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and God bids me seek not high things for myself. On dress? then I am vain, and not lowly in heart. On my attainments or my excellences? then I am proud; and him God beholdeth afar off. Are my thoughts ever on business, on the money, on the merchandize, or the markets of the world? as I think in my heart, so am I-an earth-worm, without an eye for celestial blessings or pinions for soaring. But if, on the other hand, my conscience bears witness that my thoughts are often busied with themes of most worth; that I ponder the truths of the bible, and muse on the love of a crucified Saviour, and the glories of the other and better world why then may I humbly hope that as I think in my heart, so am I; that the truths I delight to dwell on are written on my heart; that the Saviour I meditate on hath washed me with his blood; and the heaven I love to picture is the home of my eternity.
Judge yourselves, brethren, that ye be not judged of the Lord. Know how you are minded, and if it be so that the creature hath those hopes, and those longings, and that love which of very right belong to the Creator, why then decide of yourselves that as you think in your heart; so are you--you think most of earth, and are carnally minded. And this is death: and this death hath a worm, and a charnel-house, and a funeral fire. The worm-it is one that cannot die; the fire-it is that which is not quenchable.
Take warning, well-beloved, and examine your thoughts: let it not be that the day of the winding-up of all things should be the day which discovers you to yourselves, lest the day of the winding-up of all things should be the last of your comfort. But why do we mention these things? Why, when addressing an assembly of whom we fear many are carnally-minded, do we speak of a second death, with its worm that cannot die, and its fire that is not quenched? Is it that we may startle, and shock your hearts? No: we would not speak of your danger, were it not that we know of a way of escape, by faith in the Lord Jesus Christ; we would break not the quiet of your hearts for a moment, were it not to win for you the peace of an eternity.
AT the first view of these walls, I was led to the persuasion that the lower portions had belonged to the ancient temple; and every subsequent visit only served to strengthen this conviction. The size of the stones and the heterogeneous character of the walls, render it a matter beyond all doubt, that the former were never laid in their present places by the Mohammedans; and the peculiar form in which they are hewn does not properly belong, so far as I know, either to Saracenic or to Roman architecture. Indeed
every thing seems to point to a Jewish origin; and a discovery which we made in the course of our examination reduces this hypothesis to an absolute certainty.
I have already related, in the preceding section, that during our first visit to the S. W. corner of the area of the mosk, we observed several of the large first sight seemed to be the effect of a bursting of the stones jutting out from the western wall, which at wall from some mighty shock or earthquake. We paid little regard to this at the moment, our attention being engrossed by other objects; but, on mentioning found that they also had noticed it, and the remark the fact not long after in a circle of our friends, we was incidentally dropped, that the stones had the appearance of having once belonged to a large arch. At this remark a train of thought flashed upon my mind, which I hardly dared to follow out until I had again repaired to the spot, in order to satisfy myself with my own eyes as to the truth or falsehood of the suggestion. I found it even so! The courses of these immense stones, which seemed at first to have sprung out from their places in the wall in consequence of some enormous violence, occupy nevertheless their original position; their external surface is hewn to a regular curve; and, being fitted one upon another, they form the commencement or foot of an immense
arch, which once sprung out from this western wall in a direction towards Mount Zion, across the valley of the Tyropoon. This arch could only have belonged to the bridge which, according to Josephus, led from
this part of the temple to the Nystus on Zion: and it proves incontestibly the antiquity of that portion of
the wall from which it springs.
The traces of this arch are too distinct and definite
to be mistaken. Its southern side is thirty-nine English feet distant from the S. W. corner of the area,
and the arch itself measures fifty-one feet along the wall. Three courses of its stones still remain; of which one is five feet four inches thick, and the others not much less. One of the stones is twenty
feet and a half long; another twenty-four feet and a half; and the rest in like proportion. The part of the curve or arch which remains, is of course but a fragment; but of this fragment the chord measures twelve feet six inches, the sine eleven feet ten inches, and the cosine three feet ten inches. The distance from rock of Zion, we measured as exactly as the interventhis point across the valley to the precipitous natural ing field of prickly pear would permit; and found it to be three hundred and fifty feet, or about one hundred and sixteen yards. This gives the proximate length of the ancient bridge. We sought carefully along the brow of Zion for traces of its western termination, but without success. That quarter is now covered with mean houses and filth; and an examination can be carried on only in the midst of disgusting sights and smells.
