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lays down this proposition as the threshold to
that he shall receive any thing of the Lord. Is not that reason in itself sufficient to account for multitudes failing in obtaining what they profess to seek? How few ask guidance of God, really expecting to be guided! Then, again, how few ask it really intending to be guided! They have formed their opinions before they seek spiritual teaching; and they seek it in order that, in the fact of their having sought it, they may find what they consider to be a conclusive argument against any who may question the correctness of their views. One may really almost fear an approach to the sin of blasphemy against the Holy Ghost on the part of some, who use the pretext of having prayed for his guidance to give a sanction to opinions, or even to actions, at which both truth and holiness stand aghast. The "honest and good heart" is not in vain mentioned by our Lord as identical with the good ground wherein the seed of truth flourishes and bears fruit. And knowing, as we should do, how much pride, prejudice, passion, party feeling hinder the work of the Holy Spirit, and how highly offensive it must be to appeal to that holiest name for his sanction under the influence of such criminal motives, instead of marvelling at the little evidence we have of spiritual teaching, we find cause rather to adore the mercy of God because the instances are not more common than they are, of those who, "because they did not like to retain God in their knowledge," are "given up to a reprobate mind;" those respecting whom it is said, that "for this cause (because of their doubledealing and hypocrisy), God shall send them strong delusions, that they should believe a lie; that they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness."
To the view opened to us by these and such like passages of scripture, so perfectly But will it be denied that there are differsatisfactory amid all the difficulties and the ences in matters of revelation even among sindangers wherewith our subject seems to be cere men? There are; and were there no encompassed, there is but one more objection, alloy or admixture of self-sufficiency and with a brief notice of which I shall conclude. self-interest marring the simplicity of faith It is a practical one, and puts itself into the and honesty of purpose among those who in form of this question. How is it, if the Holy the main are sincere, I am strongly perGhost is promised to all who seek him to suaded that those differences would be much guide them into all truth, that all who seem diminished. And as it is, in what do the to seek him with equal earnestness are not differences among such chiefly consist? guided to recognize the same truth? To this Either in reference to some abstruse or mysI reply, 1st. There may be abundant reason terious doctrine, outlying the utmost limits for this practical failure of the promise, in the of human comprehension; or to some cerefailure of some of the conditions under which monial or practical matter, touching church it is made. St. James says- -"If any man ordinances and government. And I think it lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth may be fairly suggested as a possibility, that, to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and for the trial of our humility, faith, and chait shall be given him. But let him ask in rity, God will not permit these points to be faith, nothing wavering: for he that wavereth definitively settled, either through the meis like a wave of the sea, driven with the dium of revelation, or by the usual teachwind and tossed. For let not that man thinking of his Holy Spirit. I am inclined to
think that it is too harsh a judgment to condemn, as guilty of the sin of schism, all who privately think differently on these points; unless, by giving public effect to their diversities of sentiment, they disturb the peace and distract the unity of the church of Christ.
the evening he would read to a niece a portion of the
In 1803 the attention of Dr. Hales was drawn particularly to the irregular conduct of the Wesleyan methodist missionaries. He published his "Method1805. These missionaries used to preach on horseism Inspected," of which a second part appeared in back with black caps, in fairs and markets. They circulated printed libels against the ministers of every denomination, and though laymen, contrary to the ordinances of Christianity. Dr. Hales's object in this express injunctions of their founder, administered the work was to correct their irregular conduct.
