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criminal. According to some of the cases, he must, in embezzlement, be an agent generally, not merely employed specially to do a single act in the particular matter;' though he need not devote his whole time or any considerable part of it to his employer, or be regularly or constantly in his service. But the better modern doctrine discards this distinction and applies the rule of our civil jurisprudence to the criminal.: On the whole,

Elsewhere. Because of these and other differences, real or supposed, the plan of this series of volumes is not to extend this discussion here, but to explain these several terms in connection with the respective topics to which they relate.*

1 Rex v. Freeman, 5 Car. & P. 534; (N. S.) M. C. 2; Reg. v. Miller, 2 Rex v. Haydon, 7 Car. & P. 445; Rex Moody, 249; Rex v. Mellish, Russ. & v. Nettleton, 1 Moody, 259; Reg. v. Ry. 80; Rex v. Burton, 1 Moody, 237; Smith, 1 Car. & K. 423. And see Rex Budd v. S., 3 Humph. 483, [39 Am. D. v. Smith, Russ. & Ry. 516; Rex v. 189;] Com. v. Wyman, 8 Met. 247; Beacall, 1 Car. & P. 310; Reg. v. Reg. v. Watts, 1 Eng. L. & Eq. 558, 2 Gibbs, Dears. 445, 24 Law J. (N. S.) Den. C. C. 14; S. v. Hart, 4 Ire. 246; M. C. 62, 1 Jur. (N. S.) 118, 29 Eng. L. S. v. Chandler, 2 Strob. 266; Reg. v. & Eq. 538.

Jones, Car. & M. 611; Rex v. Tyers, 2 Rex v. Spencer, Russ. & Ry. 299; Russ. & Ry. 402; Reg. 1. Masters, 3 Rex v. Hughes, 1 Moody, 370; Reg. v. New Ses. Cas. 326, 12 Jur. 912; Reg. Batty, 2 Moody, 257; Rex v. Carr, v. Sheppard, 9 Car. & P. 121; Walker Russ. & Ry. 198; Rex v. Leech, 3 v. Com., 8 Leigh, 743; Rex v. Jackson, Stark. 70.

1 Moody, 119; Com. v. Stearns, 2 Met. 3 Crim. Law, I, SS 461, 464; II, 343; Reg. v. Lovell, 2 Moody & R. 236; $ 346; (S. v. Barter, 58 N. H. 604; Brooks v. S., 30 Ala. 513; Reg. v. GibFoster v. S. (Del.), 43 Atl. R. 265.] son, 8 Cox, C. C. 436; Reg. v. Hall, 13

4 See more particularly, under the Cox, C. C. 49; Reg. v. Barnes, 8 Cox, title Embezzlement, Crim. Law, II, C. C. 129; Reg. v. Marsh, 3 Fost. & F. SS 331–351. And see Reg. v. Atkin- 523; Reg. v. Thorpe, Dears. & B. 562, son, 2 Moody, 278; Rex v. Hartley, 8 Cox, C. C. 29; Reg. v. Bayley, Dears. Russ. & Ry. 139; Rex v. Squire, 2 & B. 121; S. C. nom. Reg. v. Bailey, 7 Stark. 349; Reg. v. Atkinson, Car. & Cox, C. C. 179; Reg. v. Cosser, 13 Cox, M. 525; Rex v. Beacall, 1 Car. & P. C. C. 187; [Reg. v. Harris, 17 Cox, C. C. 310; Rex v. Prince, 2 Car. & P. 517; 656; Reg. v. Coley, 16 Cox, C. C. 226; Rex v. Snowley, 4 Car. & P. 390; Rex Reg. v. Parsons, 16 Cox, C. C. 498; v. Pearson, 4 Car. & P. 572; Rex v. Reg. v. Bowerman, 17 Cox, C. C. 151; Salisbury, 5 Car. & P. 155; Reg. v. Reg. v. Cronmire, 16 Cox, C.C. 42; Reg. Townsend, Car. & M. 178; Reg. v. v. Bredein, 15 Cox, C. C. 412; Reg. v. Hunt, 8 Car. & P. 642; Reg. v. White, Smallman, 18 Cox, C. C. 451; S. v. 8 Car. & P. 742; Reg. v. Wilson, 9 Keith (N. C.), 36 S. E. R. 169; S. v. Car. & P. 27; Reg. v. Welch, 2 Car. & Ezzard, 40 S. C. 312, 18 S. E. R. 1025; K. 296; Reg. v. Townsend, 2 Car. & S. v. Hubbard, 58 Kan. 797, 51 Pac. R. K. 168; Rex v. Rees, 6 Car. & P. 606; 905, 39 L. R. A. 860; George v. P., 167 Reg. v. Masters, 1 Den. C. C. 332, 2 Ill. 417, 47 N. E. R. 741.) Car. & K. 930, Temp. & M. 1, 18 Law J.