The existence of these remains of the ancient
bridge seems to remove all doubt as to the identity of this part of the enclosure of the mosk with that of the ancient temple. How they can have remained for so many ages unseen or unnoticed by any writer or traveller, is a problem which I would not undertake fully to solve*. One cause has probably been the general oblivion or want of knowledge that any such bridge ever existed. It is mentioned by no writer but Josephus; and even by him only incidentally, though in five different places. The bridge was doubtless broken down in the general destruction of the city and was in later ages forgotten by the Christian population, among whom the writings of Josephus were little known. For a like reason we may suppose its remains to have escaped the notice of the crusaders
They have not been unnoticed. Dr. Richardson, to mention but a single individual called attention to them, as part of the ancient temple.-ED.
CHURCH OF ENGLAND MAGAZINE.
and the pilgrims of the following centuries. Another cause which has operated in the case of later travellers, is probably the fact that the spot is approached only through narrow and crooked lanes, in a part of the city whither their monastic guides did not care to accompany them; and which they themselves could not well, nor perhaps safely, explore alone. Or if any have penetrated to the place, and perhaps noticed these large stones springing from the wall, they have probably (as I did at first) regarded their appearance as accidental, and have passed on without further examination.
Here then we have indisputable remains of Jewish antiquity, consisting of an important portion of the western wall of the ancient temple area. They are probably to be referred to a period long antecedent to the days of Herod; for the labours of this splendourloving tyrant appear to have been confined to the body of the temple and the porticos around the court. The magnitude of the stones also, and the workmanship as compared with other remaining monuments of Herod, seem to point to an earlier origin. In the accounts we have of the destruction of the temple by the Chaldeans, and its rebuilding by Zerubbabel under Darius, no mention is made of these exterior walls. The former temple was destroyed by fire, which would not effect these foundations; nor is it probable that a feeble colony of returning exiles could have accomplished works like these. There seems therefore little room for hesitation in referring them back to the days of Solomon, or rather of his successors, who, according to Josephus, built up here immense walls, "immoveable for all tiine." Ages upon ages have since rolled away; yet these foundations still endure, and are immoveable as at the beginning. Nor is there aught in the present physical condition of these remains to prevent them from continuing as long as the world shall last. It was the temple of the living God; and, like the everlasting hills on which it stood, its foundations were laid " for all time."
Thus, then, we have here the western wall of the ancient temple area; on which is built up the same wall of the modern enclosure, though with far inferior materials and workmanship. The ancient southern wall is at the same time determined in like manner; for, at the S. W. corner, the lower stones towards the south have precisely the same character as those on the west; they are laid in alternate courses with the latter; and the whole corner is evidently one and the same original substruction. Proceeding to the S. E. corner, we find its character to be precisely similar; the same immense stones as already described, both towards the east and south, on the brink of the valley of Jehoshaphat; and the line of the southern wall at this point corresponding with that at the S. W. corner. We have, then, the two extremities of the ancient southern wall; which, as Josephus informs us, extended from the eastern to the western vailey, and could not be prolonged further. Thus we are led irresistibly to the conclusion that the area of the Jewish temple was identical on its western, eastern, and southern sides, with the present enclosure of the Haram.-Robinson's Biblical Researches.
to the machinations of the incendiary, the traitor, and the blasphemer. It may be alleged on the part of the landholders, that it is rather unjust so heavy a weight of exertion and responsibility should be imposed alone upon them, and that other classes in the country who are interested as well as themselves in the welfare of the rural population, should take their share in this duty. All this is quite true; but the question is-if the classes so referred to refuse to perform their proper part, what resource is left but in the goodwill, the upright intentions, and the firm and steady attachment to every thing connected with the wellbeing and prosperity of their native land, which has always distinguished the country gentlemen of England, and which we doubt not will continue to mark them with the same stamp of honour even unto the end? They have nobly borne their part hitherto; they have only to pursue the same straightforward course with fresh exertions and renewed zeal, and a contented, a prosperous, a happy, and a religious peasantry will be the crowning work of their efforts. At any rate, let the result be what it may-and we must never forget that the final issues of all things are in his almighty hand, who is in all and through all, and by whom all things consist-they will not have themselves to blame, but, amidst the vicissitudes to which everything in this lower scene is exposed, may rest calm and undisturbed in the hopeful and soulsustaining thought, that, under Divine Providence, they have endeavoured to the utmost of their power to perform their duty as country gentlemen, as patriots, and as Christians.-Sketches of Country.
