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The candlestick is so completely removed—the pro- | in health, all the members must perform their office :

phetic warning of St. John so completely accomplished that the curious traveller may now walk over the ruins of Ephesus, and never meet a human countenance nor be able to distinguish between the ruins of churches and those of the great temple of Diana. And shall such an awful scene as this pass before our eyes without inspiring us with a holy zeal for our as yet favoured Zion? Can we trace the events which followed close upon the impenitence of the Ephesians, and not be convinced that the same judgments await us if we return not to our first love? Long may it be before we, leaving the simple truths of God's written word, fly to dispute upon the vain traditions of men. Far be removed from us that spirit of intolerance which would call before a synod of bishops and monks the patriarch or minister of another church, who differed with us upon some abstruse and unintelligible point of theology; but let us be assured that to such strivings and passions as these shall we, like the Ephesians, be left, if we forget the first impressioning, how much more is it in the case where we have to

if we are concerned for the security of our reformed church, we ought never to forget that we constitute a part of it, and therefore ought to be concerned for the security of our own souls. We should examine ourselves whether we be in the faith, and should remember the time when the love of Christ was first poured into our hearts. If by any vain and curious speculation we have wandered from the simple way of truth, we should retrace our footsteps back to the fold, for there alone is security; and as, if one member suffer, all the members suffer with it, so, if any one of us come short of the grace of God, and bring disgrace upon our Christian profession, the whole church to which we belong has to sustain the reproach. No one can think too highly of his own responsibility in this respect he ought to think, if he can, that the church of Christ itself is affected by his words and actions; and, if this be in some measure true of the meanest member of Christ's church, humanly speak

of a Saviour's love, and cleave not to his holy word. "All the mischief that has been done in the church," says Eusebius," has arisen from having had recourse to uninspired writings." The spirit of freedom in enquiry, God be thanked, will preserve us from these things; but that may be abused, and, getting beyond the proper limits of human enquiry, may equally bring us to an Ephesian council. But, my brethren, while we are thus addressing the members of Christ's church as established among us collectively, we should not forget that we are all individual members of it, and the whole is made up of its individual parts; and, that you may not be looking to the church to repent and do the first works, while you, the members of it, remain indifferent to your own spiritual condition, consider the exhortation and warning of St. John, as addressed to every one here present. If the body is to be kept

point out those who, by their station in life, are known and read of all men. It is impossible, my brethren, to overlook the great responsibility which resides in such congregations as constantly come together in this place; there is no calculating the influence which their conduct may have in the preservation or the destruction of the church of Christ. To many of you, we may say, much depends upon the manner you represent the religion of Jesus to a crowd of dependents, and those who look to your example. Forget not therefore to feed the church of God, over which, in some respects, ye are as overseers; but recollect that all labour will be in vain, and all attempts to stem the torrent useless, unless you fall back upon the love of Jesus, and do all things for his sake-not the church, and then Jesus, but Jesus, and then the church as it is established among us; and never let the warning of St. John and the awful example of Ephesus be absent from our view, that, unless we repent and do the works of love which are dictated by the virgin principle of purity, the Lord will remove even the light in which we rejoice for a season, and our homes will become desolate, and our beloved country, like the solitary Ephesus, a place for foxes to dwell in. Think not in the day of prosperity that we shall never be moved. Ephesus was the capital of the pro-consular Asia, the resort of all that was great and distinguished in that part of the east; and yet it is become as a desert, and a thousand years of desolation are already marked upon its plains. Let us never imagine that an overflowing population without the fear of God, a flourishing commerce without the divine protection, or a civilized legislation without Christianity, will be enough to maintain us in a palmy state of national wealth: in one short century the Lord can unpeople cities, destroy the stately ships, and bring to nought the assembly of law-givers, if his righteous judgment be despised. He has in his power the plague and the pestilence to unpeople the land, the enemy on all sides to destroy the weapons of war, and the violence of the multitude when he pleases to let it pour forth, to upset both kings and law-givers; and it ought never to be said, " Behold, we stand; we shall never be moved:" for they only stand fast who

