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chzer's version. The style of Kaempfer is KALM, Peter, a traveller and naturalist, prolix, and without elegance; but his informa- was a native of Sweden, and was educated for tion is correct and original. Life of Kaempfer, the ecclesiastical profession. The lectures of prefixed to Dohm's edit. Halleri Bibl. Botan. Linnæus at the university of Upsal, however, & Med.-A.
gave him an attachment to natural history; and KAHLER, John, a learned German Lu- in travels through different provinces of Sweden, theran divine and professor, was born at Wol- from 1740 to 1745, he had discovered several mar, a village in the landgraviate of Hesse. new species of plants, and distinguished himself Cassel, in the year 1649. He studied suc- as a minute and accurate observer. When a cessively at Marpurg and at Giessen, and was proposal was made by Linnæus, in 1745, to admitted to the degree of M.A. in the latter send a person on a naturalist's tour to North university. He gained considerable reputation America, Kalm, then professor of economy by introducing the Cartesian philosophy into in the university of Abo, was fixed upon; and the schools at Giessen, and teaching it there after a fund had been raised, by the contribu-' for some years. In 1677, he was appointed tions of various public bodies, for defraying his professor extraordinary of metaphysics at expences, he embarked at Gothenburg in the Rinteln, where he afterwards filled the mathe- close of 1747. He landed first in England, matical chair; to which, in 1683, was joined where he remained till August, 1748, making that of theology. On his appointment to the observations in agriculture and natural history. professorship last mentioned, he took his degree He sailed for Philadelphia in that month, and of doctor of divinity; and after having been six employed the remainder of that year, and the times honoured by the office of rector magnificus years 1749 and 1750, in travels through the of the university, died in 1729. He was the provinces of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New author of numerous dissertations on philoso. York, and Canada, with the districts inhabited phical, mathematical, and theological subjects, by the Iroquois, and other Indian tribes. He which are enumerated by our authority, and left America in the beginning of 1751, and were published in a collective form at Rinteln, reached his native country in the course of the in 1710 and 1711, in two vols. Moreri.-M. summer. The result of these travels was given to
KALDI, GEORGE, a Jesuit, whose learning the public in the Swedish language, in three vols. and merits are highly spoken of by his biographers, 8vo. 1753-61, which were translated first into was a native of Hungary, and born in Tirnaw, German, and then into English, by J. Reinhold about the year 1572. He refused considerable Forster, in 1770. Like most of his travelling ecclesiastical dignities, and preferred to them a countrymen, Kalm is a dry and accurate describer studious life among the followers of Loyola. of every thing new to him, whether important. Having been received into the order at Rome, or trifling, with equal minuteness. Utility, and returned into his own country, he was however, seems to have been his leading object, banished into Transylvania, in common with and he brought back some valuable information the other members of his society, during the to his countrymen, and was the introducer of civil commotions which at that time agitated some new subjects of culture adapted to norththe kingdom. Afterwards we learn that he ern climates. discharged the dury of theological professor in He afterwards returned to Abo, where he the university of Olmutz; was successively was made professor of natural history, and master of the Novices in different places; and published a great many detached dissertations filled the posts of superior and rector at Tirnaw. in the Swedish and Latin languages, on econoHis last retreat was to a college which he built mical and botanical topics. He made, ar his at Presburg, where he died in 1634, when about own expence, an extensive tour into Russia, sixty-two years of age. During several years which has not been published, though a Swedish of his life he was a zealous preacher, and is writer has been supposed to have taken much regarded by the Hungarians as one of the most from the manuscript. He died at Abo, in 1790. eloquent pulpit orators of whom their country Stoever's Life of Linnæus. Halleri Bibl. Botan. can boast.
