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speaking they all minister to congregations.
as much as to the American :-" Reflecting church-
The Scottish Episcopal Church Society took its rise from the Gaelic Episcopal Society, instituted in 1831, for the supply of the church in the Gaelic districts, but which was found to be of too restricted a character. Its nature may be best explained by the 40th canon, enacted in a general synod, held in Edinburgh in 1838" Whereas in the primitive church, and by apostolic order, collections were made for the poorer brethren, and for the propagation of the gospel, it is hereby decreed that a similar practice shall be observed in the Scottish episcopal church. Nor ought the poverty of the church, nor of any portion of it, to be pleaded as an objection, seeing that the divine commendation is given equally to those who from their poverty give a little with cheerfulness, and to those who give largely of their abundance. For this purpose a society, called the Scottish Episcopal Church Society, shall be formed; the objects of which shall be-1st, to provide a fund for aged or infirm clergymen, or salaries for their assistants, and general aid for congregations struggling with pecuniary difficulties; 2ndly, to assist candidates for the ministry in completing their theological studies; 3rdly, to provide episcopal schoolmasters, books and tracts for the poor; 4thly, to assist in the formation and enlargement of diocesan libraries. To promote these important purposes, a certain day shall be fixed upon annually by every diocesan synod, when a collection shall be made in every chapel throughout the diocese; and the nature and object of the society, in reference to the existing wants of the church, shall be explained to the people."
It must be matter of regret that this latter institution has departed from its original object, and, by voting a considerable portion of its funds to the former, has acted in direct contrariety to the original intention of its founders and early supporters. The sum of 3151. was so voted during the last year. Now by what authority was this done? Certainly it was not in accordance with the objects above stated; and such breaking of good faith with the original subscribers must, 1 fear, act most prejudicially to the best interests of the society. Not less than one-half of this sum so voted must go to the bishops, of course to the impoverishment of the poorer brethren *. It never was intended in the first instance, that such a grant should be made. I speak from unquestionable authority on this point; I cannot but regret this circumstance. Let it not be supposed I would grudge the Scottish bishops larger incomes, independently of what they receive from their congregations or from other sourcesvery far from it. I think a permanent fund should be raised forthwith; and, with all the episcopal wealth in Scotland, such a fund might easily be accumulated for providing them with a respectable maintenance : more they do not require their situation does not demand it; but to this surely they are fairly entitled. With the following remarks I fully and entirely agree; they apply to the Scottish episcopal quite
During the last year the society has been enabled to raise the income of 32 incumbents to Sol. Had the sum referred to not been alienated, their incones might have been raised to very nearly 907.
My only object in making the foregoing remarks, is merely to advert to the fact that the Episcopal Church Society had deviated from its original object; and to express a hope that its future grants will be made in accordance with its original objects, and that it will be enabled to put episcopacy in Scotland in an entirely new position.
That episcopacy has advanced, and is rapidly advancing in Scotland, is a fact of which its adversaries are fully aware. The style of the chapels in the southern division, and their increase in number, powerfully illustrate this fact; and monthly we hear of proposals for the erection and partly endowing new places of worship. This is peculiarly gratifying; still there is one circumstance in connection with the present state of episcopacy in Scotland to which I would refer, namely, the apparent want of accommodation provided for the lower orders-and I speak with especial reference to large towns; and let Edinburgh illustrate the remark. In the new town of Edinburgh | there are five episcopal chapels; but where are the poor to be found? In three out of these the answer would be-nowhere! There is not the free sittings for the poor of the community; there may be the golden cross over the communion table, too often vulgarly and erroneously termed the altar t, but there is not the cross seat in the middle and side aisles; there is not that blending together of different ranks which adds such a charm to the worship of the church of England, be it in city or in village; and, in the cele
* Philadelphian Episcopal Recorder.
