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altar nor the pulpit. Over the communion | for sick or maimed soldiers: some they use
The cloisters, which are presumed to have been worthy of the cathedral, were, after previous dilapidation, finally destroyed during the commonwealth.
A partition wall was, in 1657, ran up so as to divide the church into two, denominated East Peter's and West Peter's, for the uses respectively of the presbyterians and independents; but of course after the restoration it was taken down. Pews were erected in the nave in 1684, which have been very properly of late removed. Other improvements and restorations have also been carried on: the buildings which blocked out the view have been pulled down, and the cathedral is now in every respect worthy of the most attentive notice. It cannot, indeed, be compared for magnitude to several others we possess: its elevation is insufficient, and, for want of a central tower, while there are two at the transept, it appears heavy; but its architectural details are of great variety and feminent merit.
The western front consists of three stories. In the basement, covered with statues in niches, are three portals; above and a little farther back is the west wall of the nave, in which is a magnificent window; and above this, still farther back, is the gable of the nave, containing another window, smaller, but of similar character. Flanking the gable are hexagonal turrets, surmounted each with a single pinnacle, canopied and crocketted. The gable point is adorned with a canopied niche containing a statue, and ending in a crocketted pinnacle. On each side the western wall of the nave is a sloping embattled wall, flanked on the outside with embattled hexagonal turrets. (A view of this is given.) On turning the north-west angle of the cathedral we come to a building which seems almost entirely window: it is used as the consistory court. Farther to the east is the northern porch. Beyond that we approach the transept tower. The walls are plain to a considerable height; it is then divided by plain horizontal bands all round into four
monuments in this cathedral of bishops and of other distinguished persons; among whom may be named bishops Leofric (the first bishop of the see), Quivil, Stafford, and Hugh Courtenay, second earl of Devon, which is exhibited in one of the illustrations.
The dimensions of the fabric are as follow :
Length from west entrance to entrance of
Length of Lady chapel
Length of nave from west door to entrance
Breadth of nave and aisles..
compartments, adorned with arcades of round headed arches, and it is surmounted by a plain embattled parapet. There is, as has been already observed, a southern tower similar to this. Each had formerly a spire; but that upon the south tower was taken down in the early part of the seventeenth century; that upon the north remained till the year 1752. In the northern tower hangs a celebrated bell, which is called the Peter bell, said to have been brought in 1484 from Llandaff. It was re-cast in 1676: its weight is 12,500 lbs. There is also here a curious clock, constructed in the fourteenth century. Beyond the tower are projecting chapels, and the Lady chapel is at the extreme east of the building. Over the embattled parapet of this is seen the eastern end of the choir (in which is an early perpendicular window), Among the prelates who have filled the flanked with hexagonal turrets. Above this dale, the translator of the bible; the admirasee of Exeter may be noticed Miles Coverrises the gable, adorned with a small rose window, and crowned with a pinnacle. The ble Joseph Hall, afterwards translated_to south side of the cathedral is nearly similar Norwich; Gauden, to whom the Eikon Bato the north just described. There is, how-silike has been attributed; and sir Jonathan ever, no south porch; and the chapter-house adjoins the southern face of the tower on that
On entering the western door, we find the nave supported by seven clustered pillars on each side, supporting graceful arches. From
the north wall of the nave a stone gallery, called the minstrels' gallery, projects over the fifth arch; it is also built over the side aisle, and being thus very deep is capable of holding a large band of musicians. The triforium is low, and over it is a gallery with a front of open stone work; above which is the clerestory. The windows are well proportioned, and the vaulting of the roof is fine; but, unfortunately, as in most of our cathedrals, it is far too low. The greater part of the transept is constructed within the old Norman towers: it has no side aisle. The choir is divided by a screen from the nave and transept. This screen, surmounted by a noble organ, is beautiful in itself, but most objectionable, as has heretofore been repeatedly shown, on account of the obstruction thus offered to the view from one end of the church to the other. In the choir are well-carved stalls: the bishop's throne at their extremity on the southern side is of beautiful design and execution. The painted glass in the eastern window is well preserved. There are represented saints, patriarchs, and other personages, and also armorial bearings. Some of the side windows contain fine specimens of ancient stained glass. The chapels do not require any par ticular notice, except the Lady chapel, which, after being long used as a library, was restored in 1822. It is an excellent example of the style of its age. There are interesting
into choir .......