A volume of his “ Sermons'' was A. published at Presburg, in 1631, folio. Buc KANT, IMMANUEL, a celebrated German what chiefly entitles him to notice in our professor of logic, metaphysics, and moral phipages, is his having undertaken and completed losophy, and founder of a new philosophical a translation of the Bible from the Vulgate into sect, was born at Konigsberg, in Prussia, in the Hungarian tongue. This work was printed the year 1724. His parents being in humble at Vienna, in 1626. Moreri.-M.
circumstances, he was instructed in reading and writing at the charity school in his parish; amine the merits of Locke, Berkley, Reid. whence he was sent, at the expence of his ma- Hume, and Beattie. After investigating the ternal uncle, a wealthy shoemaker, to the col- principles of these writers, he was disappointed lege Fredericianum. In the year 1740, he was in his researches after what he conceived to be removed to the university, where he pursued a consistent analysis of the powers and faculhis studies with great zeal and diligence, and ties of the human mind, or, what is commonly
philosophy, the mathema- termed a system of metaphysics, and suspended tics, and theology. It was his object to acquire his enquiries on this subject for some years. universal information ; but if he had any fa- Having now become a graduate in the univer- .. vourite study at the university, it was that of sity, he entered upon the task of delivering the mathematics, and the branches of natural half-yearly courses of lectures on pure and philosophy immediately connected with them. practical mathematics; which he discharged to When he had completed his academical studies, his own infinite delight, and the enthusiastic he accepted the situation of tutor in a clergy- approbation of crowded audiences, for fifteen man's family at some distance from Konigs- years, annually publishing something on the berg; and afterwards a similar one at Arms- abstruse sciences, which served to establish the dorf, which he in a short time exchanged for fame that he had already acquired. the same employment in the family of count In the year 1755, he was on the point of Kaiserlingk. He discharged his duty as a tutor, sending into the world his “Universal Natural according to his own confession since, by no History, and Theory of the Heavens, or, an means to his satisfaction'; being too much occu- Essay on the Constitution and Mechanical pied with acquiring and digesting knowledge ir Structure of the whole Globe, according to the his own mind, to be able to communicate the ru- Newtonian System,” when he was prevented diments of it to others. After spending nine by the failing of the publisher, and the circumyears in these situations, he returned to Ko- stance of all the M.S.S. in his hands, as well nigsberg, where he maintained himself by pri- as his effects, being put under seal. Owing to vate instruction ; and though his emoluments this event, six years afterwards, the famous were but inconsiderable, yet his frugality, which Lambert unintentionally plucked the laurels of nearly bordered on parsimony, enabled him to invention from the brow of our philosopher, live at his native college with credit and respect, by advancing the very same principles, and without any public salary or appointment. In having the credit of originality. The justness. the year 1746, when only twenty-two years of of Kant’s Theory, was, thirty years afterwards, age, he had begun his literary career, by pub- evinced by the practical investigations of Hersfishing “ Thoughts on the Estimation of the chel. In the same year he gave to the public, Animal Powers, with Strictures on the Proofs “ An Examination of the Question, whether advanced by Leibnitz and other Mathemati- the Earth decayed?” In 1756, he furnished cians on this point, &c." 8vo.; and in 1754, the first specimen of his metaphysical talents,
An Examination of the Prize in “ Principiorum primorum Cognitionis me. Question of the Berlin Society--whether the taphysicæ nova Dilucidatio,” and “ Dissertatio Earth in turning round its Axis, by which the de Principiis primis Cognitionis humanæ,” both Succession of Day and Night was produced, in 4to. ; which were succeeded by his “Monohad undergone any Change since its Origin dologia Physica,” 4to.; “ A History and PhiWhat could be the Causes ; and how we could losophical Description of the Earthquake in be assured of it?” The judicious manner in 1755,"4to.; and in another work, further conwhich he treated these subjects, acquired him siderations on this subject; and “ Remarks . the reputation of a promising mathematician for the Elucidation of the Theory of the and natural philosopher, and paved the way to Winds." In 1757, he published “ A Sketch his long desired promotion to the degree of and Annunciation of Lectures on Physical GeoM.A. which was conferred upon him in 1755. graphy ;” and in the following year, “ New While he had been engaged in the employment Principles of Motion and Rest, and the Reof private tuition, besides his favourite pursuits sults connected with them in the Fundamentals of mathematics and natural philosophy, he oc- of Natural Philosophy,” 8vo.: a small work, casionally indulged in metaphysical specula- which, at the time, excited much notice, and tions; and he employed his leisure hours in was afterwards inserted inore at large in his. the acquisition of modern languages, especially later writings. In 1759, he published, " Rethe French and English, which latter he learned flections upon Opticism,” 4to. with which, without a teacher, chiefly with a view to ex- likewise, lectures were announced ; in 1762, "A Demonstration of the sophistical Subtlety and defend an inaugural dissertation, before he contained in the four Syllogistic Figures," 8vo.; is permitted to exercise his public functions, and in 1763, “ An Attempt towards intro- or to become a member of the senate. On ducing the Proposition of negative Magnitudes this occasion, Kant chose for his subject, “ De into Philosophy,” 8v0.; and “ On the only Mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis Forma et possible Method of proving the Existence of Principiis,” and afterwards published his Disthe Deity," 8vo.
