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arbitration and that arbitration either is or should be judicial rather than diplomatic, Saturday morning's session will be devoted to a consideration of the question whether a permanent court rather than temporary commissions should not be constituted in which nation may sue nation without the embarrassment and delay necessarily involved in the selection of judges and the constitution of a court.
In the next place the composition and necessary powers of the court will receive careful consideration, and it is hoped that members of the Society — perhaps the Society itself — will express its views upon the modification in actual practice of the theoretical equality of states. If a permanent court could be composed of one member from each nation the problem would be simple, but to be wieldy and serviceable the judges can not well represent more than a third of the nations at one time. The great difficulty is therefore to devise a method of composition acceptable to all members of the family of nations. It is the hope of the committee that the leading papers and the discussions upon the floor will throw light upon the subject and that they will in printed form appeal to a large circle of readers.
The occasional request for extradition of a fugitive for an alleged political offense makes the question of "the nature and definition of political offense in international extradition” timely as well as important. The subject is timely because the fugitive pleads the political nature of his offense if there be the slightest justification for it. The subject is important because our treaties of extradition forbid the surrender of the fugitive for the commission of a political offense. It is therefore essential that the nature and definition of a political offense be clearly understood.
It is frequently stated that the Supreme Court of the United States is the prototype of a supreme court of nations, and partisans of an international tribunal refer with pleasure and pride to our Supreme Court. As the Constitution provides that members of the American Union may sue and be sued in the Supreme Court, and as the causes of suit may be infinitely varied, it follows that the Supreme Court is often called upon to render decisions of great importance to international law. If we bear in mind that the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction“ in all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and counsels, and those in which a State shall be a party,” it is obvious that the Supreme Court of the United States must deal with many and intricate questions of international law. It is therefore not only interesting but important that the functions of the Supreme Court in the development of inter
national law be made clear. As the United States is suable in its Court of Claims, and as many international claims have been decided by this tribunal, a survey of its jurisdiction and important decisions will be of genuine interest to students of international law.
As every paper is open to discussion, it is not unreasonable to expect that the third annual meeting of the Society will be both interesting and profitable.
CHRONICLE OF INTERNATIONAL EVENTS
Abbreviations: Ann. sc. pol., Annales des sciences politiques, Paris; Arch. dipl., Archives diplomatiques, Paris; B., boletin, bulletin, bollettino; B. A. R., Monthly bulletin of the International Bureau of American Republics, Washington; Doc. dipl., France: Documents diplomatiques; Dr., droit, diritto, derecho; For. rel., Foreign Relations of the United States; Ga., gazette, gaceta, gazzetta; Cd., Great Britain: Parliamentary Papers; Int., international, internacional, internazionale; J., journal; J. O., Journal Officiel, Paris; Mém. dipl., Mémorial diplomatique, Paris; Monit., Moniteur belge, Brussels; N. R. G., Nouveau recueil général de traités, Leipzig; Q. dipl., Questions diplomatiques et coloniales; R., review, revista, revue, rivista; Reichs-G., Reichs-Gesetzblatt, Berlin; Staatsb., Staatsblad, Gröningen; State Papers, British and Foreign State Papers, London; Stat. at L., United States Statutes at Large; Times, the Times (London); Treaty ser., Great Britain: Treaty Series.
July, 1908. 1 CHINA. New regulations concerning introduction of arms and
munitions into China take effect. Text in B. del ministero degli
affari esteri, Rome, August, 1908. $ Italy. Decree giving execution to arrangement signed at Rome
December 9, 1907, for creation of an international office of public hygiene with seat at Paris. Ga. Ufficiale, July 15; B. del ministero degli affari esteri, July, 1908; R. di dr. int. 3:193, which contains the organic statutes of the office. Ratifications have been deposited at Rome by Italy, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Great Britain, Russia, Brazil, Spain, and United States. This convention was drawn up at the sixth international sanitary conference which met in Rome, December 3, 1907, with the aim of providing for such an institution, which had already been agreed upon in principle at the fifth conference held at Paris in 1903. The office will be directed by a committee composed of delegates from all the countries participating in its formation. See
December 9, 1907, and November 17, 1908. J. o., December 11. 10 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIBLIOGRAPHY at Brussels. Poly
biblion, Partie littéraire, 67:275.