The ruins of Ephesus belong to three distinct periods: the most remote is the age of Alexander the Great, for nothing except some of the walls appear to have escaped the ravages of

the great fire which took place at his birth. The second period is the Roman, when temples were raised to the honour of the Cæsars. The third is the age of decline, when Ephesus, becoming the seat of general councils, received the attention of the Greek emperors. Churches were built out of the ruins of baths, temples, and porticoes, and as an ecclesiastical city it flourished until the end of the sixth century; the ruins, therefore, are either Greek, Roman, or ecclesiastical, and it is not difficult to make the discrimination in examining them upon the spot. The Greek remains are found chiefly in the original line of walls and towers. The Roman and ecclesiastical are often blended together, exhibiting a fine material combined with coarse sculpture. The ancient city stood upon Mount Prion and the west portion of the Corissus, and occupied the narrow valley between them. The famous temple of Diana was built in the flat ground, about one quarter of a mile from the roots of Mount Prion (compare Pliny xxxvi. cap. 14, and Strabo, tem. ii. p. 909). On the spot corresponding to this distance, is an immense mass of ruins rising from out of the sedges. These ruins consist in masses of brickwork standing on foundations of stone, and appear to be the remains of a large church. Some buttresses, on which the arches apparently reposed, remain at their original distances, and there are indications of steps. The edifice has stood in a quadrangular enclosure, not unlike that which surrounded the metropolitan church at Patras. The conclusion is, that Justinian, or some of his successors, built a church upon the site of the great temple, and probably made se of the old materials. For the other ruins of Ephesus, see Qreece and the Levant, vol. ii. pp. 51-53.

do the works of God; and the city of Ephesus with its Christian church is our witness and our warning. Let us therefore, brethren, every one remember from whence we are fallen, and repent and do the first works; then shall we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, and contribute our portion to wards rendering our church and nation the joy and glory of the earth, which may the Lord defend and



SWEDEN.-CARLSTAD.-Sabbath is calculated in Norway and Sweden to begin, similar to the mode of the Jews, on Saturday, commencing at six o'clock at night, and ending at the same hour on the following evening. Thus, after the expiration of this hour, the inhabitants, like Romanists after their mass, indulge in every kind of amusement, and repair to the theatre. Having occasion to visit a family here on Sunday evening, how surprised I was, nay shocked, to see a minister of the church I heard a few hours before preach in it, sit down, deliberately and keenly engage in a game of whist! Was this, I ask, keeping the sabbath day holy, as all are commanded to do under the thunders of Sinai, and those denunciations of the God of heaven in commemoration of finishing his works and "resting on the seventh day;" besides, to keep alive the resurrection and ascension of the Prince of Life to the right hand of the Majesty on high? Compare this with the marked manner in which the Lord's day is so solemnly kept north of the Tweed, and where an act was passed by the Scottish parliament, expressly declaring that the clergy in that country who played cards, dice, or danced even on any day, should be deposed as altogether scandalous to the gospel.-Travels in Sweden and Norway, &c., by W. Rae Wilson.

ICELANDERS.-In stature the Icelanders are considerably above the middle height, and though not remarkably slight, I should say they were altogether a spare people. This only refers to the male part of the population, and may, perhaps, be attributed to their clothes fitting rather tight to their persons. The women, on the contrary, exhibit the reverse, and are rather plump. Both sexes are fair, but I was rather disappointed at finding that white hair, instead of being universal, is by no means as common as in Scotland and Denmark. The women keep their good looks longer than might be expected from the rudeness of the weather, and have a much livelier cast of countenance than the other sex. The men occasionally wear their hair long, but not so commonly as the Swedes; nor do I recollect more than two or three instances of the beard being allowed to attain a patriarchal length, though it is not at all unusual to see it verge towards it through neglect. In the character of the Icelanders I should say gloom prevailed to a great degree, and certainly the first impression on a stranger's mind will not be favourable to them. His patience will often be put to the test by their dilatory habits, and his temper will be further tried by their manners, many of which are very disgusting-such as transferring milk from one bottle to another through the medium of their mouths, and several other customs too offensive so be particularized; but he will find much honesty and wish to oblige, when it is in their power. Their hospitality should rather be measured by their wish, than their ability to treat guests well. Of pride they are by no means deficient; and they add to it a great degree of stubbornness, which they mistake for independence; and, though rarely warm, they are always courteous in their manner. As regards their intellect, they are above mediocrity, and

only want room to exercise their talents, which cannot be denied them, when we call to mind that the first living sculptor, Thorwalsden, is an Icelander.Dillon's Iceland.