THE PEASANTRY.-Let the country gentlemen of England, then, weigh well the awful responsibility which rests upon them with regard to the state and condition of the agricultural population. With them it depends whether the peasantry-the most important of all classes to the well-being of the state-shall be directed into and preserved in the paths of virtue and happiness, or whether they shall be left a prey
TO THE HOLY TRINITY.
O HOLY, blessed, glorious Trinity
For thy acceptance. O behold me right,
"All's done in ine!"
APPROACH TO SINAI.-As we advanced, the valley still opened wider and wider with a gentle ascent, and became full of shrubs and tufts of herbs, shut in on each side by lofty granite ridges, with rugged, shattered peaks a thousand feet high, while the face of Horeb rose directly before us. Both my companion and myself involuntarily exclaimed-" Here is room enough for a large encampment!" Reaching the top of the ascent, or water-shed, a fine broad plain lay before us, sloping down gently towards the S.S.E., enclosed by rugged and venerable mountains of dark granite, stern, naked, splintered peaks and ridges, of indescribable grandeur; and terminated at the distance of more than a mile by the bold and awful front of Horeb, rising perpendicularly in frowning majesty, from twelve to fifteen hundred feet in height. a secne of solemn grandeur wholly unexpected, and such as we had never seen; and the associations which at the moment rushed upon our minds were almost overwhelming. As we went on, new points of interest were continually opening to our view. On the left of Horeb, a deep and narrow valley runs up S.S.E. between lofty walls of rock, as if in continuation of the S.E. corner of the plain. In this valley, at the distance of near a mile from the plain, stands the con. vent; and the deep verdure of its fruit-trees and cypresses is seen as the traveller approaches-an oasis of beauty amid scenes of the sternest desolation. At the S.W. corner of the plain the cliffs also retreat, and form a recess or open place extending from the plain
westward for some distance. From this recess there
runs up a similar narrow valley on the west of Horeb, called el-Leja, parallel to that in which the convent stands; and in it is the deserted convent el-Arba'in, with a garden of olive and other fruit-trees not visible from the plain. A third garden lies at the mouth of el-Leja, and a fourth further west in the recess just mentioned. The whole plain is called Wady erRahah; and the valley of the convent is known to the Arabs as Wady Shu'eib-that is, the vale of Jethro. Still advancing, the front of Horeb rose like a wall before us; and one can approach quite to the foot, and touch the mount. Directly before its base is the deep bed of a torrent, by which in the rainy season the waters of el-Leja and the mountains around
the recess pass down eastward across the plain, forming the commencement of Wady esh-Sheikh, which then issues by an opening through the cliffs of the eastern mountain-a fine broad valley, affording the only easy access to the plain and convent. As we crossed the plain our feelings were strongly affected at finding here so unexpectedly a spot so entirely adapted to the scriptural account of the giving of the law. No traveller has described this plain, nor even mentioned it, except in a slight and general manner; probably because the most have reached the convent by another route without passing over it; and perhaps too because neither the highest point of Sinai (now called Jebel Musa), nor the still loftier summit of St. Catherine, is visible from any part of it. The extreme difficulty and even danger of the ascent was well rewarded by the prospect that now opened before us. The whole plain er-Rahah lay spread out beneath our feet, with the adjacent Wadys and mountains; while Wady esh-Sheikh on the right, and the recess on the left, both connected with and opening broadly from er-Rahah, presented an area which serves nearly to double that of the plain. Our conviction was strengthened that here, or on some one of the adjacent cliffs, was the spot where the Lord "descended in fire," and proclaimed the law. Here lay the plain where the whole congregation might be assembled: here was the mount that could be approached and touched, if not forbidden; and here the mountain brow, where alone the lightnings and the thick cloud would be visible, and the thunders and the voice of the trump be heard when the Lord " came down in the sight of all the people upon Mount Sinai." We gave ourselves up to the impressions of the awful scene; and read, with a feeling that will never be forgotten, the sublime account of the transaction and the commandments there promulgated, in the original words as recorded by the great Hebrew legislator.
