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tutes of Moses, and from the Care he took to prevent that Disease from spreading and encreasing among the Jews ; by confining Lepers to retired and separate Places, forbidding 'em to come into Towns and Villages, and declaring all impure that should touch them, or any Thing that belonged to them, or had the least Commerce and Communication with them; and by enjoining to those that were recovered from it, many Washings, Cleansings, Shavings, Purifications, and Sacrifices, before they could be admitted into the Holy City again. And can it be reasonably supposed that one who had laboured under that Diftemper himself, would have shewn such extreme Severity to those infected People, and enacted such hard Laws, which could so easily have been retorted upon him, and must needs have covered him with Shame and * Confusion? This is the Substance of 7ofephus's Answer to this Slander of Manetho, which seems to be very solid and juft. But I wish he had proceeded farther, traced it to its Original, and shewn us what it was that first gave Rise to that Calumny; which I the more wonder he did not, since it was so plain and obvious, and might be so easily accounted for, from the Writings of Moses. I mean from the Plague of Boils and Blains, which the Egyptians were visited with upon the Account of the Jews, and which, together with other Plagues and Judgments, prevailed at last upon their har

* Τοίς γαρ λεπρώσιν απείρηκε, μήτε μένειν εν Πόλες, μήτ' εν κώμη κατοικείν, αλλα μόνες περιπατείν κατεχισμένες τα μάτια, και τον αψάμενον αυτών και ομώροφον γενόμενον, και καθαεον ηγείται. Και μην καν θεραπευθή το νόσημα, και την αυτα φύσιν απολάς», προείρηκέ τινας αγνείας, καθαρμές πηγάνων υδάτων λετρούς, και ξυρήσεις πάσης τριχός, πολλάς τε κελέυ και σα, τοίας επιτελέσαντα θυσίας, τότε παρελθείν ας την Ιερgν πολιν. Κάιτοι ταναντίον σκός ήν προνοία τινί και φιλανθρωπία χρήσαθαι τον έν τη συμφορά ταύτα γεγονότα προς Des ou ob as aulom d'usux"ouv7ces. Joseph. contra Appion. Aurel. Allobrog. p. 1046.

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den’d and unrelenting King to suffer them to depart out of Egypt, and to go as they desired, to sacrifice to God in the Wilderness. This, I make no doubt but the Egyptians in Process of Time were willing to, forget, to shift off the Scandal from their own Nation, and to fix that upon the Jews which in reality had happened to themselves. This, if it wants any Proof, seems to be confirm ed by the Account which Justin has given of the Jews, which, tho’ false and fabulous in the main, yet fets this very Matter in a clear and proper Light. When the Egyptians, * says he, fuffered Scabs and fcurfey Sores, scabiem & vitiliginem, they consulted their Gods, who advised 'em, by all Means, to get rid of the Jews, and drive them out of their Country, left the Plague and Infection should spread and increase among them ; that the Jews departing out of their Coasts, under the Conduct of Moses, stole away the Sacra, or sacred Veisels of the Egyptians ; that these pursued after them, but by Storms and Tempests were baffled in their Design, and obliged to return home. Who does not fee fome bright Gleams of Light break thro' this Narrative of Justin, which seems to be only a Repetition of the Account which Mofes has given of these Facts? Here the Egyptians are said exprelly to have been visited with Boils, Leprosy, and Scabs, and advised by the Gods to drive the Jews out of their Land; that they robbed and spoiled the Egyptians, who pursuing after them, were obliged, not by Force, Battle, or open Vialence, but by the visible Interposition of

† Sed Ægyptii cum scabiem & vitiliginem (which laft Word, in Arnobius, lignifies Leprosy) paterentur responso moniti eum (Moscm) ne peftis ad plures ferperet, terminis Ægypti pellunt; dux igitur exsulun factus facra Acgyptiorum furto abftulit, quæ repetentes Ægyptii domum redire tempeftatibus compulfi funt, Tuit. lib, xxxvi. cap. 2.

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Providence, and by Storms and Tempests, (which directly points out their Destruction in the RedSea) to return without Success to their Country + again. So that, upon the whole, the Account of the Roman Writer, like Telephus's Spear, carries its own Balm and Cure along with it; instead of shaking the Credit of the History of Moses, confirms and strengthens it, and effectually confutes this Calumny, which Dio, Tacitus, and other Authors have copied from this Egyptian Writer. The next Author I shall examine, who has shewn his Spite and Ill-will against the Jews, is Appion the Grammarian, or, as some write his Name, * Apion, with a single p, which, 'tis faid, he assumed by reason of its Resemblance with Apis, one of the Deities which the Egyptians worshipped under the Figure of an Ox. But the Jews have no Reason to be concerned at the Slanders of such a noisy, vain, and empty Writer; who was so puffed up with Pride, that he used to promise immortal Fame to those to whom he dedicated his Works, and whom he celebrated in his Writings. For his Noise, Emptiness, and Vanity, the Emperor Tiberius used to call him Cymbalum Mundi, the Drum or Cymbal of the World ; tho'Pliny faith, he ought rather to have been called the Cymbal of Fame, from the harsh and disagreeable Sound he gave.

