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Greek we have TOTTULw, I blow, hiss or whistle, cheer or soothe my horse by calling to him or patting him with my hand, stroke, or applaud; also the nouns TÓTTUGUA and Toμde, a puff, hiss or whistle, a smack or gentle sound with mouth or hands expressive of favour, applause, cheering, or soothing, a gentle stroke, a soft blow with the hand. In like manner, poppysmus, and poppysma, in Latin, which are the same words as those just mentioned in Greek, and of the same signification. In English, the term, pop, is thus explained by Dr. Johnson.
Pop. n. s. [poppysma, Lat.] A small smart quick sound. It is formed from the sound.
"I have several ladies, who could not give a pop loud enough to be heard at the farther end of the room, who can now discharge a fan, that it should make a report like a pocket-pistol." Spectator.
To Pop. v. n. (from the noun.) To move or enter with a quick, sudden, and unexpected motion.
"He that kill'd my king,
Popt in between th' election and my hopes."-Shakspeare.
"A boat was sunk and all the folk drowned, saving one only woman, that in her first popping up again, which most living things accustom, espied the boat risen likewise, and floating by her, got hold of the boat, and sat astride upon one of its sides." Carew.
"I startled at his popping upon me unexpectedly.-Addison.
"As he scratch'd to fetch up thought, Forth popp'd the sprite so thin."-Swift.
"Others have a trick of popping up and down every moment, from their paper to the audience, like an idle school-boy."-Swift.
To Pop v. a.
1. To put out or in suddenly, slily, or unexpectedly.
"That is my brother's plea,
The which if he can prove, he pops me out
At least from fair five hundred pound a year."-Shakspeare.
"He popped a paper into his hand."-Milton.
"A fellow, finding somewhat prick him, popt his finger upon the place.-L'Estrange.
"The commonwealth popped up its head for the third time under Brutus and Cassius, and then sunk for ever."
"Didst thou never pop
Thy head into a tinman's shop?"-Prior.
2. To shift.
"If their curiosity leads them to ask what they should not know, it is better to tell them plainly, that it is a thing that belongs not to them to know, than to pop them off with a falsehood.”.
So far Dr. Johnson. Mr. Walker, after giving in his Dictionary, Johnson's explanation of pop, adds: "undoubtedly derived from the noise caused by the sudden expulsion of some small body." This is true, but it is only a part of the truth; for the word pop applies equally to the noise caused by the sudden impulsion of some small body. It is the noise caused by the agency of body in motion upon body, and that
in any direction whatever. It may be entrance or exit, ascent or descent. We say, to pop in, to pop out, or to pop forth; to pop up, or to pop down; to pop to pop upon; to pop out of, or out from; to pop off. I have to add, that the word is not limited in its application to solids, or to the aerial fluid, but is with equal frequency applied to water, or any other fluid whatever. Finally, although a pop may be sometimes so powerful, that the noise shall be startling; it is generally caused by the stroke of a small body; and hence it is usually so slight and gentle, that the noise, though marked in the very sound of the word, comes in fact to be commonly nothing at all.
Keep in mind, now, the above explanation, and apply it to Baptism (pop-tism,) and you are furnished with a key, which will naturally and consistently account for all its much disputed acceptations. You have only to observe, that a person or thing may be either popped into water, or any other fluid, or may have water, or any other fluid, popped upon, or popped into him or it, and the whole mystery vanishes.
Having thus translated the word Baptism (which we have been often challenged to do) we are prepared to show that it signifies the application, properly the sudden and slight application, of water, or some other liquid; but, in a more lax sense, the application of it, in any manner, or for any purpose; by effusion, affusion, perfusion, or infusion; by sprinkling, daubing, friction, or immersion;* wholly or
* I have not the smallest objection to Dr. Murray's explanation, as one of the meanings of this root, when he says: "BAP,
partially, permanently or for a moment ;-for purifying or defiling, ornamenting or bespattering, washing away what was found adhering, or covering with what was not there before,-for at once washing away the filth, and inducing the new beauty;-for merely wetting the surface, or causing the liquor to sink into the inmost core, not only to refresh the living, but to act, in the moment of creation, as an element of life.
These various meanings do not successively grow out of one another, as an actual possessor may hold his property, immediately under the king, or under a subject superior who comes betwixt him and the king. They are all of equal and independent legitimacy, and equally connected with the radical idea. We are, indeed, accustomed to say that Barrí(w is derived from Báπr; but the root is as clearly in the one as in the other; the derivation is merely in the adjuncts; the one may be in form a frequentative of the other; but both are of the same general meaning. The only distinction to be made, is that which has just been remarked between the proper and the lax sense of the word. It is a word which properly denotes operations on a small scale, and of a gentle
to dip, from BAG-BA, to dash into, tinge." Vol. ii. page 65. Also, Page 162, in which he is showing how a certain class of verbs originated from the addition of ra and THA signs of the preterite tense to the radical, and gives, among others, the following example which contains the process of the formation of the word under consideration :-BAP, dip; BAPET, dipping, or being dipped; ВАРТО, I dip. That it has other meanings, I have his own author. ity, as already quoted. See page 24. C
nature it is in a secondary sense that it comes to be applied to the vast and the formidable. When I say, "he popped upon my face a handful of water,”—or, "I popped my hand into a bason of water," I use the word in its proper acceptation. But if I should say in English (what is not usual indeed in that language, but) what is found sometimes in Greek, "he popped upon me (pop-tized me,) with an overwhelming flood," or, "I popped myself or was popped (poptized,) into the river, or into the sea;" in these cases the word could only be understood in a secondary, in a figurative, in an exaggerated, rather than in a proper and natural sense.
Such is my attempt to analyze Bárra and its related words. If any shall reject it; (I dare say many will;) in that case, they will of course disallow my theory for illustrating the origin, and the connection, of the various meanings of those words. But they will not be able, thereby, to set aside the meanings themselves. These must still be tried by the force of the examples, which may be produced in support of each by itself. Although I shall, in what follows, refer to my theory of the derivation of the terms, for the sake of showing how well it tallies with the application of them in the examples in which they occur; I shall, in no case, use an argument, in support of their meaning, which shall rest on that theory.
An examination of the examples, in which they occur, will lead to the easy correction of several mistakes respecting the meaning of many of the words that are related to the word Baptism. Thus, BÁTTU