In 1764, he gave to the sertation in 4to. This is a very elaborate, abworld “ Reflections on an Adventurer, &c.” struse performance, and contains the outlines a fanatic, who was then deluding the country of his philosophy, which has been since dispeople by false pretences to a prophetic spirit, tinguished by the name of “ 'The Critical Sy8vo. ; which was followed by “ An Essay on stem.” It excited much attention in several of Disorders of the Head," 8vo. containing a the German schools, and gained converts from philosophical examination of the subject; “öb- other systems; but, for some time, chiefly in servations on the Sublime and Beautiful,” 8vo.; the university of Konigsberg. Kant's new siand “ An Essay on Evidence in Metaphysical tuation required, that he should be almost enSciences,” which obtained the accessit of the tirely occupied in metaphysical studies; and royal academy of sciences at Berlin. In 1765, he pursued them with the most unremitting he published, under the simple title of “ In- ardour. At this time he maintained a philotelligence respecting the Arrangement of Lec- sophical correspondence with several of the tures for the Winter half Year,” a beautiful first literary characters of the age, and parti-system of lecturing on metaphysics, logic, and cularly with the celebrated Lambert, then pre-ethics; and in the following year he attacked sident of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Swedenborg, who pretended to a converse with Berlin, who, in his “ Cosmological Letters," spirits, in his “ Dreams of a Ghost-seer, il- had proposed theories coinciding with those of lustrated by Dreams in Metaphysics,” 8vo. Kant, and had pursued nearly the same path About this time he obtained the place of sub- of philosophizing. From this time, also, Kant's inspector of the royal library at the palace; publications were almost exclusively of a meand he also undertook the management of the taphysical nature. In 1775, appeared his short beautiful collection of natural curiosities, and Essay on the different Races of human cabinet of arts, belonging to M. Saturgus, mi- Beings,” by way of announcing his lectures on nister of the commercial department, which the subject.
the subject. in 1781, besides his “ Correafforded him an opportunity of studying mi- spondence with Lambert,” he published his neralogy. Some years afterwards, however, he “Critique of pure Reason," 8vo. which is the resigned both these appointments.
most important of his metaphysical productions, During the period of Kant's life which had and intended to exhibit a full and complete now, elapsed, his reputation and literary pro- illustration of the fundamental principles of his ductions had recommended him to the notice new philosophy. Soon after its appearance, of the Prussian monarch, who made him re. it was attacked by different German writers, peated offers of a professorship in the univer- who entertained different judgments of its mesities of Jena, Erlangen, Mittau, and Halle, rits; and indeed of its meaning, owing to the with the rank of privy counsellor ; but his at- frequent obscurity of the author's style, and tachment to his native place, and his desire to the construction and arrangement of his pelabour and be useful on the spot where he had riods, which are, in many places, ungraceful, received his physical and inental existence, in- heavy, and overloaded. His doctrine, howduced him to decline those proffered honours. ever, met with numerous admirers and adHe might also have obtained the professorship herents in the German universities, and soon of poetry in his own university; but, consi- produced a revolution in the philosophy of that dering himself to be inadequate to the situa- country: With the design of obviating mis. tion, he would not accept of it. At length, conceptions, and of facilitating an acquaintance in 1770, a vacancy having taken place in the with his system, in 1783, Kant published post of professor in the metaphysical depart-“ Prolegomena, or introductory Observations ment, it was immediately bestowed on our applicable to every future System of Metaphy-. philosopher, who, in the month of March, en- sics, that may deserve the Name of a Science," tered upon his long-wished-for office. Ac- 8vo. ; which contains an abstract of his “ Cricording to the statutes of the university of tique,” in an analytical method, which the Konigsberg, every new professor, when raised author has here adopted, in order to return by to the academical chair, is obliged to publish the same path on which he had before advanced. synthetically. In 1784, besides some smaller Geography," 1802, 8vo.; “On giving Instrucpieces, printed either separately, or in different tion,” 1803, 8vo.; and " Upon the Prize periodical works, he published, “ Reflections Question of the Royal Academy at Berlinupon the Foundation of the Powers and Me. What is the actual Progress made in Metathods which Reason is entitled to employ in physical Science, since Leibnitz and Wolf ?" judging of its Stability ;” and “ Fundamental Besides the articles already enunierated, he Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals,” 8vo. was the author of numerous philosophical and In 1786, he published, “ Metaphysical Prin- ethical papers, inserted in the Berlin “ Monthly ciples of Natural Philosophy,” svo. ; in which Magazine,” and in the “ German Mercury." he entered at large into the exercise of reason. For seventy years, Kant had enjoyed an almost ing powers with regard to material objects : uninterrupted state of good health ; but in the and in the same year, he was appointed rector last ten years of his life, his corporeal and of the university. Not long after this, without mental decay was painfully visible to his friends. any solicitation on his own part, he received a Loss of appetite, of sight, of voice, of teeth, considerable addition to his salary' from the of strength, and memory, proclaimed his apfoundation of the upper college.