Length of transept
Trelawney, one of the seven bishops committed by James II. to the Tower.
The diocese comprises the counties of Cornwall and Devon, with the Scilly Islands.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURE.
BY C. M. BURNETT, ESQ.
No. I.-PART 2.
THE DAG OF JONAH.
I WILL now bring under my readers' consideration what was the most likely fish to have been the one employed upon this occasion. And hinted at in the first part, namely, the fact of the here I will take up the point which I slightly word dag being used in a general sense to imply fish of all kinds. And certainly to attempt arbitrarily to define the particular fish under these circumstances, would be almost equal in absurdity to those arguments which, without any data to go upon, have been used to prove that the forbidden fruit was an apple *. Nevertheless, though I am unable from the generic character of the word dogmatically to assert that the true dag was a whale of one particular species, yet it will be seen in the sequel of my inquiry that there is more than a probability that the species called the piked whale was the creature employed by God for the preservation of the prophet. Not that I hold should be given to that animal that would require with those who would contend that a preference the least number of miracles should be performed upon it, in order to accomplish the purpose intended. The species of whales called the rorquals balena rostrata, or the piked whale. They belong to are probably the same that John Hunter called the the species of the balanoptera of Cuvier, and are
I have as little doubt that the citron would be shown to have
If there were any means of ascertaining what this fruit was, been the forbidden fruit, as any other. While the apple is, in the east, a rare and very unattractive fruit, the eitron is one
which, for fragrance, beauty, and davour, can scarcely be said highest state of perfection.
to be excelled; and in the east must have been produced in the
common to the seas of Europe; but the balanoptera | musculus is that which is found most commonly in the Mediterranean.
I certainly do think with many writers, that it is unnecessary, in order to our belief in scripture, that miracles should be multiplied to an unlimited extent, or that all the laws of nature should be set at defiance. Yet we cannot do better, in all points connected with statements made by revelation, than compare one part of scripture with another. If we act so in the case of miracles, we shall find that in some instances our belief in the matter may be circumscribed within the compass of a single interposition, as it were, of the Deity. Examples of these kinds of miracles are found amongst many acts of the Saviour. In his restoring sight and speech, and lameness, or even life, there seems to have been but a single miraculous act performed; and in those of the prophets, when Elisha made the iron to swim, or when Elijah renewed the oil in the widow's cruse, the same circumstance appears obvious. Yet we read also of other miracles which, in their accomplishment, imply that one or two miraculous acts took place simultaneously in order to obtain the one end. We have examples of these kinds of miracles in the reception of the creatures into the ark. Their natures must not only have been suspended when they assembled themselves from all parts, and came to Noah to be received into the ark, so as not to express the same natural enmity against each other, but they must also have undergone some change in their desire for food; so that in both these respects a miracle must have been performed. There are instances of the same kind among the celebrated plagues which God brought upon the profligate Pharaoh and his kingdom. In several of these plagues the miraculous acts of the Deity were necessarily attended by what may be termed a compound miracle. Thus, while Aaron's rod was turned into a serpent, and the magicians' rods were in like manner miraculously transformed, it will be remembered that Aaron's serpent swallowed up the rest. The act of swallowing up the other serpents, as many as they were, was as complete a miracle as the transformation of the rods themselves; for it is anatomically impossible for one serpent to swallow several others of its own size. It will be seen in this miracle of the serpents, as well as in that of the blood and the frogs, that the magicians had power to do as Aaron. Not so, however, in those of the lice, the flies, the murrain, the boils, the hail, the locusts, or the darkness. Moreover, in all these miracles there is reason to believe that the Israelites, though living in close approximation to the Egyptians, were not affected by any of the plagues. We are particularly told this in the miracle of the flies, the murrain, and the hail. To accomplish this, not only must there have been a miracle performed in multiplying the flies, or bringing the disease, or in causing the hail; but there must also have been a miracle performed in defending the land of Goshen from the destructive effects of those flies-in protecting other cattle besides those mentioned, which only were affected by the murrain. In the miracle of the darkness, it will also be remembered that there was light in the dwellings of the children of Israel.
