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pending over the state. “That is, the event which happened in consequence of the omens. In the same manner Virgil [says]:

“ Cui pater intactam dederat primisque jugaret,

Ominibus"-Æneid, i, 349.
("To whom her father gave her, virgin pure,

And with the earliest omens joined her sure.")

Ominibus, i.e., nuptiis; viz., the event which was the con

sequence of the omens '-UPTON. 122. Climature. From clima, region. Inhabitants of the same

zone or region. 137. Partisan halbert, a leading-staff; French pertuisane, the

piercer. 146. Summons (French semonce, Latin submoneas)--the first word

of the legal Latin in which a summons was couched. 150. In sea .... or air. The Platonists supposed that there were

spirits appropriate to earth, air, fire, and water, the four

elements. 151. Extravagant-exceeding prescribed bounds. Erring, wander

ing. 154. It faded, etc. "Ghosts, or rather devils, assume an airy, thin,

and therefore fluxative body, which by heat is extenuated, and consequently dissipated, but condensed and confined by cold, insomuch as not to be seen by the heatful light of the day; whereupon grew that opinion, how ghosts and other apparitions of terror did wander about only in the night, and vanished with the morning'—George SandysOvid's Metamorphoses, ‘Commentary on Book XV' (1632). Compare I,

ii, 218-220. 155. 'Gainstas used here and in II, ii, 489; III, iv, 51; as well

as in Romeo and Juliet, IV, i, 113; Midsummer Night's Dream, V, i, 75; Richard II, III, iv, 29, is a preposition

of time=at the time that. 159. Strike-exert a baleful influence; injure. 160. Takes-seizes so as to make the subject of disease, fascinates

and inflicts injury. See :

'And there he blasts the trees, and takes the cattle'

--Merry Wives of Windsor, IV, iv, 32.
Strike her young bones,
Ye taking airs, with lameness'-King Lear, II, iv, 166.

SCENE II.

4. Brow of woe-mourning brow. See 'brow of youth'-Lear, I,

iv, 306. 10. Defeated-marred. See 'defeat thy favour'-Othello, I, iii, 346.

II. Auspicious

dropping. Compare Δακρυόεν γελάσασα, Iliad, vi, 484, 'smiling tearfully.' 29. Bed-rid-Saxon be-drian, to bewitch or fascinate; but con

founded in etymology and meaning with bed and rid, as

‘one borne on a bed. Compare Winter's Tale, IV, iv, 412. 49. Probably this line should be read with is and to transposed, or

‘Than is thy father to the throne of Denmark.'

53. Coronation. In quarto 1603 funeral rites is mentioned as the

cause of Laertes' coming, but this has been judiciously

altered in the later texts. 58-60. Wrung consent.

Omitted in folio 1623. 62. Take thy fair hour. Like Horace's 'Carpe diem'—Carm., xi, 8. 65. Kin.... kind. Compare W. Rowley's Search for Money,

1602, ‘I would he were not so neere us in kindred, then sure he would be neerer in kindnesse'-Percy Soc. Ed., p. 5:

'In kind a father, not in kindlinesse'—Gorbuduc, I, i.

*Traitor to kin and kind, to sire and me'-Ibid., IV, i.

"Tumultuous wars Shall kin with kin and kind with kind confound'

-Richard II, IV, i, 141.

‘More than kin,' related both by blood and marriage; ‘kind,' full of good feeling. Hamlet is step-son to Claudius as well as nephew, and so 'a little more than kin,' but he is ‘less than kind' not only in affection to the usurper, but in not

being his son by kind. 67. Too much i' the sun. It is probable that a quibble is intended

between sunne and sonne. There is an old English proverb quoted in Wither's Abuses Stript and Whipt:

"Out of God's blessing into the warm sun;'

and referred to in King Lear as

"The common saw; Thou out of heaven's benediction com'st

To the warm sun'-II, ii. It there, as well as here, signifies 'forlorn,' with none of the comforts remaining which arise out of the charities of kin.

dred. There is a reference to the phrase in Psalm cxxi, 6. 81. 'Haviour-appearance, bearing: 82. Forms, moods, shows of grief. Some editors read modes;

quarto 1604 has shapes. Forms are the customary appearances, moods, the changesul musings of the saddened mind; shows, external trappings, mourning-dress which was frequently spoken of as a 'shape.'