Berne September 26, 1908, respecting prohibition of use of white
dr. pénal int., 2:798 and 4:695. 11 NETHERLANDS. Law ratifying international convention signed at
Berne September 26, 1906, for prohibiting night work of women engaged in industries. Staatsb., 1908, No. 225. Signatory powers: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Portugal,
Sweden, Switzerland. 16 ARGENTINE REPUBLIC_PARAGUAY. Approval by Paraguay of con
vention signed at Buenos Aires May 30, 1908, regulating the inter
change of live stock between the two countries. B. A. R., October. 17 ABYSSINIA-ITALY. Ratification by Italy of (1) the convention for
delimitation of the frontier between Abyssinia and Italian Somaliland; (2) the convention for delimitation of the frontier between Abyssinia and Eritrea; and (3) the act additional to (1) for payment to Abyssinia of three million lire, — all signed at Adis Ababa May 16, 1908. Ga. Ufficiale, August 8; B. del ministero degli affari esteri, August; R. di dr. int., 3:189. These agreements complete, on the side of Abyssinia, the delimitation of the Italian colonies Eritrea and Somaliland, on the eastern frontier of the former and the northern of the latter - thus closing the boundary lines already established by the protocols with Great Britain concerning spheres of influence signed March 24 and April 15, 1891 (State Papers, 83:19), and May 5, 1894 (State Papers. 86:55); the supplementary agreements with the Egyptian and Sudanese governments signed December 7, 1898, June 1, 1899, April 16 and November 22, 1901; the treaty with Abyssinia signed July 10, 1900, the protocols with France signed January 24, 1900, and July 20, 1901; and the convention with Great Britain and Abyssinia signed May 15, 1902. Trattati e convenzioni fra il regno d'Italia e gli altri stati, vols. 15 and 16; Trattati convenzioni, accordi, protocolli ed altri documenti relativi all'Africa, 3 vols., Rome, 1906. The last-mentioned convention traced the mutual frontier of Abyssinia and the Anglo-Egyptian
Sudan as far south as the intersection of 35° E. with 6° N. No arrangement was then arrived at respecting the southern frontier of Abyssinia, on which side the British East Africa and Uganda Protectorates were the other parties concerned. This section was defined by an agreement signed at Adis Ababa December 6, 1907, by Abyssinia and Great Britain relative to the frontiers between British East Africa, Uganda and Abyssinia. Geographical J., 21:186; id., 32:621, 622; Treaty ser., 1908, No. 27.
See May 16, 1908. 20 NETHERLANDS— VENEZUELA. Venezuela hands passports to Nether
lands minister. Ga. oficial, July 21; Documentos del General
Cipriano Castro, 6. See September 3, 1908. 22 INTERNATIONAL. Protocol signed at Brussels providing for suspen
sion for four years from February 15, 1909, of importation and sale of munitions of war in certain regions of Africa. Contracting parties : France, Germany, Spain, Great Britain, Kongo, Portugal. Confirmed by all. J. O., October 15; Treaty ser., 1908, No. 29. An application of Articles 1, 3, 8 and 9 of the General Act signed at Brussels July 2, 1890 (State Papers, 82:55; N. R. G., 17:345; Compilation of treaties in force, 1904, 861).
See April 28, 1908. 23 GREAT BRITAIN-LIBERIA. Agreement signed at Monrovia modify
ing treaty of commerce signed at London November 21, 1848.
Treaty ser., 1908, No. 26; State Papers, 36:394. 23 PRUSSIA-NETHERLANDS. Treaty signed at Berlin concerning rail
road between Neuenhaus and Coevorden. Preuszische Gesetz
sammlung, 1908, No. 38. 29 ELEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS AGAINST ALCOHOLISM at
Stockholm. Adjourned August 3. It was determined to establish an international bureau at Lausanne. Next congress at London July 18, 1909. B. del min. de rel. ext. (Buenos Aires), 20:630. The earlier congresses have been held at (1) Antwerp, 1885; (2) Zurich, 1887; (3) Christiania, 1890; (4) The Hague, 1893; (5) Basle, 1895; (6) Brussels, 1897; (7) Paris, 1899; (8) Vienna, 1901; (9) Bremen, 1903; (10) Budapest, 1905.
August, 1908. 6 FIFTH PAN-AMERICAN MEDICAL CONGRESS opened at Guatemala.
Next congress at Lima. Mém. dipl., September 20.