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the malignant principle of sin into our nature, light
incentive to humility, diligence, and watch- | him, and established in the faith, as you have fulness. We hear Jehovah repeatedly de- been taught, abounding therein with thanksploring the instability of the members of the giving." ancient church. "O Ephraim !" is his touching remonstrance, by the mouth of the prophet Hosea, "O Ephraim! what shall I do unto thee? O Israel! what shall, I do THERE was a time when man, either by natural enunto thee? for your goodness is as a morning dowment or by a direct communication from heaven, cloud, and as the early dew it passeth away.' possessed a knowledge of all the truths which were essential to his security and welfare. To contemplate We hear St. Paul lamenting the departure of divine subjects was then clearly and vividly to apprea beloved fellow-labourer in the gospel-- hend them; and to know them was profoundly to feel "Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this them. The understanding and the heart, the intelpresent world." We hear this same apostle lectual faculties and the sensitive affections, had not yet been unnaturally disjoined in their operations; expressing a determination to exercise a strict nor were they as yet marked by that discordancy in self-discipline "lest, after having preached their exercises by which they have since been too freto others, himself should be a castaway." We quently characterised: the light which irradiated hear him further giving utterance to his ap- other. What the understanding approved as right, the one was warmth, cheering and animating the prehensions for the once-flourishing church the heart embraced as congenial with its purest and of the Galatians, that, having begun in the noblest sympathies. During this interesting period in Spirit, they would end in the flesh and we the history of his being, the whole character of man, see those very people who at one time, in including every element of his intellectual and moral the height of their zeal and their attachment purity and wisdom which assimilated him to the great nature, bore the manifest impress of that celestial to the apostle, would have plucked out their Author of his existence. But soon this lovely image eyes and given them to him, not long after-was effaced-this bright reflection of divine wisdom wards disposed to call in question his piety and his apostleship. We hear our Lord stating in a parable, that, when the evil spirit has been driven out of a man, he seeks for an opportunity to return; that, with a view to effect his late victim's utter ruin, he takes with him seven other spirits mightier than himself; and, should he succeed in these his endeavours, the latter state of such an one is worse than the first. We hear our Lord too stating, in the parable of the sower, that many for a while believe, but in time of temptation fall away. Lastly, we hear him saying to his followers in the present day, as he said to those who heard him in the days of his flesh-“Then shall ye be my disciples, if ye continue in my word; and ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free." What, then, shall I say in conclusion? "Continue in the faith grounded and settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the gospel." Suffer me to exhort you, that with full purpose of heart you would cleave unto the Lord Jesus Christ, who is alone able to keep you from falling, delighting to do that which is well-pleasing in his sight, and abounding in every good word and work: let nothing separate you from the love of him whose love to you was stronger than death: let nothing move you from the free and glorious hope of the gospel, a hope empty of all self-dependence, and resting on a sure foundation, a hope full of immortality, and entering within the vail. And, that you may hereafter be presented "holy, and unblameable, and unreproveable" in the sight of the omniscient Judge, as you have received Christ Jesus rev. J. Davies, B.D., Rector of Gateshead. London: Hatchards. 1841. A most admirable sermon, peculiarly adapted the Lord, walk in him, rooted and built up into the present times-uncompromising and faithful.
and excellence was eclipsed. With the admission of was exchanged for darkness, knowledge for ignorance, purity for corruption, holiness and happiness for depravity and wretchedness. Thus, by his early apostacy and rebellion, did man forfeit his acquaintance with God, and consequently abandoned himself to a course of utter alienation from him in whom he lives, and moves, and has his being. Under these circumstances of ignorance and helplessness, God was pleased, out of his infinite kindness and compassion, to bless him with a fresh discovery of his own character and purposes. This disclosure was primarily made by oral and direct communication: it was subsequently conveyed in traditionary records from one generation to another; and, finally, at successive peillustrated, and permanently embodied in written riods in the history of the church, it was amplified, documents, to be a complete, authoritative, and imperishable rule of faith and practice unto mankind till time shall be no more.