85. I have .. .. woe. Compare:

*My grief lies all within ;
And those external manners of laments
Are merely shadows to the unseen grief
That swells with silence in my tortured soul.

There lies the substance'-Richard II, IV, i, 294-298. 92. Obsequious—(1) dutiful, (2) funereal. 16. Persévere. The accent is on the second syllable, as in King

John, II, i, 421, and As You Like It, V, ii, 3. 113. Wittenberg is a fortified city, triple-gated, in the province of

Saxony in Prussia, situated on a sandy level on the banks of the Elbe. Its university (which has been since 1817 united to that of Halle) was founded and endowed in 1502 by the Elector Frederic the Wise. In 1508 Luther was appointed Professor of Philosophy therein, and it was on the gates of its university church that he, 31st October 1517, fixed the cele. brated ninety-five theses which ultimately led to the Reforma. tion. Giordano Bruno, who had lived in England 1583-1586, and been patronised by Sir Philip Sidney, Lord Buckhurst, the Earl of Leicester, and (Fulke Greville) Lord Brooke of Warwick, became Professor of Philosophy in the University of Wittenberg, which he called 'the Athens of Germany;' and it is not improbable, as Benno Tschischwitz, in his Shakespeare-Forschungen, i, 'Hamlet,' 1868, says, that Hamlet owes not a little of its philosophy and its interest to Shakespeare's knowledge of the tenets and his remembrances of the char. acter of that martyr-thinker. In Falkson's Romance of Giordano Bruno, 1846, p. 289, the same idea is introduced. The special works of Bruno to which Hamlet may be indebted are Il Candelajo, a comedy, 1582; and Degli Eroici Furori, dedicated to Sir Philip Sidney, in which the author teaches the militant mission of the will in man's struggles to attain to a knowledge of truth, beauty, and goodness. Wittenberg, the university dear to the Protestant heart of England from its memories of Luther,' and, as the refuge-house for the time of a strange thinker whom he had known, dear to the imagination of Shakespeare himself, is very fittinglydespite the anachronism-referred to as the college in which

Hamlet had studied and dwelt. 113, 119, 164, 168. In F. J. Furnivall's Early English Text

Society's (1870) re-issue of Andrew Borde's Introduction of
Knowledge, we learn that out of Denmarke a man may go
into Saxsony. The chefe cyte or town of Saxsony is called
Witzeburg (Wittenberg), which is a universitie '-p. 164

(1542). 113. In quarto 1603 the following fine lines, reminding us of Horace's 'animæ dimidium meæ '—Carm., I, iii, 8, occur here:

"Wee hold it most unmeete and unconvenient,
Reing the joy and half-heart of your mother,

II. Auspicious dropping. Compare Δακρυόεν γελάσασα,

fliad, vi, 484, smiling tearfully.' 29. Bed-rid-Saxon be-drian, to bewitch or fascinate; but con

founded in etymology and meaning with bed and rid, as

'one borne on a bed.' Compare Winter's Tale, IV, iv, 412. 49. Probably this line should be read with is and to transposed, or

*Than is thy father to the throne of Denmark.'

53. Coronation.

quarto 1603 fune rite is mentioned as the cause of Laertes' coming, but this has been judiciously

altered in the later texts. 58-60. Wrung

consent.

Omitted in folio 1623. 62. Take thy fair hour. Like Horace's 'Carpe diem—Carm., xi, 8. 65. Kin.... kind. Compare W. Rowley's Search for Money,

1602, 'I would he were not so neere us in kindred, then
sure he would be neerer in kindnesse '-Percy Soc. Ed., p. 5:

'In kind a father, not in kindlinesse'-Gorbuduc, I, i.
"Traitor to kin and kind, to sire and me'-Ibid., IV, i.

