intervals, 239
Lug-worm, 326
Lumbricidæ, 432

NAIDES, 432
Lumbricus or eartb-worm, 96

Natal, insect life in, 336
Lumbrineria tricolor, 170

Nebula, Orion, 186
Lump fish, 455

Nebulæ, classes of, 116
Lunar craters, 190

Neckties, fastening for, 391
Lunar eclipses, 460

Needle-case and wrapper, 461
Lunar landscapes, 190

Nephthya chabrolii, 86
Lunar photography, 156

Nephthydæ, family of, 263
Lustre of fixed stars, 8

Nereid, nervous system of, 96

Nereides, family of, 261
MADREPORARIA, 85, 241

Nereids, 161
Magellanic clouds, 188

Nereis tubicola, 169
Magnesia, sulphate of, manufacture of, 316 Nerines, 323
Magnesium, chloride of, growth of fungi Nervous system of annelides, 95
in, 80

Nests of the white ant, 337
Magnolia in Greenland, 159

New direct vision spectroscope, 239
Making and applying aniline black, 235 New facts in economic botany, 26
Malay Archipelago, 221

New method of silvering, 69
Man, Isle of, stone circles in, 348

New rotating stage, 79

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