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assurance (which is here only another word for evidence, it being hard to tell the difference between them) that Christ loved me, and gave himself for me. For “ he that believe eth,” with the true living faith, “ hath the witness in himself:” “ The Spirit witnesseth with his spirit, that he is a child of God." 66 Because he is a son, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into his heart, crying, Abba, Father;" giving him an assurance that he is so, and a child-like confidence in him. But let it be observed that, in the very nature of the thing, the assurance goes before the confidence.

For a man cannot have a child-like confidence in God till he know he is a child of God. Therefore confidence, trust, reliance, adherence, or whatever else it be called, is not the first, as some have supposed, but the second branch or act of faith.

4. It is by this faith we are saved, justified, and sanctified, taking that word in its highest sense.

But how are we justified and sanctified by faith? This is our third head of enquiry. And this being the main point in question, and a point of no ordinary importance, it will not be improper to give it a more distinct and particular consideration.

III. 1. And, first, How are we justified by Faith? In what sense is this to be understood ? I answer, faith is the condition, and the only condition of justification. It is the condition : none is justified but he that believes; without faith no man is justified. And it is the only condition; this alone is sufficient for justification. Every one that believes is justified, whatever else he has or has not. In other words; no man is justified till he believe: every man, when he believes, is justified.

2. But, does not God command us to repent also ? Yea, and to “ bring forth fruits meet for repentance?" To cease, for instance, from doing evil, and learn to do well? And is not both the one and the other of the utmost necessity? Insomuch, that if we willingly neglect either, we cannot reasonably expect to be justified at all: Bat, if this be so, how can it be said, that faith is the only condition of justification?"

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God does undoubtedly command us, both to repent, and to bring forth fruits meet for repentance: which, if we wil. lingly neglect, we cannot reasonably expect to be justified at all: therefore, both repentance and fruits meet for repentance, are, in some sense, necessary to justification. But they are not necessary in the same sense with faith, nor in the same degree. Not in the same degree ; for these fruits are only necessary conditionally; if there be time and opportunity for them. Otherwise a man may be justified without them, as was the thief upon the cross: (if we may call him so ; for a late writer has discovered that he was a very honest and respectable person!) but he cannot be justified without faith : this is impossible. Likewise, let a man have ever so much repentance, or ever so many of the fruits meet for repentance, yet all this does not at all avail : he is not justified till he believe. But the moment he believes, with or without those fruits, yea, with more or less repentance, he is justified. Not in the same sense; for repentance and its fruits are only remotely necessary, necessary in order to faith : whereas, faith is immediately and directly necessary to justification. It remains, that faith is the only condition, which is immediately and proximately necessary to justification.

3. “But do you believe we are sanctified by faith? We know you believe, that we are justified by faith : but do not you believe, and accordingly teach, that we are sanctified by, our works?". So it has been roundly and vehemently affirmed for these five, and twenty years. But I have conştantly declared just the contrary; and that in all manner of ways. I have continually testified in private and public, That we are sanctified as well as justified by faith. And indeed the one of these, great truths does exceedingly illus. trate the other. Exactly as we are justified by faith, so are we sanctified by faith. Faith is the condition, and the only condition of sanctification, exactly as it is of justification. It is the condition; none is sanctified but he that believes: without faith no man is sanctified. And it is the only condi. tion: this alone is sufficient for sanctification. Every one

that belieyes is sanctified, whatever else he has or has not. In other words, no man is sanctified till he believes; every man when he believes is sanctified.

4. “But is there not a repentance consequent upon, as well as a repentance previous to justification ? And is it not incumbent on all that are justified to be sealous of good works? Yea, are not these so necessary, that if a man willingly neglect them he cannot reasonably expect that he shall ever be sanctified in the full sense, that is, perfected in love? Nay, can he grow at all in the grace, in the loying knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ? Yea, can he retain the grace which God has already given him? Can he continue in the faith which he has received, or in the favour of God? Do not yourself allow all this, and continually assert it? But, if this be so, how can it be said, that faith is the only condition of sanctification?"