of the character, the attributes, the will, and the designs of Jehovah, and of the origin, the apostacy, the redemption, the present relative duties and circumstances of man connected with the prospects of futurity, form that invaluable collection of writings which in our text are denominated the "scriptures;" and these are they-these are the fixed and standing code of principles and doctrines which, amidst the evershifting changes and aberrations of human opinion, we are authoritatively commanded to search. To comply with this injunction-an injunction which was doubtless intended to extend beyond the immediate occasion of its delivery, and to embrace within its comprehensive import every age and condition of the church upon earth-is the duty and interest of all peculiar office and privilege it is to expound the doctrines, to inculcate the precepts, and to apply the promises of scripture to the various trials and exigencies of those entrusted to their spiritual care, this obligation is pre-eminently binding. The bible is that
These records, containing a full and explicit account
men: but on the ministers of Christ-on those whose
* From "The Standard of Faith"-a Sermon preached at the triennial visitation of the lord bishop of Durham, &c. By the
authority; nor did they impose a single doctrine as an article of faith which was not contained therein, and could not be manifestly proved thereby.
book which, on their bended knees, they received from the hand of their ecclesiastical superior, when they were invested with authority to preach the word of God and to minister the holy sacraments in the con- It is obvious, therefore, that we are acting in perfect gregation; distinctly and solemnly intimating that harmony with the spirit and genius of our church, the holy scriptures were the great repository of the when we maintain it to be at once our right and our truths which they were to teach, the text-book of duty, both as ministers and private Christians, to their instructions, the charter of the privileges they" search the scriptures" for all the great and fundawere to announce, the treasury of their inexhaustible mental doctrines of our faith. There is an important supplies, the armoury which contained the weapons of distinction to be observed between the doctrines of their warfare, the authoritative and ultimate standard the gospel as a saving scheme-those great principles of all that they were to promulgate and enforce*. On which form its life and essence-those which, under them, therefore, the volume of inspiration, as the all possible circumstances, are indispensable to its seal of their spiritual commission, as the primary healing efficacy, and those details of ecclesiastical source of their authority, and as supplying the chief arrangement which may be most conducive to its materials of their varied ministrations, has a more salutary and practical influence, but are not in all than ordinary claim. Without invalidating their im- cases absolutely necessary to the accomplishment of portant ecclesiastical rights and privileges, without its final object-that of saving immortal souls-beundervaluing the admirable formularies and specific in- tween what may be regarded as the moral, the unstitutions of the church of which they are the appointed changeable principles, and the administrative ordiand authorized functionaries, we must still bear in nances of the gospel. The latter may be, as we mind that these derive all their force and efficacy from believe all the leading points of our own ecclesiastical the fact of their manifest accordance either with the polity to be, perfectly scriptural, in that they are direct statements or the unquestionable spirit and de- accordant with the spirit of scripture and with the sign of holy scripture. They are but emanations of practice of the church in every age, since it poslight and warmth drawn forth from the great central sessed the power of regulating its own affairs; but it luminary of divine revelation, and conducted through is not necessary to maintain that they are positively the instrumentality of human ordinances so as to bear, enjoined in scripture. The bible is a book of prinwith an enlightening and purifying effect, on the cha-ciples, not of economical arrangements. Christianity racter and conduct of mankind. The church is, in was designed to be the religion of the whole world, fact, but a judicious and well-adjusted system of ma- not merely of small states and particular communichinery, like that beheld in vision by the prophet ties. The gospel was intended to lay hold of human Ezekiel, every wheel of which is to revolve and to ad- nature with a spiritual rather than a political grasp; vance in accordance with the previous movements of and the right of adjusting their social and ecclesiasthat living spirit of prophets and evangelists, whose tical administration it has left in a great degree open voice is the voice of the Almighty. to the wisdom and experience and circumstantial exigences of the governing bodies in church and state.
