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“ Then shalt thou say in thine heart, Who hath “ begotten me these, seeing I have lost my chil“ dren, and am desolate, a captive, and removing “ to and fro? And who hath brought up these!
Behold, I was left alone : these, where had they been
Here I was again interrupted in my speculations, by being detacbed in the beginning of January 1792, with two companies of sepoys under my command, to garrison a small hill fort, taken from Tippoo Sultan, called Ram Ghurry, and one of the dependencies of Savendroog. This retired situation was enlivened by the society of a very agreeable young officer, who commanded one of the companies, and, like me, was fond of poetry and literary amusement. The first month of our residence in this post, was spent in putting it into a state of defence; but when this pleasing labour was over, I again employed all my leisure, in the prosecution of my plan.
In the course of my reflections, which I committed to paper, it became clear and manifest to me, that the human soul was in itself both male and female; and when arrived at maturity, was truly represented in bodily shadows by the state of matrimony*. That as
* The experience of thirty years shows me, that this intricate subject will not be properly understood by readers
man and wife were one flesh, so the head or mind, and the heart, became united into one
of any description (almost) without some further elucidation, and bringing more force of Scriptural evidence. In adducing this, I must of necessity enter on the limits of metaphysical inquiry; and therefore, I would entreat the patience and candid allowance of metaphysical adepts, in the event of my using terms, which they may judge not to be appropriate to the things which I mean to describe. For instance, the words qualities, faculties, powers, heart, mind, soul, spirit, affections, passions, intellect, &c. It is probable, that I may not always use the above terms with 'propriety, agreeably to the newest edition of metaphysical definitions, by the great masters. All I can aspire to, or hope for, is, merely to be understood; and even that may presumptuous hope, considering the abstruseness of the subject, and the incompetency of the writer.
My intelligent and critical reader, if he takes the trouble to consider the subject, may, perhaps, perceive a degree of confusion and perplexity arise in the course of the developement of the analogies of the above similitude. This I also felt, and saw after a little consideration; but I did not so soon find how to obviate the difficulty. Thus, the human head is pronounced by St. Paul to be the type, or figure or emblem, of our Lord Jesus Christ; and the rest of the body to be emblematic of the church, his mystic wife. But this wife, though she is female in a collective point of view, in comparison with her husband the head, is yet composed of both male and female ingredients, or individuals, in pretty equal proportion.
Now, if we suppose, (what seems to be a reasonable supposition) that the types, figures, and parables, set forth by the inspired writers, and by our Lord Jesus Christ, are (generally speaking) perfectly accurate and congruous in all their parts to what they represent, then we may lawfully infer, spirit or soul; and that as the object of matrimony was the propagation of healthful chil
that the human body, which is the Scripture emblem of the church, is in all probability congruous therewith, in all respects of true proportion, or analogy. Hence, we may reasonably look out for a parallel in the human body, and soul, also, to the male and female component parts of the church, as characteristic of the sexes.
If any person can point out any other more comprehensive, striking, and important characteristics, than reason and the intellectual faculty altogether, including the imagination subordinately; and sentiment, or feeling, affection, passion, and all moral perception; then I shall give these up and adopt his characteristics; but as the above include both the mind and heart of man, which are the vital organs and functions of the soul, or, as it were, the whole essential of man; so I must beg leave to keep to them, until some facul. ties more important, and more characteristic of the sexes, shall be presented.
Now although men have sentiment, or heart, and women have rational intellect, or mind; yet I apprehend that man is (generally speaking) more intellectual than woman; and that woman is (generally speaking) more sentimental than
If this be allowed, and if it be required to give a brief characteristic of each in mutual relation and comparatively, then intellect seems more characteristic of the man, and sentiment or feeling more characteristic of the woman. But St. Paul himself says, Ist of Corinthians, xi. chapter, “ Nevertheless, neither is the man without the woman, “ neither the woman without the man, in the Lord ;” or, in spiritual truth.
Among a multitude of characteristics of man and woman, given by the celebrated Lavater, chapter xxiv. on male and female characteristics, he says, “ The female thinks not profoundly; profound thought is the power of the man.
under the divine auspices; that rational intellect, the head, and just sentiment, and lovely affection,
spiritual. If not, then we are all material, and materialists. But a man may say, that air is not emblematic of spirit, and he may demand a proof that it is so.
Direct proof, in those very words, cannot perhaps be given ; but circumstantial evidence may be collected in abundance from Holy Scripture. The same word denotes both air and spirit, both in the Old Testament and in the New. This by a Christian should be, and will be, regarded as strong testimony.
Our Lord “ breathed on his disciples, and said unto them, 66 receive
And the operations of the Holy Spirit are by our Lord compared to the wind ; “ the wind bloweth where it listeth,” &c.—" so is every
one that is born of the Spirit,'' John, iii. In the first general Epistle of St. John, the three great witnesses for God on earth, are said to be “ the spirit, the water, and the “ blood." The word used for spirit in the original is air, or TIyeypa. It is probable, that this ought to have been rendered air, and not spirit, because water and blood are material things, as well as air. Nevertheless, it does not much signify to one who has been taught that all natural things are types, because he will be enabled by faith, and by the grace of the Spirit of truth, properly to arrange the various parallels he meets, without confusion.
In the first chapter of Genesis it is said, “ And the Lord * God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed vi into his nostrils the breath of life ; and man became a ** LIVING SOUL.” Observe here, that the breath of life is (or means) also the spirit of life; for “man became a " LIVING SOUL," as well as a living body.
The above evidence appears to be quite sufficient to satisfy any one, who does not shut his eyes against the light
the heart, (or the spiritual male and female) might under the influence of divine truth, or
of truth, in consequence of prejudices. Hence it will perhaps be allowed, that as the heart is the organ of natural blood, or life, and as the lungs, united with the heart, are the organ of natural air, or life; also, that as the blood is the emblem of moral life, or love, and as the air is the emblem of spiritual life, or truth in love ; so they are the two grand members of the body which represent the whole; in short, the types of the male and female component parts of the individual soul, and also of the whole church at large, under CHRIST THE GREAT HEAD.
But there still remains another weighty objection to answer; not indeed weighty in its own merits, but in the clouds of prejudice and unconsciousness which invest, and magnify, as well as obscure it ; and in the confidence, the popular unchecked confidence, with which it is advanced. It is asserted, or admitted by many pious persons, among whom is the late excellent Rev. Joseph Milner, (in his Sermon on the Brazen Serpent, as the Type of our Lord Jesus Christ) “ that types and emblems are seldom to be “ taken strictly.” But he adds, “ very true, neither ought
they ever to be explained away entirely. They seldom hold, so it is acknowledged, if we descend to minute particulars ; " but this instructive emblem would fail in its leading and " most essential circumstance, if an eager longing sight of " the Saviour on the cross did not perfectly heal the most ""inveterate spiritual malady."
But with all due deference and respect to the worthy and eminent character above-mentioned (who, however, is more for than against the use of types and figures), and all other such, I would humbly submit, that every man's opinion, who has an opinion of his own upon this subject, will be formed by his own experience. Suppose a parable