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$ 271a. Officer - Public officer. The meanings of the terms “officer," "public officer,” and the like, are also in a degree variable. And they are somewhat considered in other connections. A surveyor or supervisor of roads has been held to be, and not to be, an officer, within the contemplation of differing statutes. A letter-carrier has been adjudged, in Scotland, to be a public officer. Under particular statutes, the assistant clerk of a court, a treasurer, a deputy treasurer, a prosecuting attorney,' a policeman,' a collector of taxes,' and an overseer of the poor,10 have been held to be, and a town agent for the sale of intoxicating liquors" and a county auditorla not to be, officers or public officers."

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1 Ante, SS 216, 223; Crim. Law, I, urer of state university, Spalding v. SS 464, 465; II, SS 349, 350; (Ander- P., 172 Ill. 40, 49 N. E. R. 993. Clerk son's Law Dictionary, 728.]

of board of county commissioners, 2 Woodworth v. S., 26 Ohio St. 196. Cooper v. S., 101 Ga. 783, 29 S. E. R. 38. v. Putnam, 35 Iowa, 561. 22. Notary public, Stokes v. Aoklen 4 Case of Smith, Syme, 185.

(Tenn. Ch. Ap.), 46 S. W. R. 316; Stir5 S. v. Newton, 28 La. An. 65. neman v. Smith, 100 Fed. R. 600. Fire

6 Crim. Law, II, 8 349 and note; S. marshal, P. v. Scannel, 49 N. Y. S. v. Brandt, 41 Iowa, 593; P. v. McKin- 1096, 22 Misc. R. 298. Member of ney, 10 Mich. 54; Com. v. Morrisey, 86 county board of education, S. v. Pa. St. 416.

Thompson, 122 N. C. 493, 29 S. E. R. 78. v. Henning, 33 Ind. 189.

720. Members of board of legal ex8 Sanner v. S., 2 Tex. Ap. 458; aminers, S. v. Hocker, 39 Fla. 477, 22 [Brown v. Russell, 166 Mass. 14, 43 N. 8. R. 721, 63 Am. St. R. 174. Ordinary E. R. 1005, 55 Am. St. R. 357, 32 L. R. of a county, Groves v. 8., 76 Ga 808. A. 253.)

Members of board of construction for 9 Crim. Law, II, S 349; S. v. Walton, university buildings, McCornick v. 62 Me. 106.

Pratt, 8 Utah, 294, 30 Pac. R. 1091, 17 10 S. v. Hawkins, 77 N. C. 194 L. R. A. 243. Justice of the peace, 118. v. Weeks, 67 Me. 60.

Cruinp v. S., 23 Tex. Ap. 515, 5 S. W. 12 S. v. Newton, 26 Ohio St. 265. R. 182. Drainage commissioner, S. v. 13 And see Com. v. Binns, 17 S. & R. Wells, 112 Ind. 237, 13 N. E. R. 722. 219; Rainey v. S., 8 Tex. Ap. 62, 34 Deputy food commissioner, S. v. CorAm. R. 736; Gordon v. S., 2 Tex. Ap. nell (Neb.), 83 N. W. R. 72. Members 154; Kavanaugh v. S., 41 Ala. 399; of the board of equalization, Nalle v. Lockett v. S., 61 Ga. 44; Com. v. City of Austin (Tex. Civ. Ap.), 56 S. Smith, 111 Mass. 407.

W. R. 954. Police judge, Montgomery [The following have been held to v. S., 107 Ala. 372, 18 S. R. 157. be officers or public officers: Deputy The following have been held not to sheriffs, S. v. Bus, 135 Mo. 325, 36 S. be officers or public officers: Trustee W. R. 636. Rapid transit commission- of state agricultural college, S. v. Hewers, Sun Printing, etc. Ass'n v. Mayor itt, 3 S. D. 187, 52 N. W. R. 875, 44 Am. of New York, 40 N. Y. S. 607, 8 Ap. St. R. 788. Watchman in federal buildDiv. 230, affirmed in 152 N. Y. 257, 46 ing, Doyle v. Raleigh, 89 N. C. 133, 45 N. E. R. 499, 37 L. R. A. 388. Treas- Am. R. 677. Keeper of capitol, Cherry