proaching dissolution; and a fit of apoplexy In 1787, our philosopher published “Funda- gave him the finishing stroke, on the 12th of mental Principles of the Critique of Taste," February 1804, when he had nearly completed 8vo.; and in the same year, he roused the pub- the eightieth year of his age. lic curiosity by his “ Critique on practical Immanuel Kant was in person of a middle Reason,” 8vo. ; in which he enlarged on the stature, and of a remarkably slender and delimoral, as he had before on the metaphysical, cate make. In his countenance there was an principles of reason. In the summer of 1788, air of dignity mingled with complacency, and he was chosen rector of the university a second his fine large blue eyes were expressive both of time ; and not long afterwards, senior of the genius and benevolence. His intellectual quaphilosophical faculty. Though Kant was now lifications were of no ordinary stamp. He had far advanced in life, he continued his literary an astonishing faculty of unfolding the most industry, and presented to the public, “Reli- abstruse principles, and such a facility in degion considered within the Limits of plain ducing every thing from his own reflections, Reason,” 1793, 8vo. in which he endeavours as gave him at length such an habitual famito shew the agreement between reason and re- liarity with himself, that he could not properly velation ; “ On the End, or Termination of all enter into the sentiments of others. He also Things,” 1795, 8vo.; " Project for a perpe- possessed an extraordinary faculty of retaining tual Peace, a philosophical Attempt,” 1795, words, and representing absent things to him8vo. ; an epistle “ to Sömmering, on the Or- self. He could describe objects, an account of gan of the Soul,” 1796, 8vo.; “ On the new- which he had met with in books, even better fangled haughty Tone in philosophical Discus- than many who had seen them. Thus, for exsions," 1796, Svo.; “ Metaphysical Elements ample, he once gave a description, in the preof Jurisprudence," 1797, 8vo. ; " Metaphysi- sence of a Londoner, of Westminster bridge, cal Elements of Ethics, or, Doctrinal Virtue,” according to its form and structure, length, 1797, 8vo.; “ On the Art of Book-making, breadth, height, and dimensions of all its parts, in two Letters to M. Frederic Nicholai," 1797, which led the Englishman to enquire how long 8vo.; “ On the Power of the Mind to over- he had been in London, and whether he had come morbid Sensations by mere Resolution,” dedicated himself to the study of architecture; 1797, 8vo. ; “ Answer to the reiterated Ques- when, to his surprize, he was assured that tion, whether the human Race is in a progres- Kant had never passed the boundaries of Prussive State of Improvement ?" 1798, 8vo.; sia, and was no architect. A similar question “ Contest between the Faculties," 1798, 8vo. ; was put to him by Brydone, to whom he deand, “ A Pragmatical View of Anthropology, scribed in conversation the relative situations 1798, 8vo. In the last mentioned work, he of the principal places and scenes in Italy. takes almost a formal leave of the public as an By the aid of his quick observation and clear author, consigning his papers over to the re- conception, he was enabled to converse with vision of others. Soon afterwards he gave up admirable accuracy on chemical experiments, all his official situations, and, in consequence although he had never witnessed any process of his infirmities, retired into solitude. From in chemistry, and did not begin the theoretical his papers his friends published, “ Logic, or, a study of it, till after the sixtieth year of his Guide to Lecturing," 1801, 8vo.; " Physical age. Dr. Hagen, the great chemist, could not forbear expressing his perfect astonishment, would have been agreeably surprized in finding while conversing with Kant at dinner on the the contrast between the abstruse and deep subject, to find any one able, by simple read thinker, and the sociable and lively companion. ing, to make himself such a perfect master of He was the life of every company in which he a science so difficult. This happy talent, com- mixed ; and mirth, discourse, and wit, never bined with general reading, rendered him an flagged when he was present. Much as he universal scholar, so that at length, there was liked to converse on matters of philosophy, lie no science in which he was not a proficient. carefully avoided these topics in mixed