Without, however, proving by any further exemplification, that in many instances God must have multiplied miracles to fulfil the purposes he intended, the reader will see that if, in the case of Jonah, several miracles would appear to have been wrought, there are at least many instances of a similar kind recorded in the scriptures. And, without extending our belief in some instances beyond a single supernatural act, we should be unable to reconcile the statement with our ideas of truth. In the case under consideration, it has been urged among many other things, that the fish which received Jonah could not
be a whale, because the anatomy of that animal's throat was a proof of the physical impossibility of such an event taking place; indeed, so necessary did the old writers on this subject think it, that they should be able to clear up this difficulty in way of their belief that the whale really was the animal, that there have not been wanting naturalists who have affirmed that the whale could really swallow a man. The Swiss naturalist, Scheuzer, whose whole life was spent in studying nature in connexion with scripture, was strongly of opinion that the shark was the fish employed in this miracle. He observes, "If we reflect seriously, though but slightly, on this history, we cannot fail of perceiving, and at the same time of adoring, the almighty hand of God in it. In effect, we remark no less power exerted here than was necessary to preserve the companions of Daniel amid the flames. Let us imagine a man whose life depends, like that of all other men, on a free respiration, but who, nevertheless, remains three days in the closest of prisons, where the air-whether we suppose him to be lodged in the gullet of a whale, or in the belly of any other fish-was either too condensed or too rarefied; and who, if we suppose he was in the gullet of a whale, was every moment beat by the waves, without food, without rest, now at the surface of the water, now at the bottom of the ocean; or place him in the stomach of some other fish, it is evident that the warmth of the part, and the digestive faculty of his bowels, would speedily dissolve him, and convert him into chyle. He could neither be seated, nor could he stand up, nor lie at his length, but he must needs perspire vehemently, as well by reason of his close situation, wanting air, as of his fears for his life; neither could he receive in this dark dungeon the smallest ray of light, except at times, if it entered by the throat. The waves which flowed in and out perpetually must needs increase his terrors, as well as the sight of those jaws, armed all around with long and cutting teeth. For nourishment he could have only the mucosity of the viscera, or at most a few fishes newly swallowed, and half digested; and if his prison was the throat of an orca, he had only sea-weeds. Beyond a doubt such a situation must terrify him; but his quitting it was still more trying; for, whether it was a shark or a whale, he had equally to dread those long rows of terrible teeth. In short, all threatened him with death-his going in, his continuance there, his coming out; and only the sovereign hand of God was his security." Now it has been additionally urged, that the fish which swallowed Jonah was a shark, because these fish are common in the Mediterranean Sea, whereas the whale is by no means commonly found there. Linnæus supposed the fish to be the charcarias or lamia, which has a throat sufficiently capacious to swallow a man without compressing his body in such a manner as to deprive him of life. Bochart also contended that it was the shark that swallowed Jonah; and other modern writers have followed in the same steps, contending that it was unlikely that God would cause a whale to come from the northern coasts, and afterwards enlarge its throat to an unnatural size, in order to receive Jonah. It has however, in spite of the plausibility of such reasoning as this, very justly been contended by M. Hascus that the word кηтoç, cetus, does not agree with the shark either by nature or classification. One circumstance to favour the whale's being the true receiver of Jonah, ought not to be omitted. It is that St. Matthew uses the word KηToc; and the LXX. have also thought that the scripture must have alluded to the whale. The reader may not be aware that it is physically possible for the whale to have received Jonah, and yet not to have swallowed him; for the whale has naturally a very
His work entitled "Physique Sacrée," was published at Amsterdam in 1732, in eight folio volumes.
