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of the goods, if sold, may be recovered, if it has not been paid over, or passed in account current between the insolvent and the buyer.

Art. 582. In every case of stoppage in transitu, except those of deposite and of consignment, the assignees of the insolvent's estate shall have the right to retain the goods sold, on paying to the claimant the price agreed for, between him and the insolvent.

Art. 583. Remittances of commercial securities, or of any other instruments of writing not yet due, or due and not yet paid, and which shall be found in the possession of the insolvent, at the period of his failure, may be recovered, if these remittances were made by the proprietor, with an order only to collect their value and keep the same subject to his disposal, or if they have been specially appropriated by him to the payment of acceptances, or bills drawn payable at the domicil of the insolvent.

Art. 584. Recovery may also be had of remittances made without acceptances, or special appropriation, if they be entered in an account current, by which the owner should appear only as a creditor; but it shall be barred, if, at the period of the remittances, he was a debtor in any sum whatever.

Art. 585. In cases in which the law permits stoppage in transitu, or recovery, the assignees shall examine the claims; they may admit them, subject to the approbation of the commissioner; if a controversy take place, the tribunal shall decide, after hearing the commissioner.

TITRE IV.

DES BANQUEROUTES.

CHAPITRE PREMIER.

De la Banqueroute simple.

Art. 586. Sera poursuivi comme banqueroutier simple et pourra être déclaré tel, le commerçant failli qui se trouvera dans l'un ou plusieurs des cas suivants, savoir:

1° Si les dépenses de sa maison, qu'il est tenu d'inscrire mois par mois sur son livre-journal, sont jugées excessives.

2° S'il est reconnu qu'il a consommé de fortes sommes au jeu, ou à des opérations de pur hasard.

3o Si'l résulte de son dernier inventaire que son actif étant de cinquante pour cent au-dessous de son passif, il a fait des emprunts considérables, et s'il a revendu des marchandises à perte ou audessous du cours.

4° S'il a donné des signatures de crédit ou de circulation pour une somme triple de son actif, selon son dernier inventaire,

Art. 587. Pourra être poursuivi comme banqueroutier simple, et être déclaré tel,

Le failli qui n'aura pas fait, au greffe, la déclaration prescrite par l'article 440.

Celui qui, s'étant absenté, ne se sera pas présenté en personne aux agents et aux syndics dans les délais fixés, et sans empêchement légitime.

Celui qui présentera des livres irrégulièrement tenus, sans néanmoins que les irrégularités indiquent de fraude, ou qui ne les présentera pas tous.

TITLE IV.

OF BANKRUPTCIES.

CHAPTER I.

Of Simple Bankruptcy.

Art. 586. The insolvent merchant who shall be found in one or more of the following cases, shall be prosecuted for the offence of simple bankruptcy, and may be convicted of the same, to wit:

1st. If the expenses of bis household, which he is required to enter monthly on his journal, are adjudged to be excessive.

2d. If it be proved that he has wasted large sums in gaming, or in operations of mere bazard.

3d. If it appear from his last inventory, that his property and credits being fifty per cent. less than bis debts, he has borrowed considerable sums of money, and has sold his goods at a loss, or below the market price.

Ath. If he has issued his signature, and become respousible for a sum triple the amount of his property, according to his last inventory.

Art. 587. The insolvent may be prosecuted as a simple bankrupt, and declared such,

If he has not made in the clerk's office the declaration prescribed by article 440.

If, after having absented himself, he shall not return and appear, in person, before the agents and assigvees, within the periods limited by law, unless prevented by a legitimate obstacle.

If he produce books irregularly kept, though the irregularities be not indicative of fraud; or if he do not produce all his books.

Celui qui, ayant une société, ne se sera pas conformé à l'article 440.

Art. 588. Les cas de banqueroute simple seront jugés par les tribunaux de police correctionnelle, sur la demande des syndics ou sur celle de tout créancier du failli, ou sur la poursuite d'office qui sera faite par le ministère public.

Art. 589. Les frais de poursuite en banqueroute simple seront supportés par la masse, dans le cas où la demande aura été introduite par les syndics de la faillite.

Art. 590. Dans le cas où la poursuite aura été intentée par un créancier, il supportera les frais, si le prévenu est déchargé : les dits frais seront supportés par la masse, s'il est condamné.

Art. 591. Les procureurs impériaux sont tenus d’interjeter appel de tous jugements des tribunais de police correctionnelle, lorsque, dans le cours de l'instruction, ils auront reconnu que la prévention de banqueroute simple est de nature à être convertie en prévention de banqueroute frauduleuse.

Art. 592. Le tribunal de police correctionnelle, en déclarant qu'il y a banqueroute simple, devra, suivant l'exigence des cas, prononcer l'emprisonnement pour un mois au moins, et deux ans au plus.

Les jugements seront affichés, en outre, et insérés dans un journal, conformément à l'art. 683. du code de procédure civile.

CHAPITRE II.

DE LA BANQUEROUTE FRAUDULEUSE.

Art. 593. Sera déclaré banqueroutier frauduleux tout commerçant failli qui se trouvera dans un ou plusieurs des cas suivants, savoir :

1° S'il a supposé des dépenses, ou des pertes, ou ne justifie pas de l'emploi de toutes ses recettes.

If, being concerned in a partnership, he has not conformed to the rules prescribed by article 440.

Art. 588. The cases of simple bankruptcies shall be tried by the tribunals of correctional police, at the instance of the assignees, or on the complaint of any creditor of the insolveat, or on the informatiou-ex officio of the public prosecutor.

Art. 589. The expenses of prosecution for simple bankruptcy, shall be borne by the general fund, in cases where the complaint shall have been made by the assignees of the insolvent.

Art. 590. In cases where the prosecution shall have been instituted on the complaint of a creditor, he shall bear the expenses, if the accused be acquitted; but if convicted, the expenses shall be borne by the general fund.

Art. 591. The imperial prosecutors are required to interpose an appeal from all the judgments of the tribunals of correctional police,(63) when, in the course of the investigation, they shall have discovered that the accusation of simple bankruptcy is of a nature to be converted into that of fraudulent bankruptcy.

Art. 592. The tribunal of correctional police, on declaring the party guilty of simple bankruptcy, must, according to the nature of the case, sentence the bankrupt to imprisonment, for a term not less than a month, por more than two years.

The judgment shall be posted up, and also published in a newspaper, conformably to article 683. of the code of civil procedure.

CHAPTER II.

OF FRAUDULENT BANKRUPTCY.

Art. 593. Every insolvent merchant who shall be found in one or more of the following cases, shall be declared a fraudulent bankrupt, to wit:

1st. If he has stated fictitious losses and expenses, or does not account for the employment of all the money received by him.

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