Tumultuous wars
Shall kin with kin and kind with kind confound'

-Richard II, IV, i, 141.

'More than kin,' related both by blood and marriage; ‘kind,' full of good feeling. Hamlet is step-son to Claudius as well as nephew, and so 'a little more than kin,' but he is ‘less than kind' not only in affection to the usurper, but in not

being his son by kind. 67. Too much i' the sun. It is probable that a quibble is intended

between sunne and sonne, There is an old English proverb quoted in Wither's Abuses Stript and Whipt:

Out of God's blessing into the warm sun;'

and referred to in King Lear as

*The common saw: Thou out of heaven's benediction com'st

To the warm sun'-II, ii. It there, as well as here, signifies 'forlorn,' with none of the comforts remaining which arise out of the charities of kin

dred. There is a reference to the phrase in Psalm cxxi, 6. 81. 'Haviour-appearance, bearing. 82. Forms, moods, shows of grief. Some editors read modes;

quarto 1604 has shapes. Forms are the customary appearances, moods, the changeful musings of the saddened mind; shows, external trappings, mourning-dress which was frequently spoken of as a 'shape.'

85. I have . . .. woe. Compare:

My grief lies all within;
And those external manners of laments
Are merely shadows to the unseen grief
That swells with silence in my tortured soul.

There lies the substance'-Richard II, IV, i, 294-298. 92. Obsequious—(1) dutiful, (2) funereal. 16. Persevere. The accent is on the second syllable, as in King

John, II, i, 421, and As You Like It, V, ii, 3. 113. Wittenberg is a fortified city, triple-gated, in the province of

Saxony in Prussia, situated on a sandy level on the banks of the Elbe. Its university (which has been since 1817 united to that of Halle) was founded and endowed in 1502 by the Elector Frederic the Wise. In 1508 Luther was appointed Professor of Philosophy therein, and it was on the gates of its university church that he, 31st October 1517, fixed the celebrated ninety-five theses which ultimately led to the Reformation. Giordano Bruno, who had lived in England 1583-1586, and been patronised by Sir Philip Sidney, Lord Buckhurst, the Earl of Leicester, and (Fulke Greville) Lord Brooke of Warwick, became Professor of Philosophy in the University of Wittenberg, which he called 'the Athens of Germany;' and it is not improbable, as Benno Tschischwitz, in his Shakespeare-Forschungen, i, 'Hamlet,' 1868, says, that Hamlet owes not a little of its philosophy and its interest to Shakespeare's knowledge of the tenets and his remembrances of the character of that martyr-thinker. In Falkson's Romance of Giordano Bruno, 1846, p. 289, the same idea is introduced. The special works of Bruno to which Hamlet may be indebted are Il Candelajo, a comedy, 1582; and Degli Eroici Furori, dedicated to Sir Philip Sidney, in which the author teaches the militant mission of the will in man's struggles to attain to a knowledge of truth, beauty, and goodness. Wittenberg, the university dear to the Protestant heart of England from its memories of Luther,' and, as the refuge-house for the time of a strange thinker whom he had known, dear to the imagination of Shakespeare himself, is very fittinglydespite the anachronism-referred to as the college in which

Hamlet had studied and dwelt. 113, 119, 164, 168. In F. J. Furnivall's Early English Text

Society's (1870) re-issue of Andrew Borde's Introduction of
Knowledge, we learn that out of Denmarke a man may go
into Saxsony. The chefe cyte or town of Saxsony is called
Witzeburg (Wittenberg), which is a universitie '-p. 164

(1542). 113. In quarto 1603 the following fine lines, reminding us of Horace's 'animæ dimidium meæ'-Carm., I, iii, 8, occur here:

"Wee hold it most unmeete and unconvenient,
Reing the joy and half-heart of your mother.'

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