to the Lord, and acknowledged him to be his Saviour, and the Lord heard his prayer, and released him. But this short account of the prophet was not merely written to excite our wonder at the means taken by God to preserve him from the impending danger; more probably it was suffered to come down to us, that we might see in it a strong picture of the folly of trying to evade the all-searching eye of God. If we are not many of us cast into the deep waters of affliction, it is not that we have not sought to flee from God's presence, but rather that God's forbearance and long-suffering has been in an especial manner shown to us. Yet even this must have an end. How much better, then, is it that we now should acknowledge him in all our ways, that he may direct our paths. For surely it is the same God who preserves us, whose " eyes did see our substance yet being imperfect, and in whose book were all our members written which day by day were fashioned; when as yet there were none of them." "O Lord, thou hast searched me out and known me; thou knowest my downsitting and mine uprising-thou understandest my thoughts long before."
loose and elastic skin, although it appears to be kept always upon the stretch, by the adipose membrane beneath being loaded with fat. Mr. Hunter mentions that in the piked whale there is probably one of the most striking instances of an elastic cuticular contraction; for, though the whole skin of the fore part of the neck and breast of the animal, as far down as the middle of the abdomen be extremely elastic, yet, to render it still more so, it is ribbed longitudinally like a ribbed stocking, which gives an increased lateral elasticity; these ribs become obliterated when the cutiele is expanded, and thus a receptacle of an enormous size is formed, extending from the mouth to a considerable distance under the skin, along the chest and abdomen. Hascus, with many others, as I have already noticed, concludes moreover that there is no need that Jonah should be received into the stomach of the animal, strictly speaking, but rather enclosed in his gullet, because the swallow of all the whales is too narrow to suffer even a man's arm, much less his body, to pass through it. He says, "the word bethen may be taken to signify any kind of cavity; for example, that of the gullet, or the internal cavity of the jaws in animals." This last expression is very remarkable, for, from his silence upon the subject, it
is quite certain that Hascus was not aware of any OF THE SACRAMENTS OF THE NEW TESTAspecies of whale having the large and elastic cavity above alluded to. How wonderfully does this simple anatomical fact dispel the vast mass of learned erudition which from age to age has been accumulated upon this subject. Both learned and good men have exhausted their talents upon this as they have upon many other subjects, with little advantage to themselves or others. And truly it may be said of these commentators, that the deeper they appear to have dug in exploring the root of this singular word, the more completely do they appear now to have been overpowered with the rubbish which they have accumulated around thein. But ars longa vita brevis is the only plea for such a confused mixture of error and perverted reasoning. Without the experience and advantages which we possess in these later times from the failures of those that have gone before, and the discoveries of those that have come after, we might perhaps have taken the same position with those that have preceded. But if our reasoning be correct, what does the fact teach us? Much that would profit many sage philosophers of the present day. Till John Hunter proved that such a cavity existed under the skin of the piked whale, the commentators upon the dag of Jonah were unable to take up any argument which was satisfactory. We may now dismiss from our minds all the reasoning that has gone before, about the fears of Jonah being digested, or of his suffocation; we can see the folly of such reasoning, and still give God the glory.
Without, therefore, supposing that Jonah was received into the stomach of the whale, and so must have been exposed to the action of digestion, according to Scheuzer, we are able to reconcile the fact that he was received into the hollow cavity or pouch of the whale; where probably the "weeds were wrapped about his head," and he was carried down in this cavity" to the bottoms of the mountains, whence God brought up his life from corruption."