+ I have heard it frequently stated, that it matters but little if any whether the term altar or communion table is used; I think a vast and important doctrine depends upon it. " As Christianity has no temple, so she has no victims; no need, therefore, nor any place for sacrificial ministers. It follows that there can be no altar' in the English church, in the proper sense of that term. Alms and oblations' are placed upon the communion table, and presented unto God; but not offered up in any sacrificial sense: aud the offering of ourselves, our souls and bodies,' is a moral offering; to which that word is therefore applied only in an analogical sense. It will be found accordingly, that our communion service has no hint of a sacrifice, literal or commemorative, as offered then and there; but the church instructs her members that the Lord's supper was instituted for the continual remembrance of the sacrifice of the death of Christ (Church Cat.) If the sacrifice were, in any sense whatever, enacted at the time, the term 'remembrance' would have been misemployed by our reformers."-(See the National Church of England, &c., by rev. Robert Eden, M.A., minister of St. Mary's Chapel, Lambeth, Se.)-The church of England, in fact, uever, to the best of my knowledge, applies the word altar to the communion table. In fact, she seems to be peculiarly careful that the term should not be used. In the Scottish episcopal church it is different. In the communion office of that church, which according to canon xxi., is" to be held of primary importance-to be used at all consecrations of bishops and at the opening of all general synods--the word altar is employed. The Scottish episcopalians, therefore, probably are warranted, with their view of the subject, in their general use of the term: but the church of England and Ireland entirely repudiates it. I cannot but raise my voice most solemnly against the erroneous views-erroneous in my opinionconcerning the sacraments of baptism and of the Lord's supper, which have appeared in several publications of the Scottish episcopal clergy.
bration of divine service, there is in some cases too much attempt at pomp and parade. In some of these remarks I am fully borne out by bishop Terrott, whose long experience qualifies him to give a correct statement: "Few," says he, "who have resided in the southern division of the island, can fail to be painfully struck with the uniformity of our congregations, with the want of that happy mixture of rich and poor which they have been accustomed to see in the holy equality of universal prostration before the throne of grace. We must not imagine that we have no poorer brethren, merely because they do not, as in the south, fill the benches of our aisles, and satisfy us of their existence every Lord's day we have poorer brethren, fellow members of the body of Christ, in the providence of God." Bishop Terrott now occupies a station which may enable him to remedy the very evil of which he so justly and properly complains, to do something effectual for the religious instructinn and edification of those poor brethren. Could no plain service be provided for the poor episcopalians of that city? By plain service, I mean such as we have in the holy fanes of England-the simple psalm or hymn; the absence of unnecessary external trappery, which may dazzle the eye, but cannot savingly touch the heart; the humble reading of the litargy; above all, the faithful, uncompromising preaching of "Christ crucified," "the power of God and the wisdom of God." rejoice to know that there is such preaching-that it is not banished from the pulpits of episcopacy, though at one time it was nearly transplanted to make room for a soul-deluding though sweet-toned morality. It is all very well to allude to the apostolical claims of the episcopal church; it is all very well to talk of the wide and essential difference existing between her and other communions-to the full I acknowledge that difference; still I cannot but express my full conviction that there is one mode alone whereby episcopacy can permanently flourish in Scotland or elsewherethe preaching of a free and a full, of an unfettered and an unclouded gospel. Wherever that is preached, sinners will be converted-souls will be saved; the beautiful harmony which ever should exist between the desk and pulpit will be unbroken; the liturgy will be valued, not so much on account of its antiquity ancient as it is-as that it is entirely adapted to set forth, in the most scriptural language, the wants of weak, sinful and perishing creatures; and the feelings of the dying Herbert will be fully entered into, who, being asked on a dying bed what prayers he would prefer, exclaimed-"O, sir, the prayers of my mother, the church of England; no other prayers are equal to them!"
NECESSITY OP SAVIOUR'S PASSION.There is yet one reason more of our Saviour's passion, of which, if we see not distinctly the full force, we see, however, that it may be of infinite force. Mankind are sinners: our first parents were so; we have all been so-few of us think to what a degree; and close upon sin follow weakness and guilt. The good instructions and example of our blessed Lord have, indeed, without any thing farther, a powerful tendency to reform us, if we have strength to reform ourselves on seeing that we ought. But what can they do for as if we have not? which experience too often proves to be the cases or, supposing them to do it ever so effectually, still it would be true that we have been sinners, have dishonoured our Maker, and broken his laws. Who but himself can tell what satisfaction the holiness of his nature and the honour of his government may demand to be made for such offences?