But, with a view of bringing this emphatic injunction to bear with a specific influence and effect upon our character and investigations as the appointed national expounders of holy scripture, it may be useful to notice somewhat more distinctly the leading purposes for which we are here enjoined to search the scriptures. As forming the fundamental ground of the duty here inculcated, it is obvious that we are taught to regard the holy scriptures as the only depository of pure, absolute, and unsophisticated truth-as the sole infallible standard of Christian doctrine. This is the first principle, the commending axiom, the all-pervading clement of all sound protestant theology; it is the very pillar and ground of our own ecclesiastical system; and the symmetry, the solidity, the whole moral effect, so to speak, of that beautiful and magnificent structure arise from the fact of its being, in all its leading features, in such perfect and harmonious keeping with the base on which it rests. I deem it of inestimable importance, amidst the various assaults to which we are exposed from without, and the fluctuations of opinion which cannot fail at successive intervals to arise from within, that we can thus refer to holy scripture as the great rock upon which our church is built. Incalculable is the debt of gratitude which we owe, under God, to the illustrious fathers and founders of that church, that, in drawing out a form of sound doctrine for the guidance of its ministers and members, they abandoned the unwholesome pools of human authority and tradition, and took their urns to be replenished out of the pure fountain of divine inspiration. It is true, indeed, that they were willing -and in this we are bound to imitate their exampleto use with becoming reverence and discretion the various means and resources which the monuments of ancient learning and piety could afford, as subsidiary to their efforts in deciphering the real import of scripture: yet they never relinquished for an instant the great principle of its exclusive and paramount
* Κανων της αληθειας ακλινης, Irendus.
It is consequently for the great and distinguishing doctrines and practical requirements of the gospel that we are pre-eminently to search the scriptures. In giving us the bible as a direct revelation from himself, it is evident that its great and gracious Author intended to communicate to us a knowledge of truths which we could not have otherwise discovered. Some vague and indistinct notions respecting his own existence and character and attributes as inscribed on the page of nature, we might have attained without such a communication. But if we would have any clear and distinct idea of our own real state and prospects, and of that wonderful scheme of wisdom, love, and grace, which he hath mercifully instituted for our deliverance, we must search the scrip
THOUGHTS IN SOLITUDE.
JULIUS, A CENTURION OF AUGUSTUS'S BAND. The individual whose name is placed at the top of this paper is introduced to our notice in the 27th chapter of the book of Acts, we read in the 1st verse of that chapter-" And when it was determined that we shonld sail into Italy, they delivered Paul and other prisoners unto one named Julius, a centurion of Augustus's band."
IN my last paper I spoke (while meditating on the character of Mnason, of Cyprus) of the interesting nature of that book from which it was taken, and which contains the account given us of the personage who is to form the subject of my present contemplations; and truly the Acts of the apostles are replete with the most peculiar interest; for therein are we directed to the deeds of men who "counted not their own lives dear unto themselves, so that they might finish their course with joy." My thoughts were led into a consideration of the individual above mentioned, by the lesson which has recently been read in my hearing,
forming, as it did, part of this morning's service; and I imagined a few moments' reflection upon the character of this man, taken with the immediate connexion of circumstances attendant upon his mention in the chapter before us, might not be uninteresting or unprofitable. May God grant a blessing upon our meditations.
The apostle Paul, who was a prisoner of the Jews, and who had just been delivering his unparalleled defence before king Agrippa, was given over, together with certain other prisoners, unto the care of this Roman centurion, Julius, it being the intention and wish of Paul to appeal unto Cæsar.
The first notice we find of this centurion is in the mention made of his behaviour to the great apostle of the Gentiles. When the ship (which was a ship of Adramyttium) touched at Sidon, we are told that "Julius courteously entreated Paul, and gave him liberty to go unto his friends to refresh himself;" an act of kindness which is worth recording, and which redounds to the honour of the heathen soldier-an act befitting one of a nobler faith.
From the ship in which they had started from Jerusalem, they were removed by Julius on their arrival at Myra, a city of Lycia, he finding a" ship of Alexandria sailing unto Italy, and he put them therein;" it appears, however, that the voyage now assumed an inauspicious aspect, for the winds were adverse, causing them to sail but slowly: we learn from the narrative, "that much time was spent, and sailing at length became dangerous." It was at this time that our apostle assumed the prophetic character, and predicted the danger which should shortly overtake them: "He said unto them, Sirs, I perceive that this voyage will be with hurt and much damage, not only of the lading and ship, but also of our lives."
