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Then, again, whether the organ be good or bad, if the organist is unequal to its skilful management, and that too with sufficient ease to allow him to devote his attention principally to the subject matter, the religious usefulness of his accompaniment becomes very problematical.
The worst conceivable case is that of a vile, discordant, and crazy instrument, in the hands of a contemptible and unskilful organist, accompanying a graceless band of ignorant and vain-glorious singers, in the attempted execution of music beyond the ability of one or the other to perform with decent propriety. In such a case, no matter what the style of music adopted, devotion is out of the question.
The last circumstance which I shall mention, as militating against the prosperousness of legitimate church music, is one which must be touched with much tenderness: I mean the frequent meddling and painful interference with the musical department, on the part of men who yet frequently avow their entire unacquaintance with even the rudiments of the science, and who, notwithstanding, would fain exercise the same control over the music of the church as they claim over the details of their own dining-tables. If a man involved in an important law-suit were to call in the aid of counsel, would he dream of dictating to him the steps to be taken, or the pleas to be urged? Or if a sick man were to call in the aid of a physician, would he insist upon prescribing his own medicine? If he were so to act, the general sense of mankind would condemn him. And why does it not in the case of church music? Simply because the interests involved are not so obviously direct and tangible.
tell that bear that I serve no longer." This leads to change, and change is itself an evil. New men, new measures; and although the change may be eventually for the better, yet, for a while at least, congregational singing will be put back. Nevertheless, in some instances, change cannot be too sweeping ere any improvement be attempted.
Here let us close the catalogue of depressing influences; for, although still more might have been mentioned, more than enough have been adduced to account most satisfactorily for the present miserable condition of church music generally.
The main question now naturally comes before us. What shall be done to produce amendment? The answer is obvious. As far as practicable, remove the causes of the evil.
Secure judicious and efficient men to take the lead in this important department-men of religious principle as well as scientific attainments; and grudge not an adequate compensation for their services. Numbers of such men will gradually be raised up, if but the proper opening and call be made for them. Where the possession of both these qualifications, religious character and artificial skill, is so essential to the proper discharge of the duty, it is difficult to decide which is the most necessary. Certain it is that piety will not make a man a scientific musician, and equally so that proficiency in music does not necessarily imply devout affections. Happy would it be for us, were these attributes more commonly combined. But perfection is not to be attained in this sublunary would. The tares will continue to grow with the wheat until the time of harvest.
Some good, however, may perhaps be done by the adoption of a more solemn mode of investing the musical officers of a church, than the undignified process of a simple hiring. Of old, there appears to have been a form when the chaunter of any place was chosen, almost approaching to the solemnity of an ordination. The charge prescribed for such occasions by the fourth council of Carthage ran thus, "Vide ut quod ore cantas, corde credas; et quod corde credas, opere comprobes. See that thou believe with thine heart what thou singest with thy mouth; and that what thou believest in thine heart, thou carry out in thy walk and conversation." It will be well if this can be rendered the prevailing sentiment of those who undertake the management of church music, although no such solemn charge have been administered to them on their induction to office. This point gained, or something as near to it as circumstances will permit, the other details to be attended to, are the number and the kind of tunes employed, and the quality of the accompaniment. As to the latter, if an organ be admitted, let it be a good one, capable of conveying the impress of mind and feeling, and of guiding and governing the voices of a multitude. Such an instrument, in good hands, will do much towards exciting the musical affections and sensibilities of the people, and directing them into proper channels.