In 1805 he met a serious accident when on a visit
to a friend in Dublin. The day after his arrival he was returning home, after dining with his pupil, Dr. Browne, prime serjeant of Ireland, to whom and his family he had read the prayers of the church before his departure. For "in my family," he used to say, "I always use the church prayers; there are none equal to them; they are the finest that ever were composed." The night was dark, and a severe frost made the ground slippery. In passing over a bridge his foot slipped on the smooth flag-way; he fell, and broke his leg: he was not aware of the fact, however, until he attempted to rise. Several persons immediately collected round him, and one, speaking with a foreign accent, offered to carry him home. "Sir," said Dr. Hales," I have broken my leg; and I should be sorry that you ran the same risk in the present state of the streets." Perhaps," said the stranger (hearing him say that he had only been one night in town, and was now likely to be kept there), "perhaps you may want money if you are a stranger; here is my purse, should that be the case." Dr. Hales declined the offer, but begged to know who had the kindness to make it. He replied he was a Swede, and master of a ship. "Sir," said Dr. Hales, "it is an instance that humanity and generous feelings are not confined to any nation. A gentleman of his acquaintance came up, and said, "Is that Dr. Hales?" "It is," he WILLIAM HALES, D.D., RECTOR OF KILLESANDRA, replied, "and I have broken my leg." He spoke so composedly that the gentleman was for a minute incredulous. A chair being procured, he was conveyed to the house where he was on a visit. The first surgeon who arrived set the bone so badly, that one of more eminence thought it necessary to perform the operation again. During his illness and recovery his room was crowded with people who came to visit him. He was confined for a considerable time. During his slow recovery he was occupied during some of his hours in aiding the studies of a young friend. He used often to speak with pleasure of the Swedish captain adverted to, and was greatly vexed that in the confusion attendant on his accident he had not asked his address, that he might have expressed his thanks for an offer of such unusual kindness.
This, then, is my practical conclusion : look to God's word and to God's Spirit primarily for spiritual wisdom. Be modest, taking into conference with your private judgment such human helps as God may have furnished for you; but do not mistrust God's promises or dishonour his Spirit by looking to man alone for what he has permitted you and encouraged you to expect from him. Hold your opinions, when formed, in the spirit of meekness and charity; and, for the peace of your own conscience, as well as your peace with your fellow-men, recollect that the truths are few, grand, and simple, to the knowledge and belief of which God's word attaches the promise of salvation. "Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved." "This is life eternal, that they should know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent."
It is awful to think that there should be any way seeming right unto a man, the end whereof is not the way of life; but we may take comfort and courage in the assurance that the way of righteousness-that which really is the right way-is also an high way and a safe way, and that the way-faring man, though a fool, shall not err therein.
DR. Hales now resumed his occupations with additional energy. He had been long engaged in his work on chronology, but he diversified his studies. He was always in his study before seven in the morning, having previously walked for half an hour, unless the weather was desperate; but even then he would sally forth in an old blue cloak, and, with a pace between a walk and a trot, would traverse the paths of a hilly and pleasant garden. He then sat down to Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic, and frequently to long and abstruse astronomical calculations. These he would sometimes relax by writing on classics, or on politics. He continually resided on his living, ministering to the spiritual and temporal wants of his flock. He was of course almost entirely shut out from literary society and intercourse with congenial minds, in which he so much delighted-a trial of no ordinary kind; but he preserved, however, a communication with the literary world. "When I went to Killesandra," he used to say, "I rather repined at first at being excluded from society, but I now thank God that he kept me there; for I am sure that I have done more good than I could elsewhere have accomplished, and when I am laid low, my words will be better understood." He would communicate in his own family the satisfaction he felt at his discoveries. In
In 1807 Dr. Hales wrote in the "Antijacobin Review" a series of ten letters to Dr. Troy, a Romish bishop, in consequence of his pastoral letter on the breaking out of the rebellion of 1803. A new edition of these letters was called for, and appeared in 1813. In 1808 he published "Dissertations on the Prophecies expressing the Divine and Human Character of our Lord Jesus Christ."
In 1808 he visited London with a view to the publication of his "Analysis of Chronology." He found the publishers unwilling to undertake so large a work on theology as he proposed to them, and he was obliged to make arrangements for publishing it at his own expense. His private means, however, could not
prudently be devoted to so great an undertaking; and he resolved to publish it by the aid of subscribers, many of whom acted with great liberality, subscribing 201. and 501. each, to the amount of near 8001. Dr. Bell contributed 1007.
The first volume was published in 1809; the second, including two parts, in 1811; and the third in 1813, though printed the year before. A second edition, revised and corrected, appeared in 4 vols. 8vo., 1830. With reference to the work itself, Mr. Hartwell Horne thus speaks:-"The title of this work very inadequately describes its multifarious contents. Not only is it the most elaborate system of chronology extant in our language, but there is scarcely a difficult test in the sacred writings which is not illustrated. Dr. Hales follows the chronology of Josephus, whose genuine numbers he conceives he has restored; and that by a comparison with the septuagint and the other texts, he has ascertained the true series of primeval times. The longer chronology, established by Dr. H. with great success, is unquestionably preferable to that founded on the Masonetic text, as it removes many of those difficulties with which the scripture history is encumbered in that text. His 'New Analysis' ought to have a place in the library of every biblical student who can procure it."