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$ 272. Aider - Abettor - These words are not much used in the modern law, but are common in the old books. Their meanings are not precise and unvarying, like principal,accessory, and the like. Ordinarily an aider is one who assists at the fact, and does not include an accessory whether before or after. Hale says that, “in some acts of parliament, aiders, being joined with procurers, counselors, and abettors, are intended of those that are aiding to the fact; but, in other acts of parliament, where the word aiders is joined with maintainers and comforters, it is intended of those that are aiders ex post facto to their persons.” 5 In like manner, while the term abettor commonly denotes one who instigates or encourages the doer at the fact, it may not improperly be applied to the accessory before.

$ 273. Distiller - Rectifier.- A "distiller" is one whose occupation is to extract spirit by evaporation and condensation.”? A “rectifier" is a person who, by then running the spirit through charcoal, by passing it again through the still to raise the proof, or by mixing it with anything else, purifies it and prepares it for sale. Therefore one who thus passes the spirit through the still a second time was held not to be within

v. Burns, 124 N. C. 761, 33 S. E. R. 136. 1 See P. v. Newberry, 20 Cal. 439; Pound-keeper, Wilcox v. Hemming, [P. v. Gallagher (Cal.), 33 Pac. R. 890; 58 Wis. 114, 15 N. W. R. 435, 46 Am. Amos v. S., 83 Ala. 1,3 S. R. 749, 3 Am. R. 625. Lister of taxes, Rowell v. Hor- St. R. 682; Woolweaver v. S., 50 Ohio ton, 58 Vt. 1, 3 Atl. R. 906. Clerk of St. 277, 34 N. E. R. 352, 40 Am. St. R. superior court, S. v. Connelly, 104 N. 667; Anderson's Law Dict. 455.] C. 469, 10 S. E. R. 469. Treasurer of 2 Crim, Law, I, SS 604, 648, 675, 676. board of pharmacy commissioners, 3 Crim. Law, I, SS 601, 663, 803. S. v. Spalding, 102 Iowa, 639, 72 N. W. 41 East, P. C. 160; 1 Russ. Crimes R. 288. Committeeman of political (30 Eng. ed.), 26. party's central committee, Attorney- 51 Hale, P. C. 376. General v. Drohan, 169 Mass. 534, 48 62 Hawk. P. C. (Curw. ed.), ch. 29, N. E. R. 279, 61 Am. St. R. 301. Super- $ 11, p. 440. vising architect, S. v. Broome, 61 N. 7 Webster, Unabridged Dict.; [AnJ. L. 115, 38 Atl. R. 841. Fireman, S. v. derson's Law Dictionary, 366.] Jennings, 57 Ohio St. 415, 49 N. E. R. 8 Quantity of Distilled Spirits, 3 404, 63 Am. St. R. 723. Engineer and Ben. 70; U. S. v. Tenbroek, 2 Wheat. lamp trimmer employed by city coun. 248, Pet. C. C. 180. [See also U. S. v. cil, S. v. Anderson, 57 Ohio St. 429, 49 One Hundred and Thirty-two PackN. E. R. 406. Commissioners under ages of Spirituous Liquors, 65 Fed. R. refunding act, Travelers' Ins. Co. v. 980; Michel v. Nunn, 101 Fed. R. 423; Township of Oswego, 59 Fed. R. 58, Anderson's Law Dictionary, 865.] 7 C. C. A. 669.]

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the United States statute of July 24, 1813, imposing a duty on all stills employed in distilling spirits from domestic and foreign materials; though, in coming to this conclusion, the court laid some stress on the word “materials,” supposed to mean something other than spirit itself, and on considerations drawn from the probable intent of the law-makers, arising out of the whole enactment."

$ 274. Negro - Mulatto. - A negro is a black man descended from the Southern African races. The word does not ordinarily include a mulatto;' but it would seem to in some of the states. A mulatto is “a person that is the offspring of a negress by a white man, or of a white woman by a negro; and the child of a white woman by a mulatto father is not a mulatto." Yet by local usage in South Carolina this word generally signifies “a person of mixed white, or European and negro descent, in whatever proportions the blood may be mixed;" though there must be such a proportion of black blood as to be visible.6 The same appears also to be its meaning in Arkansas.?