We are told by St. Matthew, that our blessed Saviour, in answer to the Pharisees, typically alluded to his own burial "in the heart of the earth," by pointing to Jonah's position for three days and three nights in the belly of the whale. Had these conceited people been less blind, they might have gathered from the account of Jonah, that, as his life was brought up from corruption, so also would that of his great prototype. In this extraordinary delivery there is much instruction to be learned in a few words: Jonah was disobedient, and he was punished; but he prayed earnestly
OUR Lord Jesus Christ, who is head over all things to the church, which is his body, hath instituted and ordained two sacraments, "to be not only badges or tokens of Christian men's profession, but rather certain sure witnesses, and effectual signs of grace and God's good will towards us; by the which he doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but also strengthen and confirm our faith in him." Art.
These sacraments are baptism and the supper of the Lord. They are instituted in the express words of our Lord himself, and are the only sacramental signs stamped with his command in the New Testament; his church, therefore, is bound not only to reject all others, designed by artful men for the purpose of giving undue weight to human authority, but to protest against them, as the forgeries and lies of those who would teach for doctrines the commandments of
These two sacraments shadow forth the whole of the gospel dispensation, with the spiritual life of the believer and all its blessed privileges, from the moment of his entrance into the kingdom of grace here, to that in which an abundant entrance shall be ministered unto him into the eternal kingdom of glory hereafter. They are outward signs of inward mysteries, with such an union of God's appointment between them, that we find the one not unfrequently put for the other, as well in holy scripture as in the writings of eminent and pious men; the reason of this is, that, wheresoever the sovereign will of God is pleased to communicate the inward and spiritual grace, and where the sacraments are rightly received by faith, they effect that which is represented in them.
It is important that we should attain a clear view of this subject. It is thus stated by archbishop
Usher:-" God hath ordained these outward means
From "Seals of the Covenant Opened, or the Sacraments of the Church considered in their connexion with the great doctrines of the gospel. By James J. Cummins. London: Seeleys, 1839." This is a valuable little work. Its sentiments are at once deeply spiritual and perfectly sound. Subjoined to the essays are some hymns by no means destitute of poetical elegance. Besides the intrinsic merits of the book, the author deserves encouragement from having devoted the proceeds of a large number of copies to the good cause of aiding the building of a free church in Cork.-ED.
for the conveyance of the inward grace to our souls; | benefits, whereby the soul of every believer feeds upon yet there is no necessity that we should tie the work-him by faith, and is nourished up unto eternal life. ing of God's Spirit to the sacraments more than to By it, also, the whole family of the redeemed have the word. The promises of salvation, Christ and all communion in and with Christ; they all eat the same his benefits, are preached and offered to all in the spiritual meat, they all drink of the same spiritual ministry of the word; yet all hearers have them not drink, and are all one body in him. By the breaking conveyed to their souls by the Spirit, but those whom of bread, and the pouring out of wine are the sufferGod hath ordained to life: so in the sacraments the ings of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ set forth; outward elements are dispensed to all who make an and by eating and drinking thereof, is signified the outward profession of the gospel, because man is not blessed union of the believer with him, the act of able to distinguish corn from chaff; but the inward faith receiving Christ and his merits, and applying grace of the sacraments is not communicated to all, them for our own comfort; in a word, "the strengthbut to those only who are heirs of the promises ening and refreshing of our souls by the body and whereof the sacraments are scals. For without a man blood of Christ, as our bodies are by the bread and have his name in the covenant, the seal set to it con- wine." Thus do the faithful always remember the firms nothing to him. Sacraments are seals of the exceeding great love of our Master and only Saviour, promises of God in Christ, annexed by God to the Jesus Christ, dying for us, and the innumerable beneword of the covenant of grace, to instruct, assure, fits which by his precious blood-shedding he hath and possess us of our part in Christ and his benefits obtained to us, and shew forth the Lord's death we, receiving them as pledges of his infinite love in until his coming again. Christ, do thereby profess ourselves bound to express our thankfulness to him by all duties, and for his sake to one another."