Doctor Hales was now about sixty-six years of age, but his constitution was still strong and healthy. His circumstances were not affluent, but he had always been indifferent about money. Generosity of feeling had indeed been his invariable characteristic. While college tutor he always took more care of his pupils' interest than of his own; so that the funds of his labours were lost, and he left college with much smaller means than were obtained by others who possessed not half his advantages.
Shortly after the publication of his work on chronology, he was appointed chancellor of the diocese of Emly by his friend archbishop Brodrick—a preferment of small value, but gratifying to him as a mark of the esteem in which he was held by that truly-admirable prelate, to whom, indeed, the appearance of that great work may, in a great degree, be attributed; for after Dr. Hales had formed his plan, and made some progress, he laid it by, not intending to finish it; but the archbishop, then bishop of Kilmore, on seeing the manuscript, pressed him to resume his labours.
Under all his sufferings he was always able to converse with clearness and recollection on scriptural subjects. One anecdote, deserves to be recorded to show the permanence of his attachment to all that was connected with religion. One night there was a severe storm, which had unroofed part of his offices; and in the morning his servant entered his room and told him of it, but he took no notice until the servant added-" But, sir, it has injured the church, and unroofed part of it." He was alive to this, and sat up in his bed with quickness, saying, "That is sad; I am very sorry for it." Such was Dr. Hales, always indifferent to his own immediate interests, and ever full of desires for the welfare of whatever related to Christianity. His life was prolonged to an advanced period. On the 30th of Jan., 1831, in the eightyfourth year of his age, full of years and of divine grace, he peacefully entered on his rest.
In July, 1817, he had a fever, by which his life was endangered; and a dose of calomel, which, by an unfortunate mistake, was given him instead of the medicine directed, had nearly produced a fatal termination. The alarm of his physician was extreme. It was, however, the divine will to prolong his days, and the care of his friends was rewarded. He recovered his strength but slowly, for seventy years had now passed over him, and he had been engaged in unremitting literary toils from an early age. Yet his strength and vigour were surprising; he would walk and ride a very considerable distance; and the vivacity of his manner, and the energy of his mind, remained unabated. In the winter of 1817-18, there was an unusual degree of languour occasionally observable in him, and he read and wrote less than he was accustomed. In May, 1818, he visited London, and made arrangements for the publication of a work on the "Origin and Purity of the Primitive Church in the British Isles, and its Independence upon the Church of Rome," which came out the following year, and was his last. A fresh calamity now overwhelmed his family. His second son, a young man of the most amiable and valuable qualities, was suddenly carried off by a violent sore throat, whilst engaged in attending on his venerable father. He was not at that time in a state to feel the full bitterness of this shock, but his spirit of Christian resignation would have led him to endure it without murmuring, even though his heart had broken.
RECOLLECTIONS OF A TOWN PASTOR.
THE GOVERNESS.-No. 1.
A MOST destructive fire in the parish-which extended to several buildings, all of which were burned to the ground, with the goods contained in them, and many of the inmates most seriously injured-had called forth the sympathies of the neighbourhood, and a small subscription was, without delay, set on foot to relieve the necessities of the sufferers. The premises themselves were wisely insured by the landlord-but not the scanty furniture and little stock of the occupiers. I do not exculpate them in this respect, yet they were only monthly tenants. They ought, however, to have secured themselves against contingencies; and I am quite of opinion that the doing away with briefs read in church, in aid of those who had suffered by fire, is a very wise enactment. Comparatively speaking, little was collected, and out of that little, comparatively nothing went for the objects intended. The reading of these briefs only distracted the attention of the congregation. They were looked upon as a mere form, and treated as such; and seldom if ever realized any sum worth mentioning. And I would further carry out the subject, not only to the prudence but the absolute obligation of life insurance. The tenements were rented by respectable shopkeepers, in a very small way of business, who dealt chiefly in fancy articles, and most of whom had seen better days; and it was agreed, at a meeting of the parochial authorities and other friends, that if possible a sum might be raised to reinstate them in business. It was determined that the neighbourhood, and especially the parish, should be thoroughly canvassed; and I am glad to say, that a very respectable sum was speedily raised, and given with apparently good will, even by persons who could ill afford to add their donation.