5. I do allow all this, and continually maintain it as the truth of God. I allow, there is a repentance consequent upon, as well as a repentance previous to justification. It is incumbent on all that are justified to be zealous of good works. And these are so necessary, that if a man willingly neglect them he cannot reasonably expect that he shall ever be sanctified; he cannot grow in grace, in the image of God, the mind wbich was in Christ Jesus; nay, he cannot retain the grace he has received, he cannot continue in faith, or in the favour of God.

What is the inference we must draw herefrom? Why, that both repentance, rightly understood, and the practice of all good works, works of piety, as well as works of mercy, (now properly so called, since they spring from faith), are, in some sense, necessary to sanctification.

Repentance rightly understood.” For this must not be confounded with the former repentance. The repentance, consequent upon justification, is widely different from that which is antecedent to it. This implies no guilt, no sense of condemnation, nọ consciousness of the wrath of God. It does not suppose any doubt of the favour of God, or “ fear that hath torment.” It is properly a conviction wrought by the Holy Ghost, of the sin which still remains in our hearts, of the Opornice odpr@, the carnal mind, which “ does still remain, (as our church speaks), even in them that are regenerate:”. although it does no longer reign, it has not now dominion over them. It is a conviction of our proneness to evil, of a “ heart bent to backsliding," of the still continuing tendency of the flesh to lust against the Spirit. Sometimes, unless we continually watch and

6. I say,

pray, it lusteth to pride, sometimes to anger, sometimes to love of the world, love of ease, love of honour, or love of pleasure more than of God. It is a conviction of the tendency of our heart to self-will, to atheism, or idolatry: and above all, to unbelief, whereby, in a thousand ways, and under a thousand pretences, we are ever departing, more or less, from the living God.

7. With this conviction of the sin remaining in our hearts, there is joined a clear conviction of the sin remaining in our lives, still cleaving to all our words and actions. In the best of these we now discern a mixture of evil, either in the spirit, the matter or manner of them: something that could not endure the righteous judgment of God, were be li extreme to mark what is done amiss.” Where we least of all suspected it, we find a taint of pride or self-will, of unbelief or idolatry: so that we are now more ashamed of our best duties than formerly of our worst sins : and hence we cannot but feel, that these are so far from having any thing meritorious in them, yea, so far from being able to stand in the sight of the divine justice, that for those also we should be guilty before God, were it not for the blood of the covenant.

8. Experience shews that, together with the conviction of sin remaining in our hearts and cleaving to all our words and actions, as well as the guilt which on account thereof we should incur, were we not continually sprinkled with the atoning blood. One thing more is implied in this repentance, viz. a conviction of our helplessness, of our utter inability to think one good thought, or to form one good desire: and much more to speak one word aright, or to

perform one good action, but through his free, almighty grace first preventing us, and then accompanying us every moment.

9. “ But what good works are those, the practice of which you affirm to be necessary to sanctification 2First, all works of piety, such as public prayer, family prayer, and praying in our closets: receiving the supper of the Lord : searching the Scriptures by hearing, reading, meditating: and using such a measure of fasting and abstinence, as our bodily health allows.

10. Secondly: All works of mercy, whether they relate to the bodies or souls of men. Such as feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, entertaining the stranger, visiting those that are in prison, or sick, or variously afflicted. Such as the endeavouring to instruct the ignorant, to awaken the stupid sinner, to quicken the lukewarm, to confirm the wavering, to comfort the feeble-minded, to succour the tempted, or contribute, in any manner to the saving of souls from death. This is the repentance, and these the fruits meet for repentance, which are necessary to full sanctification. This is the way wherein God hath appointed his children to wait for complete salvation.

11. Hence may appear the extreme mischievousness of that seemingly innocent opinion, that “ there is no sin in a believer ; that all sin is destroyed, root and branch, the moment a man is justified.By totally preventing that repentance, it quite blocks up the way to sanctifioation, there is no place for repentance, in him who believes there is no sin either in his life or beart. Consequently, there is no place for bis being “ perfected in love," to which that repentance is indispensably necessary.

. 12. Hence it may likewise appear, that there is no possible danger in thus expecting full salvation. For, suppose we were mistaken, suppose no such blessing ever was, or can be attained, yet we lose nothing: nay, that very expectation quickens us, in using all the talents which God has given us; yea, in improving them all, so that when our Lord cometh he will receive bis own with increase.

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