| Mere sorrow for having done amiss very seldom frees us in this world from the ill consequences of trangression: and what security can we have that it will in the next? Living well for the future is making no amends for having sinned before, for it is no more than our duty if we had never sinned at all; besides, that what men call living well, especially men destitute of the spirit of Christ, is mixed with innumerable and grievous faults. In this state of things, then, where is the certainty that our sins would or could be forgiven; or the authority of God kept up in the eyes of his creation otherwise than by punishing the guilty? And if that was to be done, the whole race of mankind must fall under the sentence. Here it was, therefore, that his unsearchable wisdom interposed, who, alone knowing the fittest means of reconciling justice with goodness, pitched upon this-that, as a terrifying monument of the ill desert of iniquity, his beloved Son should, in our nature and in our stead, suffer death; and, for an eternal demonstration of the divine benignity, his undergoing it voluntarily should be rewarded with the highest glory to himself, and with pardon and grace, and life eternal to all who made their humble claim to them, by repentance, faith, and love. Thus did God show himself "just, and the justifier of them which believe in Jesus ;" thus did " mercy and truth meet together, righteousness and peace kiss each other."-Abp. Secker.
"Earth shall pass away."-MATT. xxiv. 35.
Yes, when God sends abroad his word,
With autumn glides away.
Now mellow corn fields waving stand,
Inhaling noon-day's heat;
The Lord show'rs down the fruitful store,
But who is he that dreads the morn,
When earth's great bond shall rend? Soon all her joys will cease to charm; Since none but heaven's own mighty arm Can man uphold with hopes new-born, And streams of comfort send :
* From "The Christian Offering."
during his confinement in prison, he had contrived to evade the vigilance of his keepers; and it was supposed that when he wished to have a word with his wife before he was put to death, it was to tell her where they were secreted. If so, however, it was needless; for, when she and her son afterwards visited his cell, and were on the point of going away, the latter chanced to cast his eye towards a dark corner, under a pair of stairs, and there perceived a black packet of papers, which on examination turned out to be an account of his trial, written in his own hand, wherein was contained, as well as many of the details already given, a very touching prayer, begging of God to sustain him, and all others in the like case, through their great need, and importuning all "to be good to his poor and most honest wife, being a poor stranger; and all his little souls, her's and his children, whom (he adds) with all the whole faithful and true catholic congregation of Christ, the Lord of life and death, save, keep, and defend, in all the troubles and assaults of this vain world, and bring at last to everlasting salvation, the true and sure inheritance of all crossed Christians. Amen, amen."-Blunt's History of the Reformation.
JOHN ROGERS.-The first called to take up his cross was John Rogers. He had been brought up in Cambridge, and afterwards became chaplain of the factory at Antwerp, where he fell into the company of Tindall and Coverdale, and helped them to produce that translation of the bible which goes by the name of Matthew's translation. He thence removed to Wittenberg, where he had the charge of a congregation for many years, till Edward's accession having rendered it safe for those who held his opinions to return to their native land, he repaired thither with his wife and children (for he was married), and was SWEDEN. INTERMENT.-Every country has its soon preferred by Ridley to a prebend of St. Paul's, own customs with regard to the burial of the dead. and to the divinity lectureship in that cathedral. Here in a church-yard, at one place, the sound of Thus was he in a situation to attract the attention of juvenile voices attracted my attention, who were perMary, and to be smitten by her evil eye. Accord-forming sacred music, and where a crowd had assemingly, he was soon brought before the council to an- bled to witness a funeral. The grave was six feet swer for his doctrine; and having been first confined deep, and planks of wood laid round it, as is the mode to his house, where he remained half a year, and from in England. A clergyman stood at the head of it which he took no pains to escape, he was afterwards, uncovered, in a silk robe, in imitation of a gown. by the tender mercies of Bonner, committed to New- After an extempore prayer, twelve boys in black cloaks, gate, and lodged among the common desperadoes of who stood around with books in their hands, joined in a gaol for twelve months more. In his examinations singing a hymn when the coffin was lowered; they before Gardiner and the council, he played his part departed, and the grave allowed to remain open for with the intrepidity of one who felt strong in the some time to public view. The coffin was painted righteousness of his cause, and with a force of reason- black, raised in the centre, had three large silver ing which it required the scoffs and brutal laughter of stars on the top and sides, and a number of small his judges to smother, for answer it they could not. stars