Sometimes the dictatorial interference complained of is exercised by men "clothed in a little brief authority," and sometimes by officious but non-official members of a congregation. In any case it is vexatious and mischievous in its operation. The performance of public duty with that degree of tranquillity and self-possession which it demands, is under such circumstances impracticable. The querulous and snarling censures of perhaps half a dozen ill-conditioned members of a congregation, and more especially the occasional preposterous exhibition of authority on the part of a clergyman, a vestryman, or an elder, must disturb and unsettle the mind of any man composed of materials less susceptible of impression than flint or granite. Organists and musical conductors have feelings as well as other men, a fact sometimes overlooked: nay, it may be that, from the very nature of their pursuits, keeping the nervous system in a state of continual excitement, they are peculiarly sensitive. Let it be remembered that, although they are the servants of the church, they are not the servants of every individual member of that body; that, in attempting to carry out the views of one, they will almost certainly incur the censure of another portion; and that nothing will more infallibly tend to offend all in turn, than a plastic, time-serving, men-pleasing disposition, yielding to every breath of popular opinion, and acting upon no settled principle. If a charge be committed to them, therefore, let them execute it in peace, to the extent of their respective abilities, so long as they may be retained in office; but, for pity's sake, torment them not. They are confessedly a genus irritabile," an excitable race; and if he who was "meek and lowly of heart" could speak of king Herod, "Go, tell that fox," it ought not to occasion surprise if a musician, worried and provoked beyond ordinary endurance, should at length exclaim, "Go, grating grinding of a trumpery (so called) organ; the compass of which extended to ten what were once tunes, but all more or less dilapidated. The effect on our nervous system was most painfully distressing, but it was the gift of some
grandees of the congregation, and its removal, poor groaning cally upon the proper structure of psalm and hymn It is no part of my present plan to write techni
creature, would have been an insult.-ED.
With respect to the tunes, and to the metres also, they should be, in the present state of society, comparatively few, and carrying a full harmony throughout, so as to encourage all the people to sing at all times during the psalmody. The number of tunes in the Moravian church is very considerable; but that circumstance cannot be drawn into example for us, unless we adopt their habits as a frequent churchgoing people. In their settlements I believe they attend services in the chapel (some of which consist entirely of liturgical singing) once or twice every day throughout the year, and on Sundays and festivals much more frequently. Thus their tunes are, as it were, ever on their lips.
half enlightened; so the believer is perfectly justified, but sanctified only in part; his one half, his flesh, is dark: and, as the partial illumination is the reason of so many changes in the moon, to which changes the sun is not subject at all, so the imperfection of a Christian's holiness is the cause of so many waxings and wanings, and of the great inequality in his performances, whereas in the meanwhile his justification remains constantly like itself. This is imputed-that inherent. The light of sanctification must begin in the understanding, and from thence be transferred to the affections, the inferior parts of the soul, and from thence break forth and shine into action. This then is the nature of the duties "arise and shine."-Archbishop Leighton, Sermon on Christ the Light and Lustre of the Church.
tunes; but I will observe thus much, that all duett or solo passages are out of keeping with the legitimate character and design of congregational singing. Let the melody be simple (the tune of the old hundredth psalm is a fair type) and the harmony be studiously correct, so that no offence be given even to a fastidious critic.
At the same time, in order to foster and keep alive music of a higher order, let the choir be encouraged to cultivate and to exhibit their gifts in the performance of anthems and set pieces, praising the Lord "in the beauty of holiness," and seeking to excel that they may edify the church. Thus may the highest talent be again consecrated to its legitimate use, and " make his praise to be glorious."
Further, let the people be instructed in their duty. I do not mean by this that they should be assem bled for musical practice. In the machinery and working of so-called singing schools, I see little or no utility whatever. They are at all events perfectly unnecessary. Under favouring auspices, if the people would but make the attempt, the advancement of congregational singing, though gradual, would be certain, without having any recourse to such fatiguing exereises. Where there is a good organ, every man, woman, and child should be encouraged to try to sing. No particular voice would or could be distinguished, and the full tide of harmony would force into its current those few who might otherwise find themselves unable to sing the tune steadily. The effect would be inconceivably grand, impressive, and sublime; and would more than amply repay the effort. Let false pride and delicacy then be cast aside, and let us unite in loudly celebrating the praises of our crucified Redeemer.
"Let the people praise thee, O God! yea, let all the people praise thee."
How else can we expect the fulfilment of the promise?" Then shall the earth bring forth her ingrease; and God, even our own God, shall give us his blessing."
