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PREFACE

TO THE FIRST EDITION.

The Work consists of three Parts, united by the thread of the subject. The FIRST contains some observations on that WEAR and TEAR of mind and body, which we particularly remark in civilized life, and especially in large cities; together with some suggestions as to the antidote or remedy. The second Part consists of reflections and observations, made during excursions through France, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany, in the years 1823 and 1829, partly for recreation—but principally for renovation of health. The THIRD division contains some remarks and speculations on the moral, physical, and medicinal influence of foreign, and especially of an Italian climate and residence, in sickness and in health. In each of these divisions, the author hopes that he has been able to combine utility with some portion of amusement.

Novelty in description is now quite out of the question-and from description he has generally abstained. Impressions and reflections will continue to be varied, till the minds and features of human beings become similar to each other, and in this respect only, can novelty, or rather variety of sentiment, be expected. He did not-indeed he could not, travel as an Antiquarian, Painter, Architect, Botanist, Geologist, or Politician. He roamed from place to place as a philosophic observer. It is well known that many people migrate annually to Italy, in search of health-and there find a grave ;—while a still larger class go thither in quest of pleasure or improvement, and bring back the seeds of disease. The observations of a medical traveller, not inexperienced in the investigation of climatorial influence on the human constitution, mental and corporeal, may prove useful to those who wander or sojourn on the classic soil of Italy, for any of the above purposes.

J. J. Suffolk Place, Pall Mall,

March, 1831.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

The favourable reception which this work has experienced from the Press and the Public, is gratefully acknowledged by the Author. He has endeavoured to make it more worthy of public patronage by omissions, additions, and modifications of considerable importance. The author has been sharply censured for the severity of his censures ;—but as these last were never personal-were always directed against manners rather than men -against the species, and not against the individual-finally, as they were levelled at things that are indefensible in themselves, he considered them legitimate. Nevertheless, he has qualified many of his expressions-cancelled many passages that were deemed objectionable—and filled up the breaks with matters of a different character.* With respect to the largest portion of the Work—the touristical--the event has proved that the author acted wisely in preferring reflection to descriptionthe notation of impressions on the mind, to the delineation of those scenes which produced them. The former (reflection) is an intellectual operation which all can comprehend-in which all can participate, without the aid of pencil or chart :-the latter (description) is seldom intelligible in the absence of the originals--and not always useful when they are before the eye.

The plan which the author has adopted is not without difficulties as well as dangers :--but it has its sweets, its libertiesits latitudes, almost as wide as romance. In this case, however, such licenses injure not the reality. The most absurd or extravagant ruminations over the ruins of Rome, or the resurrection of Pompeii, cannot disturb any of the facts or histories connected with these places. They are only meditalions; and capable only of exciting meditations in the minds of others. If the author can trust to a more unerring criterion than the flattery of friendship, namely, to the sentence of the public he may fairly hope that he has been able to infuse into this, the largest portion of the volume, some sources of amusement, at least, for his readers. In the other two portions, which are more particularly of a didactic or preceptive character, he is confident that those whom it may concern (and in this country they form a very numerous class) will find information of a very useful kind. In fine, the author confidently hopes that in this unostentatious volume, will be found the elements of health and recreation, in a less repulsive form than they are generally met with, in works having the same objects in view. November, 1831.

J.J. * These changes, &c. occur chiefly at pages 17, 18, 19, 21, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 39, 40, 73, 74, 94, 105, 109, 149, 178, 182, 183, 230, 282, 283, 287, 288, 289, 290, 294, to 301.

CONTENTS.

Part the First.

ib.

ib.

Massacreafiel e Christian Legion; }

Part the Second.
Change of Air, or the Diary of a Philosopher.

The Steamer

31 Society in Geneva-Evening Par-2

Shakespeare's Cliff ...