Baptism is the sign and seal of our admission into the visible church; the token and pledge of that spiritual regeneration whereby the souls of all true believers become "very members incorporate of the mystical body of the Son of God, which is the blessed company of all faithful people." The outward sign is the transaction of the church and her ministers, according to God's commandment; the inward and spiritual grace is the work of the Holy Ghost, wrought in the hearts of God's people according to his sovereign will and everlasting purpose. "There is," says archbishop Usher, "a general grace of baptism, which all the baptized partake of as a common favour; and that is their admission into the visible body of the church-their matriculation and outward incorporating into the number of the worshippers of God by external communion: and, as circumcision was not only a seal of the righteousness which is by faith, but as an overplus God appointed it to be like a wall of separation between Jew and Gentile, so is baptism a badge of an outward member of the church -a distinction from the common rout of heathen, and God thereby seals a right to his ordinances upon the party baptized, that he may use them as his privileges, and wait for an inward blessing in them: yet this is but the porch, the shell and outside: all that are outwardly received into the visible church are not spiritually engrafted into the mystical body of Christ. Baptism always is attended upon by that general grace, but not always with this special." And that this view of baptism is in accordance with the holy scripture will appear evident when we consider that Paul the apostle, Cornelius the centurion, with his company, and the Ethiopian instructed by Philip, were all the recipients of divine grace, and believers in Christ, before the outward ordinance of baptism was administered to them; while, on the other hand, Simon Magus, and probably many more, received the outward sign as professors of the faith, and afterwards gave proof of having no interest in the inward and spiritual grace.
"It wer absurd,” adds the venerable writer already quoted, "to extend the benefit of the seal beyond the covenant; the covenant is made only with the faithful: he that believeth, and is baptized, shall be saved; he that believeth not, whether he be baptized or no, shall be condemned. Simon Magus, Julian, and thousands of hypocrites and formalists, shall find no help in the day of the Lord by the holy waters of the baptism, without it be to increase their judgment."
The sacrament of the Lord's supper is also a sign and seal of union with the visible church; a token and pledge of that participation in Christ and all his
The word of the covenant of grace, to which these sacraments are annexed as seals, is the revelation of God's good-will towards his people; wherein the great blessings purchased by Christ are made over and entailed upon the whole church of the redeemed. In this will we are instructed as to the nature of the treasure we have a lively description of the inheritance, and a clear designation of the character of those to whom the bequests are made. But the treasure itself is not contained in the will; it consists in the unsearchable riches of Christ: the inheritance, although clearly set forth, is not found there, but is "reserved in heaven for those who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation, ready to be revealed in the last time" (1 Pet. i. 5). The legatees, however distinctly characterized in it, and possessed, even now, of an indefeasible title to the blessings, as the undoubted heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, remain to be fully owned and recognized, and to receive their public investiture before the assembled universe at the glorious manifestation of the sons of God. This record of love, this deed of mercy, is intrusted by God to the visible church, with all its seals, earnests, tokens, and pledges, to be administered for the benefit of his children according to his own appointment. In the execution of this sacred trust, the church presents the written word to every descendant of fallen Adam; it distributes the sacrament of baptism to those who profess the faith of Christ, and to their children, and upon that profession of faith it permits all its adult members to partake of the holy communion of the Lord's supper; it leaves the discrimination of the hidden man of the heart to that Being to whom alone all hearts be opeu, and from whom no secrets are hid; it dares not to form a judgment of individual character, but it solemnly warns all who mind to come, to judge themselves lest they be judged of the Lord; and "to consider how St. Paul exhorteth all persons diligently to try and examine themselves before they presume to eat of that bread and drink of that cup; for, as the benefit is great, if with a true penitent heart and lively faith we receive that holy sacrament, for then we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ, and drink his blood; then we dwell in Christ, and Christ in us; we are one with Christ, and Christ with us; so is the danger great if we receive the same unworthily; for then we are guilty of the body and blood of Christ our Saviour; we eat and drink our own damnation, not considering the Lord's body." The invitation to the church, therefore, is addressed to those, and to those only, "who do truly and earnestly repent of their sins, and are in love and charity with their neighbours, and intend to lead a new life, walking from henceforth in his most holy ways:" all such persons are encouraged to "draw near with faith, and take this holy sacrament to their comfort." Holy