THE LUSTRE OF THE CHURCH.-What is meant when the church is commanded to "shine," or "be enlightened?" These two readings give the entire sense of the word; for first, having no light of herself, she must receive light, and then show it-first be enlightened, and then shine. She is enlightened by Christ the Sun of righteousness shining in the sphere of the gospel. This is that light that comes to her, and the glory of the Lord that arises upon her. Hence she receives her laws and forms of government; and her shining is, briefly, the pure exercise of those and conformity to them. And the personal shining of the several members of a church is a comely congruity with pure worship and discipline, and it is that which now is most needful to be urged. Every Christian soul is personally engaged first to be enlightened, and then to shine; and we must draw our light for ourselves from that same source that furnishes the church with her public light. There is a word in the civil law, "the wife shines by the rays of her husband's light." Now every faithful soul is espoused to Christ, and therefore may well shine, seeing the Sun himself is their husband. He adorns them with a double beauty of justification and sanctification; by that they shine more especially to God-by this to men. And may not these too be signified by a double character given to the spouse in Cant. vi. 20?" she is fair as the morn, and clear as the sun." The lesser light is that of sanctification, "fair as the morn"; that of justification the greater, by which she is "clear as the sun." The sun is perfectly luminous, but the moon is but
A FRIEND BURIED AT SEA.
BY MRS. WOOLLEY.
(For the Church of England Magazine.) AT sea, beneath the rolling wave,
Far from thine own once happy home, Thou sleepest in thy watery grave,
Amid the storm and billow's foam.
The green turf covers not thy breast;
No friends convey'd thee to the tomb; Yet dost thou sweetly take thy rest In the vast ocean's cavern'd gloom.
Asleep in Jesus-'tis as well
In the unfathom'd deep to lie, As where thy dearest kindred dwell, Beneath thy much lov'd native sky.
Soon shall the mandate from the skies Command the sea to yield its dead; Immortal, thou shalt then arise
From thy low, cheerless, liquid bed.
8, Brompton Row.
THE MARINER'S HYMN.
BY MRS. SOUTHEY. LAUNCH thy bark, mariner! Christian, God speed thee! Let loose the rudder-bandsGood angels lead thee! Set thy sails warily,
Tempests will come; Steer thy course steadily, Christian, steer home.
Look to the weather-bow,
Shallows may ground thee.
"What of the night, watchman?
What of the night?" "Cloudy-all quiet
No land yet-all's right." Be wakeful, be vigilant;
Danger may be
At an hour when all seemeth
How gains the leak so fast? Clean out the holdHoist up thy merchandize, Heave out thy gold ;There-let the ingots go
Now the ship rights: Hurra! the harbour's nearLo, the red lights!
Slacken not sail yet
At inlet or island; Straight for the beacon steer, Straight for the high land; Crowd all thy canvass on,
Cut through the foamChristian, cast anchor nowHeaven is thy home!