CHANCEL BUILDING.-Bishop Griswold, in his address to the convention of the eastern diocese, that was recently held in Boston, speaking of St. Stephen's church, Providence, observes" I was pained in noticing the uncouth and inconvenient arrangement of

the chancel. I trust that none in this convention need being reminded of the absurdity of going back to the dark ages of Christianity for the models of our churches, or for the manner of worshipping in them, or of adopting any of the fooleries of ignorance and superstition. God requires us to act as rational beings, and not as idolatrous heathens. All the services should be performed in a place and manner the most commodious to the minister and people. Whether he preaches or prays, or administers the ordinances of Christ, he should be in the view of each and all of the congregation present. And in prayer it is quite as fitting that he should face them, as that they should face him. To turn from them to the communion table, implies the supposition that God is particularly present there, and sanctions the abominable doctrine of transubstantiation. God has promised to dwell in the hearts of his worshipping people, and Christ has expressly declared that, where a few of them are gathered together in his name, there he is in the midst of them. We are sure, then, that Christ is, by his Spirit, among the people; but we have no assurance that he is on the table, more than in any other part of the church. Our bodies are the temple of the Holy Ghost: but God has no visible representation on the earth, and forbids our making anyhis likeness is to be formed in our hearts. Let us not look back to Egypt, lest we perish in the wilderness.'"-American Episcopal Recorder.

IMPROVEMENT OF TIME.-The celebrated earl of Chatham performed an amount of business, even minute, which filled common improvers of time with utter astonishment. He knew, not merely the great outlines of public business, the policy and intrigues of foreign courts, but his eye was on every part of the British dominions and scarcely a man could move without his knowledge of the man and of his object. A friend one day called on him when premier of England, and found him down on his hands and knees, playing marbles with his little boy, and complaining bitterly that the rogue would not play fair; gaily adding, "that he must have been corrupted by the example of the French." The friend wished to mention a suspicious looking stranger, who, for some time, had taken up lodgings in London. Was he a spy, or merely a private gentleman? Pitt went to his drawer, and took out some scores of small portraits, and, holding up one which he had selected, asked, "Is that the man?" "Yes, the very person." "O! I have had my eye on him from the time he stepped on shore." All this was accomplished by a rigid observance of time, never suffering a moment to pass without pressing it into service. No one will try to improve his time, unless he first be impressed with the necessity. Remember that, at the very best calculation, we can have but a short time in which to learn all, and do all that we accomplish in life.Todd's Student's Manual.

London: Published by JAMES BURNS, 17 Portman Street, Portman Square: W. EDWARDS, 12 Ave Maria Lane, St. Paul's; and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Town and Country.



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DOES it never strike the mind of a Christian that there are some moments when all controversy should be hushed, and every thing tending to disturb the unity of the church particularly avoided? Are there not some seasons when a hallowed recess from the ordinary differences of feeling should be made among us, and every dispute silenced before the breath of universal prayer? Is there no authority demanding such a compact of devotion on special occasions; and, if so, are we not responsible for our observance of it? Alas! it is but too seldom that such reflections are made, and that responsibility of such a kind is felt. We live on, too much under a round of general convictions, arising from circumstances which are continually pressing themselves upon our attention; passing from day to day and from sabbath to sabbath in the midst of perpetually recurring duties; regarding ourselves too much as individuals, keeping only our individual observances, realizing only our individual responsibilities. We forget there are extraordinary occasions when this should cease, when, no longer detaching ourselves from the mass, we should unite in a common cause, breathing but one spirit, feeling but one duty. It is not difficult to observe this oneness in a worldly sense; for the multitude are always ready to join in schemes of carnal excitement: they are pleased with a public holiday and gratified by public licence. But we are now taking a higher estimate of the matter. There is a sanctifying influence upon the hearts of Christian men which softens down all the unevenness attending worldly-mindedness, and, supplying them with spiritual




[London: Joseph Rogerson. 24, Norfolk-street, Strand.]




life, throws a heavenly calm over every vicissitude. And, as this is true in general, so it is in particular-even upon such occasions as those here spoken of. But then it is too often an individual affection; it thrives separately rather than aggregately; it does not spread from one to the other in a current of sympathizing interestedness; it is not suffered to lie upon the heart of each, as if, link by link, it formed one great spiritual chain, binding all in lively fellowship and national communion. Yet such should be the case. We have our national as well as our individual duties, and we can no more escape from the one than the other.