Robinson's Biblical Researches.
CATHEDRAL OF REIKIAVIK.-The cathedral has been built in the centre of the town, in an open space called Ostervall, which in summer is generally covered with the tents of those who come to trade. It is built of hewn stone, with a wooden tower and roof, and has attached to one of its sides a sacristy, and a small room for the reception of coffins till the time for the funeral arrives. The pews, into which the lower part of the church is divided, are reserved for the women alone, as it is not customary for the men to sit in any part of the church except the chancel or gallery; and the governor has the same sort of glazed pew for attending divine service as at Bessestad. The decorations of the altar remind one of a catholic church, as also the candles that burn on it before an indifferent painting of the descent from the crose, which, however, is the best specimen of the pictorial art to be met with in the country. To the left of it, a railed seat is reserved for the bishop, who takes no part in the service himself, except at ordinations. On these occasions the prelate wears over his satin rochet, a splendid stole of purple velvet covered with embroidery. The candidate is conducted to the steps of the altar by two priests in surplices, and after a long exhortation in latin, which I believe is only made use of in this church ceremony, he is admitted into holy orders, the greater part of the service being chanted.-Dillon's Winter in Iceland and Lapland.
London: Published by JAMES BURNS, 17, Portman Street, Portman Square; W. EDWARDS, 12, Ave-Maria Lane, St. Paul's; and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Town and Country.
JOSEPH ROGERSON, 24, NORFOLK STREET, STRAND, LONDON,
A SACRAMENTAL ADDRESS,
ON PART OF THE EXHORTATION WHICH IS DELI-
BY THE REV. CHARLES HEBERT, M.A., Assistant Minister of St. James's Chapel, Clapham.
secution in the reformation constituted men's notions on this sacrament the shibboleth of life or death, much meditation and frequent discussions cleared the mists which had so long darkened over it; and truly we reap the fruits in possessing a service richer with spiritual glory, more accordant with scripture, and more guarded against error and heresy, than under other circumstances we could possibly have enjoyed. If it be so, God help us in endeavouring to enter into the length and breadth of this service, and to possess ourselves of the treasures of spiritual knowledge and devotion which it contains. Let us cherish it as a precious relic of our
I THINK that our communion service merits far more consideration than many give to it, and will bear a closer inquiry and yield larger fruit to the humble inquirer than many suppose. By some, who would revive among us the fallen authority of antiquity at the peril of re-introducing many of its corruptions, this service has been styled "a judg-suffering forefathers, and endeavour by its ment on the church:" perhaps this very fact help, with God's blessing, to climb from should stir us up to inquire if it be so meagre height to height of knowledge, and go from and compromising as to justify that censure; strength to strength of devotion, so that comand possibly we may detect in its large en- munion after communion may bring us nearer richment, both with the letter and with the in spirit to our heavenly rest. spirit of God's word, and in its even-handed repudiation of the various forms of opposing error, reason enough for its finding no quarter, either with those who love to wrap themselves in superstition on the one hand, or with those who think that they have full right to select only what they will out of the scriptures that touch upon this sacrament on the other. But, in fact, we may well regard this communion office as a striking exemplification of the saying-" Other men have laboured, and ye have entered into their labours." For the burning pyres of Smithfield and Oxford have, in the providence of God, shed a light on the doctrine of this sacrament, which the sacrament of baptism has not chanced yet to have received. In plainer terms, when God so ordered it that the per
The subject of our meditation is a part of the address after the offertory; and here the full spirit of the sacrament seems to begin. The object of that part which we at present consider, is to persuade us to communicate; for which purpose it sets forth the exceeding desirableness of this sacrament in the following words:-"For the benefit is great, if with a true penitent heart and lively faith we receive that holy sacrament, for then we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ and drink his blood: then we dwell in Christ and Christ in us: we are one with Christ and Christ with us." A part even of this (viz., "with a true penitent heart and lively faith receiving this sacrament") I omit, as belonging to the right mode of communicating, a topic dwelt upon more largely in the latter part of
VOL. XII.-NO. CCCXXVII.