THE WORLD AND THE VOLUPTUARIES Thereof. "The end of these things is death."-In the year 1792, Sheridan lost his wife, whom we can never help fancying to have been of a nature too truly refined for him; and in 1795, being then in his forty-fourth year, he married his second, Miss Ogle, daughter of a dean of Winchester, a lady "young and accomplished, and ardently devoted to him"-so fascinating is the fame and wit, and the power of enlivening the present moment. Miss Ogle brought him a fortune also of five thousand pounds; and with this sum, and fifteen thousand more, "which he contrived," says his biographer," to raise by the sale of Drury Lane shares," an estate was bought in Surrey, where he was to live in love and happiness, till drink and his duns could endure it no longer; for, alas! he had long been in difficulties, but knew not how to retreat. A certain show of prosperity seemed to be necessary to him, to convince his unspiritual soul of the presence of any kind of happiness; and thus, through perpetual show and struggle, and every species of ingenious, eloquent, and, it is feared, degrading shift-helping his party occasionally with a promising effort, but gradually degenerating into a useless, though amusing speaker; familiarly joked at by the public, admired but disesteemed by his friends, seeing his theatrical property come to worse than nothing in his hands, without energy or perhaps power to retrieve himself by his pen, secretly assailed by disease, and at last threatened by every kind of domestic discomfort—this unhappy and brilliant man dragged out a heavy remainder of existence, between solaces that made him worse, and a loyalty to his prince which did him no good. He died near a dying wife, amidst the threats of bailiffs, and forsaken by that prince, and by all but his physician and a few poet friends (God bless the imagination that leaves men in possession of their hearts!), on Sunday, the 7th July, 1816, in Saville-row, Burlington Gardens, and in the sixty-fifth year of his age. When his accounts were settled, it was a surprise to every body to find for how comparatively small a sum improvidence had rendered him insolvent. His death should never be mentioned without adding the name
of his physician (Dr. Bain), Mr. Rogers, Mr. Thomas Moore, and Lord Holland, as those of his last and, we believe, only comforters. It is a remarkable and painful instance of the predominance of the conventional and superficial in his feelings, even when they were most strongly and deeply excited, that, after going through life with apparently a laughing carelessness as to troubles far from humiliating, he bursts into tears, and complained of his "person" being "degraded," because a bailiff had touched him. That word "person" expresses all.-Leigh Hunt's Biographical Sketch.
THE LAMAS OF SIBERIA.-(Scene-The principal temple.)-Andantes alternated with Allegros; end, during a transient pause, one of the lamas, from the upper end of the temple, descended its whole length with a hurried step, and, dipping his hand in a plate, presented each of the numerous priests who assisted, with a handful of corn, which they afterwards threw up into the air, as soon as the music and singing recommenced. The chief altar at the upper end was decorated with candles made of butter (which are a votive offering from the faithful), as well as with flowers and other objects formed of the same substance. The idol, Tschegelmuneh, with other deities, Besides is suspended in the midst of these candles. the usual bason of holy water at the foot of the altar, there was a larger one filled with corn, which has no virtue in it unless a plantain-seed be introduced. The priests, as they passed before this altar in long procession, made a low bow to it, touched the bason last-mentioned with their foreheads, and were presented by the high priest, who was seated, with a second handful of corn. The people stood, during the service, at the lower end of the temple along the wall; the females being attired in robes of blue silk, and decorated with handsome beads of malachite, and mother-of-pearl across the forehead. Both sexes kept their hands clasped. Behind the altar hangs a curtain, which conceals a closet, where the sacred books, manuscripts, and single leaves are preserved between two boards, and folded up in variegated cloth. The interior of the temple is adorned with an immense profusion of peacocks' feathers, tigers' and leopards' skins, elephants' teeth, and hundreds of boards: these last are suspended from the ceiling, and are carved and rudely painted in imitation of the human face, with a single round eye in the forehead, and a quantity of ribbons streaming down from the chin. A large paper cylinder, decorated with ribbons, inscribed with Tungusian prayers, and turning round on a shaft, stands in the vestibule at the entrance into the temple. Those who cannot read, when they quit the sacred edifice, turn the cylinder round, and is equivalent to the recital of a prayer. In one of the occasion it to strike certain bells-a ceremony which travellers saw a large car, in which Tschegelmuneh's numerous chapels which surround the temple, the mother may take an airing round the building. Seven wooden horses, of a green colour and of very superior workmanship, are yoked in a single row to this vehicle. The centre steed is of the size of life; but the others decrease gradually on either side, and the outermost are not more than a fourth of that size. impressive. On taking leave of the chamba-lama, the Dr. E. describes the Tibetian rites as being extremely pontiff desired him to convey his greeting to the emperor of the Russias, and to assure him that the Buof their capabilities.-Frofessor Ermun's Travels. ractes fervently prayed for him, to the utmost extent.
London: Published by JAMES BURNS, 17, Portman Street, Portman Square; W. EDWARDS, 12, Ave-Maria Lane, St. Paul's; and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Town and Country.