comThe consequence of having such a happy me- panies. Here he lost the philosopher in the mory was, that he set no value on an extensive man of the world, and spoke with freedom on library. As he could acquire the contents of dress, politics, public occurrences, or housebooks, by reading them once or twice, the keeping, as the males or females of the society books themselves were rather burthensome to turned the discourse. · It was his custom to him than otherwise. He accordingly made a retire to rest at nine o'clock in the winter, and contract with a bookseller, to send to him all ten o'clock in the summer; rising at five o'clock new books in sheets, which he read through in in the former, and four o'clock in the latter that form, and generally returned afterwards. season. By this commendable and healthy To the love of truth he was ardently devoted; practice, daily exercise on foot, serenity of and liberality of sentiment was the result. He mind, temperance in eating and drinking, conwished to establish all human knowledge on stant employment, and cheerful company, he the firm basis of reason, and, therefore, re- protracted his life to the advanced period which jected all principles as visionary, which did we have already mentioned. not admit of a fundamental explication. He Since the Kantian, or, as it is called, the conceived, however, of religion as an inherent critical philosophy has been very generally adquality of our souls, which panted after some mired in Germany, and, for a time, banished higher object than this transitory existence : it almost every other system from the Protestant demanded no proof from without, it flowed of universities, notwithstanding the great diffiitself from within ourselves. From this view culty of comprehending it, from the obscurity of the subject he was accused by some of of the author's phraseology, and the subtlety mysticism, while others thought that they saw of his reasonings; it will be expected that we in' his doctrine what was inimical to divine should present our readers with a synopsis of truth. Thus much, however, is certain, from its fundamental principles. This we shall do the testimony of his best friends, and the whole from the able and impartial view of them tenor of his works, that he was a firm believer given in the supplement to the “ Encyclopædia in the Deity, a future state, and Christianity. Britannica ;" leaving the abstract, without any If he did not attend to the practical part of comment, to the judgment of our philosophical religion, this originated in his own private readers. « Kant divides all our knowledge views of those matters, rather than in any dis- into that which is a priori, and that which is regard of sacred ordinances. He thought, by a posteriori. Knowledge a priori is conferred a life of good deeds, to do more honour to the upon us by our nature. Knowledge a posteriori Almighty than by the simple compliance with is derived from our sensations, or from expehuman institutions. His political creed sub- rience; and is by our author denominated jected him to still more censure than his me- empyric. One would at first be induced, by taphysical sentiments ; although, perhaps, with this account of human knowledge, to believe as little justice. He was a citizen of the world; that Kant intended to revive the system of inbut, at the same time, a friend to peace and nate ideas ; but we very quickly discover that good order. He acknowledged the equal rights such is not his system.' He considers all our of all men as originally born free; but he de- knowledge as acquired. He maintains, that precated every violent effort which was made experience is the occasional cause or productrice to acquite that freedom; and in his own con- of all our knowledge ; and that without it we duct always testified due respect and submission could not have a single idea. Our ideas a prito established authorities. Both by his precepts ori, he says, are produced with experience, and and example, he inculcated the strictest and could not be produced without it ; but they are purest integrity and morality. In private life, not produced by it, or do not proceed from it. he was affable, courteous, friendly, and bene- They exist in the mind; they are the forms of volent to enthusiasm. Every reader of his the mind. They are distinguished from other writings, who was not acquainted with him, ideas by two marks, which are easily discerned ;