48

32 ties

}

Employment of Steam in War 33 Rousseau's Description of Vevey 49

CALAIS

ib. Vivid Excitement soon subsides.... 50

La Belle France

34 Occupation the grand source of

51

Characteristics of La Belle France.. 35

Happiness

Picture of a Table d'Hôte ...

ib. Gibbon, Voltaire, Rousseau, Byron, 51
Gallic and British voracity compared 36 St. MAURICE

52

French Politeness

ib. Reflections on the Bridge of St.

37

PARIS

ib.

Maurice
Comparison of Paris and London .. 38 MARTIGNY-Inundation ....

53

Route of the Jura-Exercise..... 39

Curious Effect of Travelling on

a Romance.

ib.

ib.

the Mind ..

Glaciers, reflections on the

54

On the Descriptive Powers

40 Valley of the Rhone

55

JOIGNY.

ib. Observations on Goitre and Cre.

Land of Bacchus..

ib. tinism.

56

Miserable Appearance of the People ib. Simplon-ascent of

59

Jura Mountains last View of

41

Graphic Sketch of the Route.

60

France...

Village of the Simplon-Night at 62

Pays de Vaud seen from the Jura .. Descent of the Simplon

63

Lake of Geneva & Savoy Mountains 43 First View of Italy.

64

Evening Sun on Mont Blanc.. ib. Effects of the balmy Atmosphere?

GENEVA

44 of Italy.

ib.

Swiss and French contrasted.. ib. Reflections on the Route of the

45

Harassing Passport System

65

Simplon

Characteristics of the Swiss

46

Hospitality of the Italians, nolens

47

Characteristics of Geneva

volens

66

Industry of the blue and arrowy

ib.

BAVENO— Thunder-storm- Lago

Rhone

Maggiore ..

67

LAUSANNE_VEVAY-CHILLON . 48 ISOLA BELLA-TICINO-ARONA 68

42

[blocks in formation]

MILAN..

69

Cathedral-sublime View from its

70

Summit

St. Carlo Borromeo

71

La Scala— Phæbo-phobia, or dread

72

of Light

Amphitheatre

73

Triumphal Arch

74

Pellagra of Lombardy, description of 75

Malarious Physiognomy.

77

Milan to Bologna

78

Multiplicity of States...

ib.

Lady Morgan in great request

79

among the Austrians

Pavia—its forlorn appearance by

80

Moonlight

Characteristic Features of Coun-

81

try from Voghera to Bologna..

BOLOGNA..

82

View from Assinelli's Tower.... 83

Pinacoteca---reflections in the gallery ib.

Madonna di St. Luca-Catholic

84

Religion

Apennines—a night on their summit 85

Biondi's Gang of Banditti

86

Safe travelling in Italy

ib.

Scenery of the Apennines ..

87

Val d'Arno-first View of Florence 88

FLORENCE

89

Duomo-Streets..

90

Arno-Lung' Arno - Bridges

Climate

92

Italy, the Land of Excitement. 93

Italy compared with Greece and

ib.

other Countries

Pleasures of Travel (Rogers)

94

Rise and Fall of Italy.

95

Irruption of the Barbarians over

ib.
Alps and Apennines

Museum of Natural History

96

Wax-works-City of the Plague

97

-Fossil Bones

PALAZZO PITTI

98

Canova's Venus

99

Gallery of the Gran Duca..

100

Sources of Excitement in the

Drama of Life.......

ib.

Bust of Cæsar.

ib.

Bust of Tiberius .

ib.

Statue of Agrippina

101

Head of Claudius

ib.

Heads of Caligula and Caracalla, 102

Flaying of Marsyas..

ib.

The Laocoon-the Moral

103

Hall of Niobe—the Moral

ib.

The flying Mercury.

ib.

Cabinet of Gems..

104

THE TRIBUNE.

Venus de Medicis, &c.

105

Sappho and Phaon-Beauties and

106

Blue-stockings

Beau-idealism..

107

Draped or Undraped ?.

ib.

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