JOSEPH ROGERSON, 24, NORFOLK STREET, STRAND, LONDON.
OF the various duties incumbent upon each of us as individuals who must hereafter give an account of our stewardship, there is none
We may for a short season, in the brigh sunshine of life, when health beams in the countenance-when the endeared ties of affection remain unbroken, and all around pre
of greater importance than that of self-sents a summer's sky-we may then feel a examination. At the same time it is too kindred spirit animate us, and, in the full enobvious that this duty is the one of all joyment of the present, a thought of the future, others from which the mind of most men nay, even the voice of gratitude to the Giver either shrinks altogether, or, if entertained, of all these good gifts, is often a stranger to it is but as a single ray which only ren- us. But a change is soon visible in the landders the surrounding darkness visible. By scape: the sun withdraws his beams, the eveself-examination, however, I would be un- ning closes in, the chill of night is felt, and derstood to mean an enquiry entered upon we are alone amid the darkness. Then it is with deep humility, and with an earnest de- the heart looks within for relief, but no solace sire to be conformed to the will of God, un- is there; it is a stranger to itself: we desire der the guidance and teaching of his Holy to shut out reflection, but past scenes are in Spirit. Actuated by other motives, we may review before us; the future inspires but terindeed, after the example of the pharisee, re- ror, as we shrink from the handwriting that flect with a degree of complacency upon our- flashes across our path; and thus "the heart selves when compared with others, or upon feels its own bitterness" until our very weaour works when viewed in our own light; but riness in broken slumber finds a friend. we should do well to remember that "the light This too is over; but does the dawn arise of the body is the eye; if therefore our eye with healing in his wings? Can we enter be single, our whole body shall be full of upon another day without a thought of the light, but, if our eye be evil, our whole past? Let the heart of each answer the inbody shall be full of darkness." The quiry. Such, reader, is the melancholy posiquestion then naturally arises, why is it tion of every unrenewed mind, for "the nathat we are thus averse to hold com- tural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit munion with ourselves? Either we do not of God (the Comforter), neither can he know admit its necessity, or, if we do, we know them, because they are spiritually discerned." that the result would only bring a cloud across our path-a cloud which we fear to look upon, and will not use the proffered means to dispel. Thus we slumber and sleep, our affections given up to this world, and we close our ears to the voice that would warn us of our danger, and foretell a happy change: "Awake,
If, however, we would have a good hope to realise the promises held out to us in the word of God, we must look to that word for our guide in this, as in every act of life, under the teaching of his Holy Spirit, and we then find the duty of self-examination clearly set before us. I select the following passages:
thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead," Examine yourselves whether ye be in the and Christ shall give thee light." faith; prove yourselves. Know ye not your
VOL. XII.-NO. CCCXXXIX.
[London Joseph Rogerson, 24, Norfolk-str
CHURCH OF ENGLAND MAGAZINE.
ownselves, how that Jesus Christ is in you except ye be reprobates" (2 Cor. xiii. 5.)?" Let every man prove his own work, and then shall he have rejoicing in himself alone, and not in another; for every man shall bear his own burden" (Gal. vi. 4, 5). Again," Let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup” (1 Cor. xi. 28).