scattered over the whole of it. As, after deKneeling on his knees, he reminded them of their own positing the dead, the graves are made level with the acquiescence in the laws of Henry and Edward; one ground, there was no appearance of any in this cemeamongst them, and he the chief, having been the open tery, although some had large tombstones resting on advocate of the king's supremacy as opposed to that wooden frames two feet above ground. And here I of the pope. He defended his own marriage, as being may observe that, although a view of the grave is of originally contracted in a country where marriage itself sufficiently eloquent at all times to impress us was permitted to priests; and said, that neither did with a sense of our own frailty and impending doom, he bring his wife into England till the laws of Eng-vet even in our daily paths do we meet with memoland permitted it too. With regard to service in an rials of mortality; for we hear the toll of the bell, the unknown tongue and the doctrine of the mass, he knell of our departed hours; meet the mourners, and stayed himself upon scripture, Gardiner exclaiming solemn procession of funerals; hatchments attached against him" that he could prove nothing by scrip- to the walls of those dwellings the dead had left; the ture, for that scripture was dead, and must needs sable garb, and tears of bereaved relatives; the have a lively expositor." But all was in vain, for covered pulpit, in remembrance of the pastor of his they were bent to have his life; and having been on flock; the pictures and busts of the departed; and several successive days brought before his judges, that in the church do we find man busy in lettering the some semblance of justice might not be wanting, he marble monument. To all these remembrances may was at last condemned; and on the 4th of February, be added the newspapers of the day, holding out the in the year 1555, being Monday, in the morning, he death of hundreds. Yet, notwithstanding these was warned suddenly by the keeper's wife of Newgate solemn and hourly warnings, calling on all" to be to prepare himself for the fire. He had been sound ready," knowing not what a moment might produce, asleep; but being at length awakened, and bid to how little effect have they on those who are lovers of make haste," Then,” said he, “if it be so, I need pleasure, more than lovers of God; cleave to the not to tie my points ;" and so was he had down to things perishing with the using, and not looking Bonner to be degraded, of whom he craved one peti- forward to that kingdom where true and eternal joys tion-that he might talk a few words with his wife are to be found.-Rae Wilson's Travels. before his burning; but this poor consolation was denied him; and being led to Smithfield by the sheriffs, singing the Miserere as he went, his wife and eleven children, one at the breast, meeting him by the way, his pardon still offered him at the stake, on condition of his recantation, he bore himself through Paul's; and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Town this most trying temptation of all with a stout heart, and, bravely washing his hands in the flame as he was burning, gave up his spirit to God. Notwithstanding the care which had been taken to remove his writings,
London: Published by JAMES BURNS, 17 Portman Street, Portman Square; W. EDWARDS, 12 Ave Maria Lane, St.
Hopes-of a brighter, better world,
Beyond the spreading skies!
JOSEPH ROGERSON, 24 NORFOLK STREET, STRAND, LONDON.
THE DANGER AND DUTY OF PRIVATE
BY THE REV. T. E. HANKINSON, M.A.,
AND now let me explain what are my views
VOL. XII.-NO. CCCXXXIII.
[London: Joseph Rogerson, 24, Norfolk-street, Strand.]
to express their thoughts. Now it is touching words that all questions and opinions arise. If we could see the spirit which dictated those words, the questions would be set at rest. Takenow, for instance, the Articles of our own church. There are words laying down certain definitions of truth. Every clergyman of the church of England has solemnly subscribed his assent to these words. But will any one who knows what has recently taken place among us, say or think that all the clergy of the church of England attach the same meaning to those words? Methinks that some of our brethren, who are the loudest in their declarations of the danger of private judgment, afford us the most pertinent illustrations of the necessity of its exercise. But, as a matter of necessity, setting aside the question of duty or expediency, whatever means we adopt, whatever counsel we may take in helping us to decide on points of religious truth, our ultimate sentence must be passed on the verdict of private judgment. Whilst language is capable of ambiguity or distortion, no point of abstract truth, hardly any matter of fact, can be settled authoritatively by one man, or set of men, for another. What is faith? what is justification? what is repentance? what is regeneration? what is a church, or the church? Does any one mean to say that we should get an uniform answer to all or any of these questions from the voices of contemporary theologians? Or is the answer to be gathered from a majority of voices, uttered from the far-resounding depths of ecclesiastical antiquity? And how am I to know, amid the multitude of the records which have perished, in comparison of those that remain, that the voice which I hear is
PRICE 1 d.