Now it is at this juncture of the story, that the sceptical character of Julius the centurion manifests itself: "Nevertheless the centurion believed the master and the owner of the ship, more than those things which were spoken by Paul." He judged that those to whose skill and care devolved the management of the vessel, were more objects of faith and reliance than the poor, chained apostle of the despised and persecuted Saviour-that Saviour who possessed power over all things in heaven and earth, and who, by miraculous communications of that power, had qualified his followers to achieve deeds of prodigy and renown how far the judgment of the Roman soldier proved correct, the sequel of our narrative will show. "Not long after there arose a tempestuous wind against the ship, called Euroclydon;" with this tempest the voyagers were tossed; and "when neither sun nor stars for many days appeared, all hope for safety was then taken away." It was at this time that Paul, who had foreseen the danger, and forewarned the people of it, addressed to them the following encouraging words (words albeit of encouragement and hope, yet coupled with just reproach and reproof)— "Sirs, ye should have hearkened unto me, and not have loosed from Crete, to have gained this harm and loss. And now I exhort you to be of good cheer; for there shall be no loss of any man's life among you, but of the ship. For there stood by me this night the angel of God, whose I am, aud whom I serve, saying, Fear not, Paul, thou must be brought before Cæsar, and, lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee. Wherefore, sirs, be of good cheer; for I believe God, that it shall be even as it was told me. Howbeit, we must be cast upon a certain island."
After this address the danger increased, and many were in the act of lightening the ship and fleeing, when Paul said unto Julius the centurion, "Except these men abide in the ship, ye cannot be saved." The subsequent stages of the narrative prove how accurately Paul had predicted the several occurrences which took place: the vessel was wrecked-every
life was spared. "And so it came to pass, that they escaped all safe to land."
The last mention we hear made of this centurion is in a closing verse of the chapter, where we find his wish to save Paul prevented his acceding to the counsel of the soldiers relative to the putting of the several prisoners to death: "he, desirous to save Paul, kept them from their purpose." After the escape of the crew and passengers of this vessel, we hear no more of this Roman officer.
It is my wish that three reflections should be the result of our study of the narrative in which this Julius, Cæsar's centurion, is so prominent. And first let us learn from it the folly and impiety of giving heed unto worldly policy, in place of submitting to the sure word of the living God. The chief failing of this heathen soldier lay in his disbelief of Paul's prediction, and in the preference he gave to the opinions of the governor of the vessel. And O, how often we prefer giving credence to the statements of the world, when those statements seem more in unison with our own feeble and sinful notions, when we ought rather to attend to the warnings and cautions of infallible truth and unerring wisdom! "Julius believed the master and owner of the ship more than the things which were spoken by Paul." Oftentimes we believe the world more than the bible-Satan more than Jesus-"a lie" more than " the truth." Verily this is matter for deep humiliation and penitence before God. We are voyaging on a rough and stormy sea, towards eternity: many a tempest tosses our ship-many winds are contrary. The days are numerous when "neither sun nor stars appear;" and oftentimes" all hope of safety is taken away." And shall we then, in the hour of our peril, turn away from him who hath promised us safety if we believe in his word; shall we refuse him our faith, and prefer our own feeble reason to guide us to his infinite wisdom and goodness; shall we prefer the "master and the owner of the ship"-that bark which seems every moment to be sinking beneath the stormy waters-to him who holdeth those waters in the hollow of his hands?" Nay, rather may we discard all worldly schemes of safety and protection, and, casting ourselves around all upon the great Captain of our salvation, exclaim with Paul, "I believe God, that it shall be even as it is told me."
Next let us learn from this narrative the estimable nature of courtesy; although a subordinate lesson this, yet it ought not to be overlooked. Here was a heathen centurion, into whose charge was intrusted the prosecuted and despised apostle of the Lord; but mark the behaviour of the soldier. He first liberates him at Sidon, courteously entreats him, and furnishes him with an opportunity of visiting his friends, and afterwards manifests his disposition for Paul's safety by refusing to give heed to the cruel demand of the soldiers.
Truly this conduct of the Roman soldier may put many Christians (professing themselves such) to the blush, who unkindly deport themselves to others who may be more or less in earnest about eternal things than they appear to be, or who may differ a few shades in opinion from their own views: let us ever bear in mind the exhortation of St. Peter, courteous."
And, finally, we learn from this subject another thought, viz., the privilege of having amongst us the servants of the Lord; they are the salt of the earth which preserve the mass from impurity and putrefaction. Paul was on board this Alexandrian ship, and therefore the lives of the crew were saved. "Lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee." Abraham, when he prayed for Sodom, said, "Lord, peradventure ten righteous be found there, wilt thou destroy it?" Whereupon God answered, "I will not destroy it for ten's sake."