It is often overlooked that a nation, though made up of many, is yet one; and that its affairs, though conducted by a part, induce yet the responsibility of the whole. Consistently with which, we find that national sins are visited by national judgments. Why, for instance, was cruel Saul given to the Jews? As a national curse, because they were dissatisfied with the government of God, and so committed a national sin. Why came a famine for three years in the land of Israel during the time of David? Because of Saul's cruelty to the Gibeonites, as the Lord said when David inquired of him-"It is for Saul, and for his bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites" (2 Sam. xxi. 1). Why came three days of pestilence in the reign of David? Because of the sins of Israel; for "the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, Go, number Israel and Judah" (2 Sam. xxiv. 1). Nor is there any thing to be wondered at in this treatment. God is pleased to regard a nation in the light


J. H. T.

of an individual moral agent, having respon- ness of knowing that the "shields of the sibilities of its own, which, if not religiously earth belong unto God," and therefore are discharged, need some corresponding punish-subjects of his especial care. ment and this punishment can only be inflicted in the present world, because in the world to come, unlike any other moral agent, it has ceased to exist. All this is sadly overlooked, and needs to be frequently enforced. But truly it is enforced daily. If we would but attend, there are more pathetic and powerful appeals to every one of us than any which paper can set forth. There is that which affects our own welfare-poverty, discontent, licentiousness, divisions-all that can speak to us through the organs of flesh and blood, and in letters of the most darkening reality.


These remarks have been occasioned by the late solemnity at St. George's chapel, Windsor, where the infant, who is at present heir to a mighty kingdom on earth, has been made the probationary heir of a far mightier one in heaven. It is that the blessings of this solemnity may be duly realized, which demands our national intercession. herein we may remember for our comfort that baptism is the Lord's ordinance, and therefore always has his approbation and good-will, his presence ever attending it. We need prayer for faith to apprehend more fully and rely more firmly upon this truth, that it may strengthen us in the future, when hope may else seem dark, and give us fresh zeal in continuing to offer up our incense to the Most High. We may depend upon it, a great deal of our spiritual weakness results from not sufficiently taking hold of our covenant promises. Let us endeavour to get rid of such faintness on the present occasion, for it is no ordinary privilege we enjoy. How much of our own happiness as a nation depends upon the spiritual welfare of this infant! Shortly he will have risen into manhood, if the Lord spare him to us; and then on the throne will he not be either a curse or a blessing? There can be no neutrality of influence in any station of life or sphere of action; much more there, where the former is so exalted and the latter so extensive. How great, then, should be our national exertions in the unseen agency of spiritual supplication, that this influence may be directed in the right way. The events of the times point most significantly to the future as pregnant with many trials. He will need much support from on high. O how delightful if but one pulse would beat through the people, warm with a burning emotion of true Christian loyalty! How imposing the thought of their acting, as it were, a sponsor to this child! Without doubt we ought to do so. Let us act up to our duty then, remembering the importance


Curate of Brixton Deverill, Wilts.

No. III.

IT is often said, "it is an easy matter to talk of

unity, but it is what never was or can be in the Christian church." This is not true; for there was a time when a real and solid union existed among the apostles and other believers of the early Christian church. The apostles "were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God" (Luke xxiv. 53). Here was no disunion,but sweet and joint fellowship and com