One of the apportioned districts for collecting subscriptions was confided to my care. It was one of the most wealthy; and in the course of a morning's round of calls, I had no reason to be dissatisfied. I knocked and rang, according to the directions, at the door of one house, not far from that occupied by the Jewish family adverted to in my last paper; and on giving my name to the servant who opened it, was speedily ushered into the drawingroom, splendidly, nay, magnificently furnished. Of the family I knew comparatively little. They had a pew in church, very seldom frequented by them: in summer it was so hot, and in winter it was so cold. Their name-which, to avoid personality, I shall designate "Hudson "-did not appear on the list of any of the parochial subscriptions, and rumour said that nothing for charity was to be obtained there. My
business, however, was not to judge, but to try. I saw they were persons of affluence, who lived in handsome style, and could well afford to give out of their very copious abundance.
It soon becomes well known in a neighbourhood who give freely; and such too often become the dupes of impostors. I confess, however, that I have sometimes been mistaken, and formed a most unjust and uncharitable opinion. Very courteously, still somewhat formally, I was received by the mistress of the house, and requested to be seated. I lost no time in stating the object of my visit, for I perceived that I was an intruder, and in a moment felt that my application would be in vain. "Ah, very true," Mrs. Hudson said; we heard of the fire" well she might, for the premises belonged to her husband-" and that several people were severely burned. It was in last night's 'Courier' I read a long account of it-quite shocking. I wonder how the poor woman is that dislocated both ancles; but you know for such accidents there are plenty of hospitals provided; I heard the poor wretch was carried to the Middlesex. And then, as for the loss of property, as Mr. Hudson said yesterday at dinner-he had just returned from the Fire Insurance-office, of which he is a director and large share-holder-to subscribe to such things is to give what he calls a bonus on carelessness; and landlords often suffer severely from tenants' thoughtlessness. If tenants are well insured, it often makes them reckless as to the landlord's property. And really," the good woman added, 66 we are constantly beset with similar demands. Really scarce a day passes but some report, as they call it, arrives, and some note from some secretary. The servants are worn out in opening the door, and are strictly charged never to trouble us with such papers. The hall table is quite covered with them. We cannot stand it. You will excuse my putting our name down for any thing. Should my husband change his mind-which, however, I do not think likely-he will let you know."
The servant, on an elegantly chased salver, on which were blazoned the armorial bearings of the house of Hudson, with quarterings as manifold as if all the noble blood of England flowed in their veins, now brought in a letter. "Dear me! it is from Miss Darway; and sealed with black wax too. Well," continued the lady, having opened the despatch, " her mother is really dead, and she did not arrive in time to see her alive; she was two days too late. How very tiresome; but she had two hundred miles to travel northward. I do not exactly know where, but my husband does, for he knew something of her family, and in fact was the means of bringing her Many reports were doubtless left, and many notes here. Her father was a poor clergyman. She from secretaries received, but neither the one or the wished to go immediately she received the communiother were ever read or ever reached the drawing-cation as to the old woman's illness, but I really could room; no record remains of any subscription obtained not spare her, and therefore detained her for three from the family to any charity whatever. Search the days; I almost doubted whether it was not a pretext whole parochial documents, when an extra sum was to get home. The fact was, we had a large party, to be raised, by way of voluntary contributions, as in and I wanted her to look after the arrangements of the present instance-open any of the reports for the table before dinner was announced; and besides, charitable purposes, religious or moral, tending to we were going to the dentists about Julia's teeth, and alleviate misery, and which abound in the metro- to the opera the night after, and I wanted her to polis-the name would not appear. There was a look after the elder girls' dresses. She might have faint recollection indeed, that to the theatrical fund gone on the Sunday, but there was no coach, so very Mr. Hudson had some years before subscribed a tiresome; only perhaps she would not have gone on couple of guineas, for he was passionately fond of the that day, for she says she cannot conscientiously stage; but the fact was never ascertained. travel on Sundays. I very nearly dismissed her last year, because she objected to return with us on Sunday from Worthing; but my husband was at the time in tolerably good humour, and said she might stay till the following day if she would pay her own coach-fare, which she did. The fact is, she is far too over-much righteous; and at times I fear she may inculcate some erroneous views, or poison the children's minds with methodistical notions. I heard Julia ask her sister the other day, 'Do you think we ought to go to the opera? I am sure Miss Darway does not think so.' Are you fond of the opera, Dr. ?" she continued, obviously forgetting my surname, and giving me a title to which I had no claim, "we are going there on Saturday. That tiresome Signor has just sent for our support, and I forwarded five guineas as you came in. It is expensive, but one must live in the world. Shall you be there?"