He therefore that despiseth, despiseth not man, but God, and rejects that rule which he has mercifully given for our guidance, and which, if improved, would draw us more and more closely to himself. And, if we thus shun his warning voice on earth, how shall we stand before God in the day of judgment, when every one shall receive according to his works? Whatever may be our position in life, our talents, our fancied independence, we are alike ignorant of ourselves and of that peace of mind which the renewed mind enjoys, and which this world can neither give nor take
Would we then have God our Father, Christ our Redeemer, the Holy Spirit our Sanctifier, in this our earthly tabernacle, and know that when dissolved we have a mansion, not made with hands, eternal in the heavens, we must examine ourselves in deep humility, whether we be in the faith, whether we experience the holy influence of the indwelling Spirit of God, whether we are daily pressing towards the mark for the prize of our high calling in Christ Jesus, whether our hearts burn within us when we reflect upon his revealed word, whether our prayers to the throne of grace are the prayers of who worships in spirit and in truth. And, if we are sincere in thus working out our own salvation in fear and trembling, "looking unto Jesus as the author and finisher of our faith," we cannot look in vain; but shall, sooner or later, have the happy assurance that "it is God that worketh in us both to will and to do of his good pleasure," and that, though "of ourselves we can do nothing,' we can do all things through Christ that strengtheneth us." I say, sooner or later; for, as in the natural, so in the spiritual world, seed-time and harvest do not come together. We have "first the blade, then the ear, and afterwards the full corn in the ear;" and the promise is not that we shall immediately find fruit, but " in due season we shall reap, if we faint not." Our faith must be tried; and when this due season may arrive is known only to him "who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will" (Eph. i. 11).
THE CHURCH THE HARBINGER OF LIGHT*.
To enlighten a benighted world, in the highest and most comprehensive sense of the term, is the end and object for which a church was founded, and a ministry ordained. The methods of illumination are various, comprising all the processes which God himself has appointed, or human reason, enlightened by his Spirit, has suggested, for imparting divine knowledge, and making it effectual to its ends; the reading and preaching of God's word; the dispensing of his holy sacraments; the rites of public worship-all these are parts and features of the work.
To bring sinners out of the darkness of ignorance or corruption; to open their eyes to the marvellous light of the gospel; to make plain and obvious the path of duty, the motives to walk therein, and the means of doing so; this it is to be the light of the world. This is the duty of the church universal, and of every branch thereof, and of every one of its ministers. In proportion as they are faithful in the discharge of his duty they are useful and honourable, and, by their Master's express promise of nobility," great in the kingdom of heaven" (Matt. v. 19): but in so far as they neglect it, they lose all claim to esteem and respect, and are justly disregarded and despised: "if the salt have lost its savour, it is thenceforth good for noof men" (Matt. v. 13). This is true of churches and of ministers, if they lose sight of the most important of their functions, that of enlightening the world by means of the word of truth; still more if they stu
thing but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot
diously, and of design, depreciate and keep back and obscure that word; not absolutely extinguishing it (for that they cannot do), but concealing it as much as they can from the people, and substituting some ends of their institution; they may dazzle, but will other light for the true light. They then defeat the o not enlighten; instead of dispersing the darkness, they do but render it more permanent and hopeless.
portion of the Christian church.
Such, for a season, was the condition of the largest The light of an stick-first beside, and then instead of, the pure word imaginary tradition was placed on the golden candleof God, which was kept in a dark place, to be contemplated only in glimpses, and that through a dis
torting medium. Yet still the light was there; and the church was still its depository, though for a time
not its faithful dispenser; and, in the periods of its
greatest obscuration, gleams and flashes of brightness burst forth in different churches, our own amongst the rest, betokening the purity of their almost unknown and unvisited source, and giving omen of a coming time when the eclipse should terminate, and the world be again gladdened with the light of the perfect day. It is not to be forgotten, that, even during the continuance of that darkness which has given its name to a large portion of the middle ages, the church was still "the light of the world," dim and imperfect and insufficient as that light might be. The truth of God was overlaid with unwarranted additions; did not rightly value nor faithfully use the precious his worship encumbered with superstition; the church
deposit with which it was intrusted; but it never renounced, nor relinquished, nor lost it. Although another supreme head was substituted for Jesus Christ, his laws were not formally abrogated. The fundamental verities of religion were never denied, nor kept wholly out of sight: the creeds, which embodied them, were ever amongst the church's formularies: the doctrine of a Trinity in unity, of an atonement wrought by the incarnate Son of God, of the Holy Spirit helping our infirmities, of the necessity of per
* From "The Light of the World:" a sermon preached on Sunday, January 30, 1842, when his majesty the king of Prussia attended divine service in the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. By Charles James, lord bishop of London. Published in obedience to his majesty's desire. London, Fellowes.