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sing corporation of the Bank. Al. cellor of the Exchequer defended the though he did not mean to propose at equiry of these transactions, and repre. present any direct interference with sented Mr Grenfell as having been car. ihat branch of the Bank's profits, ried into many,no doubt unintentional, there was one other item of its gains over estimates of the profits gained by too important to be overlooked by the the corporation. A clause was, howBank itself in making its demands ever, introduced into the preamble of against the House in recovering them, the bill, as the Chancellor supposed, - this was the profits gained by the not against the consent of the Bank Bank in consequence of the immense directors, which ran thus :-"Whereincrease in the circulation of their pa. as the Bank of England are possessed per, occasioned by the Bank Restric. of certain sums of the public money, tion Act, an increase giving rise, as he arising from balances of several public calculated it, to no less tisan an' addi- accounts, and are willing to advance," tion of 80,0001. to the gross annual &c. But on its being discovered that profits of the Bank.

through some accident the opinion of The conclusion of his speech was, the directors respecting this clause had that instead of borrowing six millions been mistaken, and after a debate in from the Bank at four per cent., we which Mr Baring and some other of ought, in consideration of the extrava. the first bankers maintained the equity gant profits lately made by them, to of the dealings of the Bank, the clause

borrow that sum,” (if the word bor- was withdrawn, and the bill passed in row could be properly applied on the its original state by a majority of 116 occasion,) at no interest at all. The to 56. motion was, “ That a select committee The subject of the Bank Restricbe appointed to enquire into the en- tion Act, above alluded to, was after. gagements now subsisting between the wards more directly brought before public and the Bank of England, and parliament by Mr Horner. The arguto consider the advantages derived by ments and statements which that genthe Bank from its transactions with tleman used, were in no ways different the public, with a view to the adoption from those which he had already emof such future arrangements as may ployed, and of which we have in a for. be consistent with those principles of mer volume given an account. The good faith and equity which ought to motion which he made on the present prevail in all transactions between the occasion was lost; but the Chancellor public and the Bank of England.” of the Exchequer expressly stated,

On the representation of the Chan. that he had no intention of rendering cellor of the Exchequer, that a more the act perpetual ; that steps had al. proper opportunity for considering ready been taken for preparing gradu. these subjects would occur when in ally the restoration of cash payments, due course the Bank restriction bill of and that at the end of two years he the season should be brought before had no doubt they would be entirely the House, Mr Grenfell's motion was resumed. An act for extending the lost. When that bill was read for the Restriction Act till July the 5th, third time, accordingly, Mr Grenfell, 1818, was accordingly passed. whose indefatigable and disinterested The only other important matters exertions entitle him to the thanks of of a financial nature which this year the public, again renewed his attack occupied the attention of parliament, on the style of the transactions between were the consolidation of the English the Bank and the public. The Chan- and Irish Exchequers, a measure, the wisdom of which had been rendered for a new silver coinage, a measure abundantly perceptible by the expe- which had in like manner been loudly rience of the years which had elapsed called for by all classes of the commusince the political union of the two inity. countries; and the passing of an act

CHAP. IV.

Sir John Newport's Motion on the State of Ireland. Various Proceedings of

Parliament connected with the Question of Catholic Emancipation.

We have already seen, from the state. After rapidly sketching the earlier ment of the military force demanded history of Ireland from the time of its for the service of Ireland, that, in the first annexation to the crown of Eng. opinion of ministers, the unhappy dis- land, down to the period of those sentions among the inhabitants of that bloody measures which deformed the country had not yet been entirely al- annals of Charles I., Cromwell, and layed.' At a subsequent period of the James II., he went on to the epoch session, a great body of information re. of the revolution, 1688. “ With the specting the affairs of the sister island revolution," said he, “ came honour, was brought before the House, on oc- glory, and independence to Britain ; casion of a motion of Sir John New- but to Ireland no such bright prosport. This gentleman professed to pects ! The victors treated those whom have no object in view but that of re they subdued, and those who aided questing documents to be laid before them in the conquest, with the same the House which might enable bim- revolting indifference. The era which self and others thoroughly to under- succeeded to the revolution was in Irestand the grounds of keeping up an land marked by the sordid characters army of 25,000 in time of profound of illiberal exclusion and monopoly peace, in Ireland, and, more generally, within and without its interior conof attracting a due share of public at cerns abandoned to the exercise of a tention to the affairs of that kingdom. vindictive provincial tyranny by its These simple requests he prefaced English masters, who covenanted for with an elaborate speech, of which we the surrender of its external and comshall insert the most material parts, mercial concerns to British monopoly first, because in itself it contains much va barter disgraceful to both coun interesting information concerning the tries, and involving the complete sahistory of Ireland, compressed into a crifice of national and commercial very short compass; and, secondly, rights. The protestant interest, as it because it called out, in the reply of was then called, became the object to Mr Peel, a mass of information re. which every other consideration gave specting the actual state of that king. way, and every measure which was al.

leged to contribute to it, secured by

dom.