When many would have quitted the vessel, Paul | attribute that does not meet there its appropriate exsaid, "Except these men abide in the ship, ye cannot be saved." It is a solemn yet a beautiful thought, that we doubtless owe to the habitation amongst us of the righteous-to their prayers, their piety, their zeal -the continuance of many of our blessings, the maintenance of those privileges which, if improved aright, will insure our final salvation and our eternal happiness. "Happy is the people that si in such a case, yea, happy is the people whose God is the Lord."
THE NAME OF GOD.-The name of God is put for God himself. It is applied constantly in this manner by the sacred writers. Thus it is said-"The name of the Lord is a strong tower; the righteous runneth into it, and is safe." The meaning evidently is, the Lord himself is the refuge and protection of his people from the hands of their foes. And, attaching this meaning therefore to the expression, it conveys to us all his attributes and perfections, all that glorious character which distinguishes the one living and true God from the vanities and idols of pagan superstition. But the very appellations by which the Deity is "named" in the sacred records, give us full and overwhelming ideas of what is comprehended in his name; those appellations point out to us his majesty and his mercy, his greatness and his condescension, his justice and his righteousness. He is the "Creator," the maker of all things; "Jehovah," self existing; "I am," immutable, independent; " Almighty," all sufficient, all powerful; "the one living and true God;" "God from everlasting to everlasting;" "the King eternal, immortal, invisible;" "the Father of lights, with whom there is no variableness, nor shadow of turning ;" "the Fountain of life;" "the God of truth," "the holy, holy, holy Lord God of hosts;" "God, who is rich in mercy," &c., &c. Thus the very names by which he is known in the revelation which he has given us, distinguish him from all those false deities who have usurped the great and glorious title; they exhibit him in his unity, his spirituality, his omnipresence, his omnipotence, his omniscience, his wisdom, power, and goodness, as the being in whom all things that have breath live and move. But there was one occasion in which the great and glorious name of God was more fully proclaimed under the Old Testament dispensation-a name which unfolded both his natural and his moral attributes-a name dearer to men than every thing besides-a name of which the whole of revelation is as it were the commentary: "And the Lord descended in the cloud, and proclaimed the name of the Lord." And what was that proclamation? O, listen to its delightful tenor! "And the Lord passed by before him and proclaimed the Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long suffering and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity, transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty." Here is the grand name, and the gospel of Jesus Christ is the true exposition of it. The Son of God hath made the Father known; so much so, that he said on one occasion-" He that hath seen me, hath seen the Father." He was termed, "the image of the invisible God." He was, in fact, "Immanuel," "God with us," "God manifest in the flesh," "the Lord our righteousness." So that if you would have the true name of God in relation to man, it is to be sought in the person and work of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. It is to be learnt in the doctrines which he taught, in the precepts which he delivered, and especially in the death to which he submitted upon the cross: here the whole name of Deity is illustrated. The atonement which was made on Calvary exhibits the most striking parts of the divine character: it displays it in all its harmony and perfection; not an
position. In the cross of Christ are seen the justice
(For the Church of England Magazine.)
O, WHEN we read the lives of those
Their thorny path, their cruel foes,
Their sharp and bitter death-
So we might bear the martyr's cross,
We are not now by duty led,
In days like these, we need not dread
How soon might fade our boast!