Of the existence of many of the great religious societies in the metropolis, it is astonishing how many who profess to be churchmen are entirely ignorant as ignorant as a captain of an Indiaman, who, when asked about Bishop's college, declared he had never heard of it, and much less seen it, to his knowledge; | and yet he had not arrived more than two months from Calcutta, and took particular pleasure in casting discredit on all missionary exertions, and in denying all missionary success.
It was while engaged in conversation, that suddenly two children rushed into the room. "Go away, Flora," exclaimed the mamma-"Georgy, do be quiet; I shall tell Miss Darway when she returns; she will punish you both: I shall tell her to do so. The smash upon the carpet of a glass covering, some beautiful and rare specimens of humming birds knocked over, with its contents, together with the upsetting of an inkstand on the carpet, testified that neither Miss Flora nor Master Georgy cared much about Miss Darway or her punish
"Certainly not," was my reply.
ments. They showed, indeed, some looks of astonishment, and their mother of extreme anger, when they beheld the mischief they had wrought. The young urchins, however, testified no regret or contrition; and it was not until repeated acts of delinquency had been perpetrated, and several ornaments thrown down, that the bell was rapidly rung, and the nursery maid ordered to take them up stairs, which called forth violent screeches of anger and rebellion, accompanied with no little kicking. "Miss Darway," said Mrs. Hudson, "is so tiresome (you know who I mean, you see her regularly at church); really it is impossible to get a good governess that is at all suitable. Can you recommend me one? She does not seem to manage the children well, and yet she is very strict with them, and kind at the same time; and never leaves them, for she has not asked for a holiday since she came to us. I dare say she often feels dull, but then she must submit to it; it is her lot, poor thing, and we have her down to tea when we are alone. I must however, look out for another. She is not with us at present, or the children would not have come into the room. Tiresome creature ; she asked leave to go home, her mother being dangerously ill, as she said, and not likely to recover. She is or was a widow in very poor circumstances (I say is or was, for she may be dead), and attended by a daughter also a widow."
"Are you not fond of the opera?" she repeated. "I cannot tell, ma'am, for I never was there; but I could not consistently attend it."
"Dr., you are like Miss Darway; she is always using that tiresome word consistency. I thought it was only methodist people that would not go to places of amusement. I know clergymen who have no such scruples."
"Very probably, madam," was my reply; "but then that is no rule for me."
"More tiresome still," continued the lady; "she asks leave to stay for a day or two after her mother's funeral, to arrange matters for her sister. She really must not do so: the whole furniture in the house will be knocked to pieces by the romping children. "Well," she read on, "and really if she does not ask if she may have a portion of her wages-I mean salary. What will Mr. H. say? Why we settled with her only the other day (it was a year and a half since); she cannot want money again."
It was in vain that I attempted to take my leave. There was no method of escape from this running commentary on poor Miss Darway's letter, or on the tiresomeness of her general conduct, of her unfitness for her situation, and of the necessity for a speedy change, with which I had really nothing to do. I was about to rise from my chair, when the door opened, and the almost breathless children, who had escaped from the nurse's custody, again appeared.
"May we come in, mamma?"
"Yes, darlings," said the foolish mother; "but do not be so naughty."
"No, mamma," said they, as they again began the work of devastation.
This treatment of the mother of these spoiled children convinced me that she, and not Miss Darway, was to blame for their waywardness and noisy insubordination. All the good sought to be instilled into their minds soon evaporated in the drawing-room.