that allegation, the unqualified support tillage through so great an extent of of the Irish parliament, whilst they the country, increasing in an enormous passively acquiesced in the destruction and disproportionate degree, the inof their woollen manufactures. Then comes of the parochial clergy, resident arose that code of penal law which has and non-resident. been designated by the Chancellor, The temper with which the Irish Lord Camden, as a monstrous monu- parliament legislated, was manifested ment of folly and oppression, which even in the least important of their was sufficient to demoralize the coun. proceedings. When a petition was fry, and which had completely fulfilled presented complaining that a Roman that purpose.' In Primate Boulter's Catholic coal-merchant employed por. Letters, we find in every page from ters of his own persuasion, it was reone of her governors, evidence of the ferred by the House of Commons to corrupt and petty artifices by which the committee of grievances. Was it the system was supported. In the then surprising that a parliament thus case of Wood's halfpence, he says, completely severing its interests from • the measure was much to be lament- those of the body of the people, should ed, as it generally interested the peo. possess no solid strength, or that the ple, had extinguished their divisions, English minister should be encouraged and tended to unite the whole country. by that disunion to, attempt a measure In a letter to Lord Carteret, he says, which, if successful, would have sealed

that although to prevent a recurrence the death-warrant of parliaments in of scarcity approaching to famine, he Ireland ?-I allude to the proposition had forwarded a bill obliging the oc- of voting the supplies for twenty-one cupant of lands to plough five acres in years, which failed only by a single every hundred occupied, yet it does vote. The parliament of George II. not encourage tillage by allowing any eat thirty-three years, outliving all conbounty to exporters which might clash nexion with the constituent body, and with British interests.' The act was possessing but one solitary virtue, that passed in the year 1729, but was in. of economy. It paid off the debt of efficacious; for during forty years, the country, and accumulated a surfrom 172, with the exception of one plus in the Exchequer of 200,000l. in year, the import of corn was constant; the year 1753, boch rescued from the it was probably counteracted by that factions who contended for its posses. monstrous vote of the House of Com- sion, and transferred to England by ions of 1735, which stripped the a king's letter. - It is a most extraor. clergy of Ireland of a large proportion dinary effect on the human mind of of their provision, and declared the this provincial misrule, grounded on tithe of agistment to be grievous, what was termed protestant ascend. burthensome, and injurious to the pro- ancy, that Dean Swift, calling himself, testant interest.' In this manner did and looked up to as an Irish patriot, these champions of protestantism assert expressed himself delighted with the the rights of a protestant church. prospect of beggary being the certain From this vote, and the consequently lot of the Irish Roman Catholics, and insuficient provision of the clergy, more than insinuates a wish that the arose the practice of uniting parishes, Protestant dissenters were in the same so as to deprive them of spiritual assiste state. Henry Boyle, the first Earl of ance from their pastors, the protest. Shannon, too, who, as one of the lords ant population during that period, and justices, was in the government of Ire. since the conversion of pasturage into land more than twenty-five years, in a Sketch of Ireland, written in 1747, has in return testified her ardent gra. states a principal cause why so great titude. His exertions awakened us to and fruitful a country produced so a sense of our rights, and hence the little, arid advanced so slowly towards brightest page in our annals of glory. improvement, to be the penal code, Having asserted her independence,

discouraging the labour and industry little was wanting to its continuance ; of the papists, though three-fourths of but here she failed! Those who had the aris, industry, and labour of the gained a victory over others did not country must be necessarily carried on possess sufficient virtue to extend that by their hands' and adds, . until some conquest to themselves. The Prohappy temper, can be fallen upon as testant population, the leaders in this to make our apprehensions from the struggle, had not public spirit enough papists consist with our interest to to share the fruits of victory with the employ them, Ireland can advance but great body of the people, and thereslowly in improvement.' And yet to fore they fell. I trust their fate will measures of this nature Mr Boyle could afford a salutary lesson to every counnot reconcile himself! So difficult is it try, and impress on them the convice for men of even superior minds to dis- tion, that by complete consolidation engage themselves from the fetters of of interests alone, can they avoid a sj. prejudice and bigotry! I may, by the milar calamity. I ought to add (what way, add, it appears from this paper, indeed is most deserving the attention that nearly every fourth year from the of the House,) during this triumph of revolution had been a year of scarcity, Ireland in the absence of military force, and in that interval nearly five millions and whilst she thus nobly exerted her were paid for imported corn and Aour self to take her rank amongst the na. tə feed the inhabitants of that fertile tions, the laws were better obeyed island.

than during any period of her history. “ The septennial bill, passed in 1767, Every one lent his willing aid to ensecured to a certain extent the con. force their execution. What a great Dexion between the electors and elect- lesson is to be drawn from this! Place a ed. With this exception, Ireland felt country in astateof concord with regard little change in her situation till the to itself, and the laws will be obeyed ; year 1778. In that year the reverses no" longer seek to govern by disunion, of the American war left Ireland with. or by sacrificing one class of the com. out a military, force, and here community, and the laws will be obeyed. menced the era of her glory. She was Why has not this memorable lesson of told to protect her elf, and she did so. the weakness of that policy which She protected herself from her enemies would exclude from the full benefits abroad, and from her enemies at home. of a free constitution, the great body The gallantry, the concord, and the of the people, produced its fuli effect? heroism of her sons, placed her in a si; Why has not Ireland resumed that tuation to command respect, and she happy situation? Why is not the spi. was respected Till she respected her- rit:of her government assinulated to self, Britain did not respect her ; Ire. that of England ? Here every man, land then first took her station amongst however humble his condition, whate the nations of the earth, when it cea. ever bis political tenets, feels an inte. sed to be a divided nation. I discharge rest in the laws, and contributes to a debt of justice due to him who sits their execution, for they efficaciously beside me (Mr Grattan to him Ire. protect him, and neither rapk nor land owes much; and to whom she power can violate them with impunity.

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