low our own will rather than the commands of Jeho

munion with Christ their Lord and Saviour, and with disposition we should imbibe. Again, "These all one another; and their peaceful temper and heavenly continued with one accord in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren" (Acts i. 14). "And, when the day of pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place" (Acts ii. 1). When their numbers had increased to 3,120,"They continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers" (Acts ii. 42). And, when they had increased 5,000, "the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one soul" (Acts iv. 32). Here they were all of one mind and one practice; here was nothing like the scheme called comprehension, so much talked of by dissenters, which is an agreement to unite, yet allowing every one to follow his own ways. This would indeed be unity without uniformity, essence without existence, mere words and notions, and nowhere to be found in nature. This would be to exalt humour and caprice above God's law and reason and justice, to folvah, and to make religion consist wholly in interest. Because it leaves men to act as they please, it must necessarily form a system or systems exclusive of certain parts, and in some instances of the whole, of truth; it almost always makes a dead letter of scripture. Sectarianism seldom embraces the whole some part of living inspiration; it forms a kind of apocrypha within the inspired canon; and it always looks with suspicion and dismay on those parts of Well might the primitive Christians and early fathers God's word which thwart its plans and its fancy. of the church abhor and detest the awful sin of schism, which they declared excludes from the kingdom of heaven: "They that do such things shall not inherit his eleventh sermon on Matt. xii. 32, makes schism the kingdom of God" (Gal. v. 21). St. Augustine, in the sin against the Holy Ghost, which shews how heinous it was considered in his time. Scriptural unity then is more than comprehension, or mere assent affection, discipline, worship, and communion. Otherto unite: it is unity in the faith; it is unity in action, wise the Novations and Donatists would have been one, as they professed the same faith, while they differed in discipline. The Christian church is a com

munion (1 John i. 3, 6, 7); and is shown to be so from her eucharistic communion (1 Cor. x. 17). To

preserve this communion inviolate, prayer must be

made to the Holy Spirit for purification of heart, and

the extinction of all pride and self-will. It was a principle among the Romans, a brave and wise sacrifice their private enmities and quarrels to the people-donare inimicitias reipublicæ―to give up and

of our own responsibilities, and the blessed-public good, and the safety of the commonwealth.

And nothing can maintain the church of God amongst | last hour of the Jewish church, or it is the last disus, but such conduct among ourselves (see abp. Tillotson's works, fol. ed., vol. i., p. 175).


Now, taking the divine scriptures for our guide, do
they teach us to consider schism as a good or an evil?
Certainly as an evil; and it may be safely considered
an exotic, for Christ said, "Every plant which my
heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up"
(Matt. xv. 13). The propagators of schism and false
doctrine are "withered branches" (John xv. 6);
"false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming
themselves into the apostles of Christ;" they are
"false brethren” (2 Cor. xi. 13, 26); "false prophets"
(Matt. vii. 15); "false brethren unawares brought
in" (Gal. ii. 4); and "grievous" and "ravening
wolves" (Acts xx. 29; Matt. vii. 15). Sects are pieces
cut off, and, like rays of light separated from the sun,
they soon become extinct. As a stream cut off from
any connexion with its source, they at last fail. The
history of the Christian church teaches us this lesson.
The numerous sects that existed in former times have
passed away, and many have scarcely left their name
behind them. And the present state of dissent in
this country affords a powerful and instructive warn-
ing to every reflecting Christian. The state also of
the churches abroad, which at the reformation over-
looked scriptural truth, and disregarded that apos-
tolicity to which our national church so wisely ad-
hered, reminds us of the same fact. "At first they
looked flourishing and green, but how are they now?
Are they not withered and dead? And is not the
poison of Socinianism, or semi-infidelity, corroding
even their withered substance? And what is the
state of dissent in this country? Where are all the
old nonconformist churches which once looked so flou-
rishing and green? The Eclectic Review' (Feb. 1832,
p. 109) tells us, that out of 258 old nonconformist
ehurches, no less than 235 of them are now withered
and dead-now unitarian or Socinian. And what are
the remaining twenty-three, but mere
'fossils of so-
ciety?' And look at the state of the independent
societies at the present moment; are they not, as a
dissenter justly remarks, in a position the most un-
desirable to a well-ordered mind? (Remarks, &c. p.
9). There are, to be sure, some exceptions, but then
what guarantee is there for their continuing in their
present state?" (Letters by L. S. E., p. 124.)