Person of color - White. — The term “person of color,” employed in a statute, was held in North Carolina to mean one descended from a negro within the fourth degree inclusive, though an ancestor in the intervening generation was white.8 In Connecticut it was adjudged to denote, “not only all persons descended wholly from African ancestors, and therefore of pure and unmixed African blood, but those who have descended in part only from such ancestors and have a distinct, visible admixture of African blood,” — all, in short, “having and disclosing visibly the peculiar and distinctive color of the

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1 U. 8. v. Tenbroek, supra.

Hayes, 1 Bailey, 275, 276. And see 2 See 1 Bishop, Mar., Div. & S., 8 683. Johnson v. Boon, 1 Speers, 268. See [See Anderson's Law Dictionary.] Dean v. Com., 4 Grat. 541.

3 Felix v. S., 18 Ala. 720; Dick v. S., ? Daniel v. Guy, 19 Ark. 121, 133, 134. 30 Miss. 631; Frasher v. S., 3 Tex. Ap. [In Virginia the term “negro" in263, 280, (30 Am. R. 131.] And see cludes all persons who have one Heath v. S., 34 Ala. 250; Ivey v. fourth or more of negro blood. Jones Hardy, 2 Port. 548.

v. Com., 80 Va. 638; Scott v. Raub, 88 4 McPherson v. Com., 28 Grat. 939; Va, 721, 14 S. E. R. 178.] S. v. Chavers, 5 Jones (N. C.), 11; [Lin. 8 S. v. Dempsey, 9 Ire. 384. See also ton v, S., 88 Ala. 216, 7 S. R. 261.] 8. v. Melton, Busbee, 49; S. v. Chav

5 Thurman v. S., 18 Ala, 276; Med. ers, 5 Jones (N. C.), 11; P. v. Hall, 4 way v. Natick, 7 Mass. 88.

Cal. 399; Gentry v. McMinnis, 3 6 S. v. Davis, 2 Bailey, 558; S. v. Dana, 382.

African race." It is difficult to see how this term can be so extended by interpretation as to include any whom the law designates as white; and some of our courts hold all persons to be white in whom the white blood predominates. In Michigan the decision of the majority was that all are white"in whom white blood so far preponderates that they have less than onefourth of African blood,” but those having a fourth or more of African blood are not wbite. Martin, C. J., dissenting, deemed that a preponderance of white blood makes a white man.' To prevent one's being white, the dark mixture need not be of negro blood. Our North American Indians and the Mongolian natives of China' have been held not to be white.

$ 275. Other terms,9 — indicating the person acting, are better explained in connection with the particular subject.

II. THE TIME AND PLACE.

$ 276. Day-time — Night-time — (Burglary).— It is sometimes material, on a question of crime or its degree, that the wrongful act was committed in the night. Thus, an attempted felony in a dwelling-house, carried to the extent of breaking into it, is, when done in the night, a common-law felony called burglary; but, when done in the day, it is only, like other attempts to commit felony, a misdemeanor.? On the other hand, special consequences occasionally follow the doing of a thing in the day. In very ancient times, the night, within this distinction, was deemed to commence with the setting and end with the rising of the sun; but, for a long period, the common-law rule has been, and it is now, that those portions of the morning and evening wherein, though the sun is below the horizon, suf

1 Johnson v. Norwich, 29 Conn. 407, Fiske, 34 Me. 77. See also Gentry u 408. And see S. v. Davis, supra; McMinnis, 3 Dana, 382. White v. Tax Collector, 3 Rich. 136; 4 Walker v. Brockway, supra; S. v. Pauska v. Daus, 31 Tex. 67, 74. Melton, Busbee, 49; Bailey v. Fiske,

21 Bishop, Mar., Div. & S., 8 683; supra. Gray v. S., 4 Ohio, 353; Williams v. 5 In re Ah Yup, 5 Saw. 155. School District, Wright, 578; Jeffries 6 [“Emigrant," see Varner v. S.(Ga.), v. Ankeny, 11 Ohio, 372; Thacker v. 36 S. E. R. 93.] Hawk, 11 Ohio, 376; Lane v. Baker, 7 Crim. Law, I, SS 342, 559, 772; II, 12 Ohio, 237.

SS 90, 101; 1 Hale, P. C. 549, 550. 8 P. v. Dean, 14 Mich. 406. And see 8 Crim. Law, II, § 102; 1 Hale, P. C. Walker v. Brockway, 1 Mich. N. P. 550, 551; 4 BL Com. 224 57. To the like effect is Bailey v.

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