Yet, in the calm appointed course
May Christian zeal display its force,
Its keen envenomed dart,
The world shall ever chide and mock
Contempt shall chill, reproach shall shock,
The chosen ones of God:
And those who to thy will have bowed,
Shall meet derision from the proud,
The martyrs suffered cruel pain,
But we our trials may sustain
Fond friends may strive our wavering hearts
Few, by a mighty conflict tried,
And God may in a better land
SINAL-We came to Sinai with some incredulity,
wishing to investigate the point, whether there was any probable ground beyond monkish tradition, for fixing upon the present supposed site. The details of the preceding pages will have made the reader acquainted with the grounds which led us to the conviction that the plain er-Rahah above described is the probable spot where the congregation of Israel were assembled, and that the mountain impending over it— the present Horeb-was the scene of the awful phenomena in which the law was given. We were satisfied, after much examination and inquiry, that in no other quarter of the peninsula, and certainly not around any of the higher peaks, is there a spot corresponding in any degree so fully as this to the historical account,
and to the circumstances of the case. I have entered
above more fully into the details, because former travellers have touched upon this point so slightly; and because, even to the present day, it is a current opinion among scholars, that no open space exists among these mountains. We too were surprised as well as gratified to find here, in the inmost recesses of these dark granite cliffs, this fine plain spread out before the mountain; and I know not when I have felt a thrill of stronger emotion than when, in first crossing the plain, the dark precipices of Horeb rising
in solemn grandeur before us, we became aware of the entire adaptedness of the scene to the purposes for which it was chosen by the great Hebrew legislator. Moses, doubtless, during the forty years in which kept the flocks of Jethro, had often wandered over these mountains, and was well acquainted with their vallies and deep recesses, like the Arabs of the present day. At any rate, he knew and had visited the spot to which he was to conduct his people-this adytum in the midst of the great circular granite region, with only a single feasible entrance; a secret holy place, shut out from the world amid lone and desolate mountains.-Robinson's Biblical Researches.
"No Waralis can read or write." "What god do
THE PRISONS OF VENICE.-Retracing our steps through these apartments, we now descended to the long corridor which I have before mentioned, and stopped at the small door leading to the pozzi (wells). These were the dungeons of the state, and, with the piombi (leads), formed one of the horrible means of torture which the republic was so fertile in inventing. The piombi were narrow cells, at the top of the palace and immediately under the roof of lead, used as the summer receptacles for state prisoners; and there, confined beneath the roof heated by the burning rays of a southern sun, breathing the close and suffocating air of these ovens, stung by a thousand insects which the heat generated, did these wretched beings drag on their summer days; while in winter they were consigned to the dungeons built under the palace, below
the level of the canal. I cannot describe to you the thrill of horror which seized me as we proceeded down the narrow stairs leading to these living sepulchres. Although prepared by all I had previously heard to find them gloomy and terrible, I had formed little idea of what they really were. We penetrated as far as the second story of these dungeons, and were told that, previous to the arrival of the French, another and a deeper "hell" existed beneath; but the senate, unwilheling to betray the existence these secret
to any stranger eye, caused the water of the canal to flow into them, and they remain filled to this day. The cells of the second tier are even below the surface of the water, ranged on each side of the narrow passage through which we passed; these were formerly lined with wood, having no other furniture than a wooden pallet and a counterpane; not a ray of light ever penetrated them; a breath of pure air visited their infected recesses; one small round hole, scarcely a foot in diameter, opened on the dark passage without. We saw the places for the execution of the prisoners, both by strangling and beheading-the block on which the head was laid, and the stone on which the wretched man sat or knelt; the door was pointed out at which the gondola awaited the body to convey it away for secret sepulture, and that by which those sentenced to be drowned were hurried away by night. The narrow cell too was shown us, where the friar shrived the miserable wretch, preparing him for death, while the executioner waited for his victim in the adjoining cell. O, what must death have been amidst scenes of such horror! Awful even in its most peaceful and tranquil approach, when it seems but the gentle visit
of sleep, what must it have been, surrounded by such terror, coming in dark mysterious violence!Miss Cath. Taylor.
PECULIAR SECT OF INDIANS.-At the Asiatic Society the secretary read an account of two novel tribes of Indians, inhabiting the jungles in the quarter of Bombay. Dr. Wilson had gone among them, and made some enquiries of them. They are about 10,000 in number. The following are a few of their most characteristic replies :-"What are the names of your wives?" "We never mention the names of our wives." [This difficulty was overcome by each man naming his neighbour's wife.] "How much do you pay for a wife ?" "Nine rupees and 66 a half." Why don't you give ten ?" "It is not our custom." "Do you keep more wives than one?" "Re, re! We can scarcely feed one; why should we think of more?" "When your wives disobey your commands, how do you treat them?" "We give them chastisement, lessing or more; how could we manage them without striking them?" "But don't they get angry when you beat them?" "They get angry of course." "Do you ever whip your children?" What, strike our own offspring?-we never strike them." "Do you give them any instruction?" "Yes: we say to them- Don't be
idle-work in the fields-cut sticks-collect cowdung-sweep the house-bring water-tie up the "Don't you teach them to read or write?"
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