The Hudsons were, in the true sense of the word, a very worldly family. The world had treated them very well, and thus gained an ascendency over their affections. Their whole conversation was about dresses, and carriages, and operas, and balls, and routs, and theatres. The mouth gave utterance to what was uppermost in the heart. Religion was a subject never adverted to; family worship, of course, never dreamed of. Sunday usually spent in frivolity in the park, in the season, in the morning; in dining out or giving dinners in the evening. Julia, the second daughter, alone seemed better disposed, but she was severely talked to by her mother.
Now why did not Miss Darway leave her situation, irksome as it must have been? The atmosphere around her ill suited her spiritual feelings: the conversation she was compelled to listen to, worse than unedifying. Why then did she remain? Another question must be asked-where was she to go? She had no friend to get her a situation. She was a stranger in London: her salary obtained, as we have seen, far from regularly paid, constituted her mother's chief support. There is perhaps no situation on earth which has a greater demand upon our sympathy than that of a delicate, sensitive, and highly cultivated young lady going out as a governess-leaving the home of her youth, and the affections of her family circle, to mix among strangers; to enter the house of another not altogether on equal terms; to have evil and morose tempers to contend with in parents and children. The marked coldness with which the governess or tutor in a family are often treated, has peculiarly disgusted me; and, I regret to say, have been grieved to witness it, not merely in families like the Hudsons, but those who made a loud profession of religion.
which should have induced her to take six lessons from those who profess thus shortly to turn crooked lines and illegible scratches into beautiful specimens of penmanship. Neither did she at all times agree with Johnson as to her orthography. She knew her deficiency, however, and Miss Darway was her amanuensis, and not unfrequently her adviser. And then, as I have said, Miss Darway paid great attention to the arrangement of the dinners, and made tea and coffee (there was no regular housekeeper in the establishment); and she had a good taste in dress, to which the good lady was devotedly attached. She would have been as much annoyed by Miss Darway's leaving, as poor Miss Darway would have been glad. But something more concerning the fire and the family and the governess must be reserved for another paper.
And yet Miss Darway was not without her good qualities even in Mrs. Hudson's estimation. She could compose a good letter, write a very beautiful hand, whereas the good lady's education was not by any means first rate. Her calligraphy was of a character
THE REMISSION OF SINS*.
FIRST of all, it will be expedient to look narrowly into the construction of the passage itself. Thereby we shall see whether there be any peculiarities in the form and order of our Saviour's expressions upon the present occasion, which, when compared with his manner of speaking to the apostles upon similar subjects and at other times, may enable us to decide whether he here intended to confer a general and permanent commission on all his ministers, or meant to give only a special and peculiar privilege to the apostles themselves.
Now it is obvious that there is a marked difference between the form of the declaration at present under review, and the three last verses of St. Matthew's gospel; in which, at a later period, our Lord gave a perpetual and universal command to baptize and teach, together with a promise to be always with his ministers in their work. In considering the structure of that passage, it is to be observed that the promise of aid follows the command to preach. Go, baptize and teach, "and"—that is, in your so doing-" I will be with you always." Thus, it is there implied, that the presence of Christ so promised, is dependent and consequent upon a due obedience to the command. An order the very reverse of this is introduced into the address which now engages our thoughts. Here there is, in the first place, an absolute communication of God's Spirit to be a guide to the apostles in their work; and then, after they have been so qualified, the nature of the work itself is pointed out. Thus it is intimated that the gift of divine inspiration was that which would entitle them to be entrusted with, and enable them to exercise properly, the power conferred; instead of their endeavour faithfully to perform the duty enjoined, entitling them to that divine assistance through which they would become able to fulfil it. In the one case our Lord speaketh on this wise: "All power is given unto me; therefore give I unto you the command and the authority to go and teach all nations. And if ye teach them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you, then and upon that condition will I also be with you, and assist you always with the fulness of that power which I have received." But in the case which we are now considering, he speaks to the following effect: "As my Father hath sent me, even so send I you. My Father hath sent me full of the Holy Ghost, to teach, to suffer for, to redeem, to sanctify, and to forgive the sins of the world. Now it is for the last of these my manifold offices—that is, for the forgiveness of sins, that I at this time give to you a special commission. And in order that ye may be duly qualified to administer this high authority according to the divine will, receive ye the Holy Ghost. I communicate to you that spirit of wisdom
• From "Benson's Temple Discourses."