+ See Shuckford's 3d Vol.

* This Name, and its Resemblance with the Greek Participle eriáv, drew a late very celebrated Critick, the famous Father Rapin, into a very ridiculous Mistake, who quoting a Passage of Eustathius upon Homer, who saith, that a certain Painter went to Athens, to consult that Poet's fine Description of Jupiter, in order to draw the Figure of that God after it, adds rj a Ficàvérgets i. e. going home, he drew his Picture; which that learned Man very unluckily thus tranflates, “as is related by Apion." Whereas Apian is entirely out of the Question here ; the Words implying no more than that the Painter, à Fiwy, going home, drew his Image of Jupiter by the Idea, he had received from that Passage in Homer.

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But he was for nothing more remarkable than for his inveterate Hatred to the Jews, which put him upon a Project that, without a particular Interposition of Providence, must have ended in their utter Destruction. What I mean was, a Journey he undertook to Rome, to complain to the Emperor Caligula, that the Jews at Alexandria refused to admit his Statues and Images in their Temple. * This was touching that Prince to the Quick, and wounding ia the tender Part one who had declar'd himself a God, and expected to be worshipped as such by his Subjects. On this cruel and spiteful Errand Appion was sent by the People of Alexandria, who were mortal Enemies to the Jews, of whom there were very great Numbers in that City. For, besides the old Grudge between the Egyptians and the Hebrews in the Time of Moses, they had continual Jars and Heart-burnings among them, occasioned partly by the Difference of their Religions, and partly by the Zeal and Indiscretion of the Jews, who lived among them,

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* The same Complaint was made afterwards of the Jews at Jerusalem, to that Prince, who, incensed at the Disrespect they shewed to his Statues, sent Orders to Petronius, the Governor there, to destroy without Mercy, every one that made the least Opposition to his Will: But that merciful Commander, when he saw the Obstinacy of the Jews, and that every Soul of them would be cut off rather than suffer such a Profanation of the Temple, unwilling to destroy so many innocent People, that acted out of a Principle of Conscience, wrote to the Emperor, and begged of him to soften and mitigate the Sentence; but the cruel and unrelenting Prince was so far from complying with this Remonftrance, that he sent an Express to the other Officers of the Army to execute the Sentence with the utmost Rigour, and to cut off the Governor himself, who had presumed to delay the Execution of his Orders. In these fad and melancholy Circumstances, when every Thing threatened the Ruin of the Jeu's, Presentemque viris intentant omnia Mortem--- the News came of the Murder of Caligula himself, which sheltered them from the Storm that was just ready to break in upon them, and saved them for that Time from Ruin and Destruction,

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and who, shocked at the gross Acts of Idolatry which they saw practised in that City, where they worshipped Bulls, Dogs, and other of the vileit Animals, could not help insulting and reproaching them for so shameful and scandalous a Worship ; which made those, to be even with them, invent all Manner of Calumnies and spiteful Stories of the Jews, and this ridiculous one among the rest, of their worshipping the Head of an Ass in their Temple. This was, first published by Appion, who writes, that when Antiochus Epiphanes broke into the Temple and plundered it, he found an Afs's Head of solid Gold, richly adorned, to which they paid divine Honours, and worshipped as a God.' That this filly and improbable Story was invented by the Egyptians, out of Revenge for the Reproaches the Jews had caft upon their Worship, seems plain from yolphus's Answer, and the Manner he retorts it upon Appion : Of all Men in the World (faith he) the Egyptians have the least Reason to object this to our Nation, since the worshipping an Ass, was the Charge true, is not worse than that of Ferrets, Goats, and other vile Animals, which they themselves adore as their Gods. If Appion had not the Ignorance and Scupidity of an Ass, with the Impudence of a Dog, which the Egyptians worship, he would never have laid this to our Charge. We do not give that Honour and Worship to this vile Animal, which they pay to Afps, Crocodiles, and Vipers, esteeming those happy, and Favourites of God, who

are ftung or destroyed by them. We put our Affes to the fame Use as all other wife and sensible Nations do; we employ them in carrying our Burdens, in our Works, Labours, and our Agriculture, and punish and correct them when they are lazy and sluggish, and do not perform

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