[London: Joseph Rogerson, 24, Norfolk-steet Strand.]
this address. I go then to the words, "The benefit is great, for then we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ and drink his blood." These are strong terms, and such as man of himself would never have used: but man has so exaggerated and misused them, that one is tempted to keep them as much out of sight as possible. But since they are a part of scripture we may not do this; and neither is a church at liberty to omit them from her liturgy, nor any private individual to exclude them from his thoughts and his prayers. "To eat the flesh of Christ and drink his blood." God help us to interpret these words rightly; for many and strong men have fallen by them.
St. Paul writes (1 Cor. x. 16)—" The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion (. e., sharing or participation) of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?" There can be no doubt that these words refer to this sacrament; and the only difference between them and the words in the service (except such changes as "flesh" for body") is, that a cautionary word is added which is not in St. Paul, viz., that we eat this flesh and drink this blood" spiritually." Now, whence is this word obtained? Did the framers of this address insert it of their own mind? No; they took it from the sixth chapter of St. John's gospel, from which they also gathered the word "flesh" instead of "body." This chapter (in the applying of which to this subject we have no lack of authorities) must come often into view in the various parts of this service: I will now only take from it what my present purpose requires. One of many verses in which it speaks in like terms with St. Paul and this service, is the 53rd: "Verily, verily, I say unto you," saith Christ, "except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, ye have no life in you." But these and like expressions stumbled the disciples, who said truly that they were "hard sayings;" and at the first the Jews, misunderstanding them, objected-" How can this man give us his flesh to eat?" But Jesus persisted in the use of the terms, and only replied, "Doth this offend you? What, and if ye shall see the Son of man (i. e., flesh and blood, as well as spirit) ascend up where he was before" (r. e., to heaven), will ye then understand me?-will ye then see that I spake not of your eating on earth that literal body which you will have seen go upward towards heaven? This appears to be the true meaning of the question"What, and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where he was before?" viz.: When my body is visibly taken away from
earth altogether, will you be able to suppose that I spoke of a literal eating of it? And Jesus confirms this to be the meaning, by adding, "It is the Spirit that quickeneth: the flesh profiteth nothing" that is to say-My flesh, if eaten, would give the eater no advantage; but it is the union of my Spirit with his spirit of which I speak: it is this that giveth and maintaineth life eternal. From this passage our reformers appear to have gathered, that the eating and drinking of Christ's flesh and blood are by the Spirit, and not with the mouth; and by this explanation which fell from Christ's lips-"It is the Spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing"-they felt themselves justified in adding, nay called upon to add, the explanatory word, "For then we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ, and drink his blood." And, in so doing, they assert that we do not in any way communicate or share among ourselves that literal body of our blessed Lord which was crucified on Calvary, and afterwards rose and went up to heaven; but these strong expressions signify no more than a union and intercourse of our spirits with Christ's Spirit, whereby strengthening effects are wrought upon our souls, similar to those which are produced upon a hungry fainting body by refreshing drink and good food. That this is the combined judgment of our reformers as a body, we go not to their private writings to learn (for their private writings are only a secondary evidence, imperfect, because separately written); but these services, settled by their combined judgment, and corrected again and again by their successors, whenever they are clear, are conclusive beyond all controversy; and such a case have we now before us, the insertion of the word "spiritually" decisively shutting out the thought that they intended any carnal, i. e., any literal sense to be affixed to these words*. But to turn to the article upon the subject, the 28th: we shall find a part of it to be-" The
I have found many a person disturbed or unsatisfied in mind with a figurative interpretation of these words, and of the original expression, "This is my body." Some are half inclined to transubstantialism, and many more adopt consubstantialism. To the transubstantialist we may bring forward 1 Cor. x. 4 (a sacramental passage), "That rock was Christ," and body is transubstantiated into the bread, why must I ask, if I must conclude from one passage that Christ's not equally, conclude that, of old time, Christ was
transubstantiated into that rock? Then we adduce "I am the door!" "The three baskets are three days:" there is no end to it if we say that such passages must
be literal. Then with the consubstantialist, who thinks that Christ's literal body is received at the same time with the bread, we reply that he refuses the literal interpretation as well as we he does not
say, "This (bread) is Christ's body." So we find room for arguments against his interpretation, as above.