ritably suggested, that if unlearned persons be led wrong, they will not suffer by their error. And why may we not extend that charitable suggestion to all persons who through ignorance fall into error? Because we are confronted in our pleasant progress towards universal toleration, by the stern declaration "That there is a way that seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death." But still it may be said that the error arising from the presumptuous exercise of private judgment is of a far more serious nature than that which is due to the incompetence or the dishonesty of our spiritual teachers. It may be said so, and it is said so; but can it be proved so? because we remember some words of our Lord himself, which seem to touch this very point. Speaking of the pharisees, whose authority to teach the people he never questioned, and who in their day were the great students of Jewish tradition, as the only safe comment upon the text of their scriptures-speaking of such men, he says, "They be blind leaders of the blind; and if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch."
really the voice of the majority? The greatest | antiquity. Then the supposition may be chanumber of ecclesiastical writers of an early date were bishops of dioceses; are we to assume that their writings are fair representatives of the religious views prevalent in their several dioceses? If the bishop of London or of Winchester were to write a theological work, would it for a moment be regarded as expressing the aggregate view of their suffragan clergy? This consideration then alone destroys our confidence in the fact that we have the consent even of a majority of those who were competent to record their sentiments. Then, again, what are we to do with a case like this, where the question lies between earlier writers and those who are later, but more numerous—simple majority of mere numbers, or higher authority of the more ancient? It is said that there is a perceptible difference between the writings of Clement and Ignatius on the one hand, and those of Justin Martyr on the other, touching the doctrine of free grace; Clement and Ignatius holding views which would now be called Calvinistic, Justin Martyr those of the contrary school in theology. Now Clement and Ignatius have the advantage over Justin, in being the earlier writers. They are the very earliest whose authentic writings have come down to us; but Justin was the better scholar, and Justin's was the view taken by a large proportion of church writers of his own and immediately subsequent times. So that it would appear that a person, never so anxious to commit his judgment to the keeping of others, would have first of all to consult it upon the important question to whom he should commit it. Whilst I am upon this subject, I would one other case, which seems to me more than any other to shut out the idea that human authority derived from the consent of the Fathers is necessary, either to point out or to confirm the truth upon matters which God has made the subject of revelation. The case is that of the whole company of the unlearned. How are they, through this medium, to get at the truth? You cannot send them to the folios of patristic theology. Well, but they may learn the truth so ascertained through their authorised spiritual teacher. But what if they have the misfortune to be taught by a man who has not stud ed the fathers, or a man who, on the faith of having studied them, propounds some religious system of his own i.vention? Some may say, let them look at the creeds. The creeds of our church are held in substance, if not in fact, by the church of Rome. Then the articles. The articles of our church are declared by one of the most laborious and deferential students of old theology in the present day to be at variance in spirit with the teachings of catholic
Then, if our proof be worth any thing, we draw these two conclusions from what has been said: 1st. That the knowledge of the truth is necessary for the salvation of the soul. 2dly. That, in searching for the truth, whilst we are not only justified but bound to use all the help we can get, by conferring with the sentiments, spoken or written, of holy men in all ages of the church; yet, upon the exhibition or the expression of those sentistatements, we are neither allowed nor justified in placing implicit and unwavering confidence. Then comes the question, What are we to do? Dare we, ignorant as we many of us are— fallible as we all of us are-trust these momentous interests to our own private judgment? No; we dare not, and (blessed be God!) we need not. The avowed object of all human commentators is to give the true meaning of the revealed word, or to discover to us the mind of God. But, as I have asked before, what right have we to conclude, either that these men knew the mind of God, or, even if they did, that we know their minds? The apostle Paul argues conclusively upon this very point. "What man," he writes (1 Cor. ii. 11), "knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man that is in him; even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God." So far then is clear and conclusive enough as to our inability, either by the exercise of our own minds or through the teaching of other minds, effectively-though both are to be used subordinatelyto arrive at the mind of God. The apostle