pensation); and, as ye have heard that antichrist shall
come, even now are there many antichrists (persons in
opposition to Christ); whereby we know that it is the
last time. They went out from us, but they were not of
us; for, if they had been of us, they would no doubt
have continued with us; but they went out, that they
might be made manifest that they were not all of us"
(1 John ii. 18, 19). Where the apostle expressly af-
firms that they went out from them, i. e., forsook the
Christian assemblies; by which he proves that they
were not of them, i. e., that they did not belong to the
same body and society, but had entertained such doc-
trines as were destructive to the Christian faith; for
otherwise they would not have separated from the
Christian church. Now this necessarily supposes that
Christian communion is so indispensable a duty, that
no man can carelessly separate from the Christian
church, without at least bringing his Christianity into
question; that nothing can reasonably tempt men to
a separation, but their renouncing some great article
of the Christian faith; nor can any thing justify a se-
paration, but such corruptions as destroy the faith
once delivered to the saints: for otherwise there had
been no force in the apostle's argument to prove that
they were corrupt in the faith from their separation
(see the Introduction to Dr. Sherlock's practical dis-
course of religious assemblies.)

Schism, which is a great sign of carnality (1 Cor.
iii. 3) is excused in some measure by certain dis-
senters, who say it does not mean actual separation into
distinct communions. Dr. Owen earnestly contends
that it signifies no more than division and contention
among the members of the same church, without the
breach of church communion; and therefore separatists"
are not properly schismatics. But I do not know
what he gains by this, when separation in the apostles'
days was looked upon as a much greater evil than
schism, and that none but heretics, or apostates from
the truth of Christian doctrine, were in those days
guilty of it. That there were divisions from the church
in the apostles' days we learn from St. Paul's epistle
to Timothy: "For of this sort are they which creep
into houses (no doubt to hold secret and illegal meet-
ings), and lead captive silly women laden with sins,
led away with divers lusts, ever learning, and never
able to come to the knowledge of the truth. Now as
Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these
also resist the truth; men of corrupt minds, reprobate
concerning the faith" (2 Tim. iii. 6, 7, 8). They op-
posed themselves against the apostles of Christ, who
were the only teachers, with those they appointed, of
the true religion; and were that to the Christian
church which Moses was to the Jews; which plainly
signifies that they set themselves up against the apos-
tles, and gathered churches in opposition to them.
Of such separatists St. John speaks, whom he calls
antichrists. "Little children, it is the last time (the

If dissenters say they are not schismatics, which they do (see T. Binney's "Dissent not Schism”), on what scriptural grounds do they justify their being separatists? Truly they are in a dilemma, as well as the Romish separatists. Only error in fundamentals, gross superstition and idolatry, can justify separation. But our church is free from these evils, which, as the "Eclectic Review" says, "it cannot be denied, professes the life-giving doctrines of the gospel, favours every great principle rescued from Rome by the reformers, and puts into the lips of the people a language of devotion unrivalled in majesty, beauty, propriety, and comprehension" (Dec. 1829). Lack of ministers, deficiency of the means of grace, and the abuse of the ministration of holy things, and the scandal occasioned thereby, do not justify division; for faithful and pious adherence to the church would rectify these and all other evils: it would enforce discipline, discipline would correct abuses, and correction would effect reform. But carry out dissent, of whatever kind it may be, into practice: it issues in endless divisions, creates confusions, and makes men infidels!" Dissent is a sort of outlet from the fertilizing river of Christianity into the dead sea of infidelity" (Preface to Letters by L. S. E.). "Our dissent," says the "Eclectic Review," is itself fraught with dissent, and breaks and breaks again into distinct masses, as often as any excitement, local or general, puts the body in motion" (Sept. 1831, p. 192). Had Phinehas retired from the church, the plague would not have ceased. Had our blessed Lord retired from the temple service, because the place was polluted by selling doves and changing money, he would have allowed imperfections and abuses to have remained. But, elevating his zeal to the occasion, he made " a whip of small cords," and corrected their desecrations (see Budd's Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles, pp. 205-207). It would be well to follow the advice of Ignatius to the Philadelphians: "As becomes children of light and of truth, flee divisions and false doctrines; for, where the shepherd is, there do ye as sheep follow him."

Now it would appear that the different sects among the Jews did not separate into distinct assemblies for worship, but all worshipped at the temple; as even the Christian Jews did while the temple stood, as it appears from what happened to St. Paul at Jerusalem, the last time he went thither (Acts xxi. 20, 24); yet they were distinguished by different opinions, rights, usages, and schools; and, which is usually the effect

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